Svemir, ipak se vrti - Front page
multiuniverse Author: Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedic) Zadar Croatia wduckss@gmail.com
Traslated by: prof. Zoran Coso zcoso@unizd.hr

2019.

1. White dwarfs (small stars) are not White Dwarfs new
2. A Constant Growth, Rotation And Its Effects, Cyclones, Light And Redshift With Images new
3. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life
4. The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe
5. Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate from Some Planets and Smaller Objects? hot
6. Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe hot

2017/2018
1. The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems hot more than 12000 visits
2. Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology hot
3. What is happening to oxygen and hydrogen?
4. How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?

5. Why Atmospheres of Stars Lack Metals?
6. The influence of rotation of stars on their radius, temperature...
7. Where is the truth about Big Bang theory? hot
8. Why is "The Evolution of Stars" incorrect?

9. Reassessment of the old but still employed theories of Universe through database checking hot
10. Is there "fast and slow combustion" of stars?
11. Why Mars does not have the atmosphere like Titan or Earth?
12. Observing the Universe through colors

13. Vacuum in space or undetected matter?
14. Using "tales" in science to acquire financial resources – is it correct?
15. The formation of particles in the Universe
16. Space in images hot

2016

1. Gravitational waves – a great discovery or a great scandal (a plagiarism)?
2. Natural Satellites and Rotation
3. Why there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects? hot
4. The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color

5. The causal relation of space and the absence of light in Universe
6. What is background radiation telling us?
7. They have seen a black hole in action! ...?
8. The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars

9. Why iron did not sink when Earth was hot?
10. Why there is not one and the same atmosphere on the objects of our system?
11. Supernovae are not our creators
12. The Wrong Ideas About Life Creating Zones

13. What Are The Lakes On Titan Made Of?
14. Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system? hot
15. What are working temperatures of elements and compounds in the Universe?
16. There is no ring around Pluto! ? hot

17. Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe

before 2016.
1. Universe and rotation
2. Processes in universe
3. The introduction or prologue

 

Publication (References)

Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v1i4.474 "
The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe"
https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 November 2019

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf march 2019
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, International Journal of Sciences https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019072115.pdf

The Intellectual Archive Journal
http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf;
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32370/IAJ.2055„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ April 2019.

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems"
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 november 2018

www.ijser.org
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf  
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?THE-UNIVERSE-IS-ROTATING-AFTER-ALL.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf

http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf 2017 .y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf-3.2017.y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf 5.2017.y.

https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Where-is-the-truth-about-Big-Bang-theory.pdf 30.7.2017.y. https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-formation-of-particles-in-the-Universe.pdf 7/2018

www.globalscientificjournal.com
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/The-influence-of-rotation-of-stars-on-their-radius-temperature.pdf 31.08.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHY-ATMOSPHERES-OF-STARS-LACK-METALS.pdf 13.10.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed.pdf 11.2017.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Where-did-the-blue-spectral-shift-inside-the-universe-come-from.pdf  2018.y.

http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf 2018  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Why-is-The-Evolution-of-Stars-incorrect.pdf  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/DEMOLITION-HUBBLES-LAW-BIG-BANG-THE-BASIS-OF-MODERN-AND-ECCLESIASTICAL-COSMOLOGY.pdf

http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/ZADARS-THEORY-OF-THE-UNIVERSE.pdf

www.academia.edu
https://www.academia.edu/32926807/Reassessment_of_the_old_but_still_employed_theories_through_database_checking
https://www.academia.edu/33292773/Where_is_the_truth_about_Big_Bang_theory.doc
https://www.academia.edu/26326626/Weitter_Ducksss_Theory_of_the_Universe
https://www.academia.edu/31452775/There_is_no_ring_around_Pluto

https://www.academia.edu/19025940/Why_there_is_a_ring_an_asteroid_belt_or_a_disk_around_the_celestial_objects   https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system https://www.academia.edu/17760569/The_Oort_cloud._Speed_of_light_is_not_the_limit https://www.academia.edu/18485381/The_causal_relation_between_a_star_and_its_temperature_gravity_radius_and_color

https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
https://www.academia.edu/22690826/Gravitational_waves_a_great_discovery_or_a_great_scandal_a_plagiarism_
https://www.academia.edu/31672354/Why_iron_did_not_sink_when_Earth_was_hot
https://www.academia.edu/30921896/Why_Mars_has_no_atmosphere_like_the_moon_Titan_and_Earth

https://www.academia.edu/23764244/Supernovae_are_not_our_creators
https://www.academia.edu/29185426/What_are_working_temperatures_of_elements_and_compounds_in_the_Universe
https://www.academia.edu/31258374/Observing_the_Universe_through_colors.doc
https://www.academia.edu/31887661/Vacuum_in_space_or_undetected_matter

https://www.academia.edu/(Weitter Duckss profil)
https://www.academia.edu/29645047/Universe-2010.doc
https://www.academia.edu/33846969/Using_tales_in_science_to_acquire_financial_resources_is_it_correct https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system etc.

www.ijoart.org
http://www.ijoart.org/research-paper-publishing_october-2016.shtml Universe and rotation

www.ijoar.org
http://www.ijoar.org/journals/IJOAR/Volume4_Issue11_november2016.html The observation process in the universe

www.unexplained-mysteries.com
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/301520-quicker-burning-and-temperature-of-star/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/295090-what-are-the-lakes-on-titan-made-of/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/299470-weitter-ducksss-theory-of-the-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/298246-differences-in-structure-of-the-body/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/292076-gravitational-waves/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267990-mars-life-creation-in-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268345-why-is-the-universe-dark/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268680-atom-why-did-cern-fail/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267586-the-universe-is-rotating/ etc.

www.newtheory.ru
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/sushchestvuet-li-bistroe-i-medlennoe-sgoranie-zvezd-t4092.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/gde-pravda-o-bolshom-vzrive-t4290.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pereocenka-starih-i-vse-je-upotreblyaemih-teoriy-o-vselennoy-t4267.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pochemu-est-raznici-mejdu-strukturami-obektov-nashey-sistemi-t3919.html

http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/prichinnaya-svyaz-vrashcheniya-zvezdi-i-ee-temperaturi-gravita-t4044.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/chto-takoe-rabochie-temperaturi-elementov-i-soedineniy-t3987.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/teoriya-vselennoy-veittera-dukssa-t3868.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/processi-vo-vselennoy-t3636.html и т.д.

facebook, plus.google
https://www.facebook.com/slavko.sedic (comments on articles  space.com; phys.org; NASA
https://plus.google.com/115809905642384696294
Weitter Duckss и т.д. etc.

 

2019

 

Small, fast-spinning hot stars are not White Dwarfs new
Croatian        Pусский 
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Summary
In order to determine the density of white dwarfs and other stars I used a database and created several relations, such as mass/volume of different star types, to create comparable dana, the values of rotation, the percentage of the objects orbiting around a central object and the explanation how different speeds of rotation, if unused, influence the irregular derivation of the gravitational results. Some other factors, essential in creating real values in astrophysics, are also analyzed here.  The results acquired in such a way reveal a real image, which is impossible to perceive if analysing only a small or limited quantity of stars and other objects. It doesn't work without a larger sequence of relations of different parameters.
The research represents the interweaving of data for stars when indicators start displaying comparable results.  The rotation speed value is closely related to star types, as presented in the tables 4 and 6. At the same time it defines the temperature level of an object, but only faintly affects its density. Density mildly decreases with the increase of the rotation speed, but magnetic field value increases strongly. 

Keywords: White Dwarfs; hot stars; rotation speed  

1. Introduction
The article analyses several parameters, included in several relations, based on which real data representing white dwarfs could be created, in the terms of their real density and some other factors that ascribe white dwarfs into that type of the celestial objects.
Star types are related to the speed of rotation around an object, in the relation with temperature. The influence of rotation is on the magnetic field value, on the percentage of objects in the orbit and on the orbital speeds. Tables 3, 7, 8 and 9 show that objects with the same mass can be classified into groups of many star types. If the effects of the star rotation are ruled out, then a proper answer for such an outcome is not possible to find, because a similar quantity of mass has to produce similar values.
There are more than 270 links in 14 tables, leading towards the database, in which a reader can check the source of information (reference). The goal of this is not to dispute or to support the mainstream points of view, but to introduce real data checking, which is available these days in the form of the official scientific measuring. The topic on matter is not limited to white dwarfs, but it rather analyzes all star types and the centers of galaxies.

2. Determining the density of white dwarfs and "normal" stars
2.1. Star density
I use the existing databases in providing evidence to support or dispute the existence of extreme densities of stars and other objects. All evidence are related to the source of information through one or several steps. [1]
The method to acquire reliable data is to create a sequence of relations from the official measuring results, carried out and obtained on the same place and without the possibility to manipulate the results. The selection of evidence to be analyzed is as it is, because generally there are no cumulative data (temperature, mass, radius, luminosity, etc.) for a large number of objects which are used  for relation sequences, in order to analyze matter from all angles.
A part of the evidence are here on purpose, to be relevant and comparable inside the relations. The data from the relations are intended to cover the whole diapason of values: mass, radius, temperature, etc. A single object of a certain type is never an object of analysis, not even in a single case. If based on particular cases, the conclusions tend to be opposite to the real situation.

Table 1. The observation of the parallel indicators of mass, radius, temperature and surface gravity
Star Volume Mass, Sun=1 Radius, Sun=1 Mass/volume Type of star
White subdwarf star
V391 Pegasi 0,02865 0,5±0,05 0,23±0,03 17,45 blue-white subdwarf star
HD_49798   7,1795 1,5 1,45 0,2089282 sdO6p
NSVS 14256825 0,016153 0,528 0,19 32,687 sdOB / M V
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,026 / 0,0093 0,48 / 0,120 0,223 / 0,158 18,46 / 12,9 sdBV/M
HVS 7 150,72 3,7 4,0 0,02455 sdB
Kepler-70 0,0197 0,496 0,203 25,178 sdB
PG 1047+003 0,07948 0,5 0,15 62,91 sdBe
Groombridge 1830 0,744 0,661 0,681 0,8884 class G8 subdwarf
Kapteyn's Star 0,058 0,274 0,291 4,7241 sdM1
HD 134439 0,4431 ~0,78 0,573 1,76 sd:K1Fe-1
HD 134440 0,3596 ~0,73 0,5345 2,03 sdK2.5

Sun (M=1, R=1) 2,355 1 1 0,4246.. G2V

WR 102 0,33113184 16,7 0,52 50,433 WR- WO2
WR 93b 0,20061 8,1 0,44 40,377 WR_ WO3
WR 142 1,2058 28,6 0,8 23,72 WR- WO2
WR 7 4,711 13 1,26 2,76 WR-WN4-s
WR 46 5,924  14 1,36 2,2633 WR- WN3p-w
WR 3 35,921 15 2,48 0,4176 WR-WN3-hw
WR 21a 4069,44 103,6 12 0,02546 WR-WN5ha
WR 31a 62231,76 17 29,8 0,0002732 WR-WN11h

Lambda Cephei  17.462,0 51 18-21 0,00292 O6.5If(n)p
NML Cygni 3.898927.371,9 50 1.183,0 0,000000013 M4.5-M7.9Ia-III
Ros 47 0,01157 0,35 0,17 30,1724 M4.0Vn
Kepler-42 0,01157 0,13 0,17 11,236 M5V
YZ Canis Minoris 0,0801 0,308 0,324 3,845 M5V
LHS 1140 0,015154 0,146 0,186 9,63442 M4.5V
SU Ursae Majoris 0,01097 0,105 0,167 9,572 dwarf nova
OTS 44 0,129 0,011 0,23-0,57 0,08527 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
TVLM 513-46546 0,0031345 0,09 0,11 28,7127 Red/Brown Dwarf-M9
DEN 0255−4700   0,001716795  0,025-0,065 0,08-0,1 26,212 Brown Dwarf-L8/L9
OGLE-TR-123 0,00517395 0,085 0,13 16,4285 Brown Dwarf-M

Mass and radius of Jupiter (Jup = 1), density: Sun=1,408 g/cm3; Jupiter 1,326 g / cm3

Star Volume Mass Jup Radius Jup Mass/volume Type of star
Teide 1 127,1939 57 ± 15 3,78 0,445 Brown Dwarf-M8
Cha 110913-773444 13,73436 8 (+7, -3), (17) 1,8 0,5825 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
PSO J318.5-22 12 8,4346 6,5 1,53 0,771 rogue planet
2MASS J0523−1403 2,42636 67,54 1,01 27,84 Brown Dwarf-L2.5V
EBLM J0555-57 1,396 85,2  (~0,081 Sun) 0,84  61,03 Brown Dwarf
2MASS 0939−2448 1,20576 20-50 (35)    0,8    29,0273 Brown Dwarf-T8
15 Sagittae 2,350 68,7      1          29,172 Brown Dwarf-L4
LHS 6343 c 1,13051 62,1      0,783  54,931 Brown Dwarf-T

Star Distance AU Mass Jup Radius Jup Temperature K Type planet

Srars generate their own energy. Planet reflected radiation, do not create their own energy.

2MASS J2126-8140 6.900,0 13,3 / 1.800,0 Planet
ROXs 42B b 140 9 0,9-3 1.800,0-2.600,0 Planet
HIP 65426 b 92 9 1,5 1.450,0 Planet
HR 8799 d 24 7 1,2 1.090,0 Planet; density 4 kg m³
HR 8799 c 38 7 1,3 1.090,0 Planet; density 3,2 kg m³
DH Tau B 330 11 2,7 2.750,0 Planet
UScoCTIO 108 b 670 14 0,9078 2.350,0 Planet
11 Oph b 472,9 21 0,9078 2.375,0 Planet
Table 1. Relationshift: Mass/volume, type of stars

The analysis of the objects' density in Table 1 (in the relation of mass/volume – star type) points out that there is no consistency that would be related to star types. Inside a same star type there are densities, which are lower, higher or the same as the one of Sun. The old concept's contours are clearly visible in the statements that smaller stars have higher densities and big red stars are inflated objects. [2] However, that concept also lacks consistency. It is particularly important to point out that the mass and radius estimates of the objects that are smaller than the mass and radius of Sun are generally only hypothesized (using the old hypotheses). [3]  If a star has the same mass or radius as Sun, the estimate of its density may follow several different hypotheses. For example, if an object is classified into a type of  "planets", it is less dense than a type known as a brown dwarf. Brown Dwarfs masses are 0,035 and 68,7 (2MASS 0939−2448 and 15 Sagittae) and it makes mass/volume ratio of 29,0273 and 29,1720 respectively. At the same time, planets with the distances of  38-6.900,0 AU have mass/volume ratio around 1 (ROXs 42B b ø 0,6036; 11 Oph b 11,8765). In a particular type of stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, there are stars with mass/volume ratio of 0,0002732 (WR 31a) to 50,4330 (WR 102). M type stars with large quantities of mass suggest their densities are low, because the effects of their slow rotation don't provide the same results with the objects they are interacted with, to the contrary of faster and fast rotating stars.  Generally, the decrease of density is ascribed to the stars with the increase of mass above 1 M Sun (Lambda Cephei   M 51 MSun, M/V 0,00292, T 36.000°K; NML Cygni M 51 MSun, M/V 0,000000013, T 2.500-3.250°K). 

Table 2. Density/temperature
Depth km Earth Component layer Density g/cm3 Temperature K
0–35 Crust 2,2–2,9 -86 to 200 (400)
35–2.890 Mantle 3,4–5,6 200-4.000
5.100–6.378 Inner core 12,8–13,1 5.400-5.700 (6.000)
>520.000,0 Sun Sun core 150 15,7 million
Table 2. Density/temperature

The temperature and density increases with depth. White dwarf temperatures do not follow this basic law. Their recommended density of 31.000,0 to above 460.000,0 (1.000.000-1.500.000) g/cm3 would generate temperatures above 100 billion K. Temperatures white dwarfs are from under 10.000 (4.270 ± 70 Gliese 223.2G 240-72 5.590,0± 90°K) to 200.000°K; (H1504 + 65, 200.000°K; 310.000 °K PSR B0943 + 10) [6]  like normal hot stars.

Table 3. Small stars/ temperature and type of star
Small star Mass Sun=1 Temper. K Type
Beta Pictoris b 0,0086-0,012 1.724 exoplanet, dist. 11,8 AU
ROXs 42Bb 0,0086 1.800-2.600 exoplanet, dist. 140 AU
CW Leonis 0,7-0,9 2.000,0 C9,5e
Kelu-1  0,060 2.020 brown dwarfs L2
Gliese 570 0,55 2.700 M1V
HIP 78530 b 0,022 2.800 exoplanet; dist. 710 AU
Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3,692 M0.5V
WD 0346+246 0,77 3.800 white dwarf
Castor C 0.5992 3.820 BY Draconis dwarf stars
HIP 12961 0,63 3.838,0 red dwarf  M0V
LP 658-2 0,45 (0,80) 4.270 (5.180) white dwarf   DZ11.8
HR 9038 Ab 0,67 4.620,0 red dwarf  K3V
Groombridge 1830 0,661 4.759 G8 subdwarf
HD 134439 ~0,78 5.136,5 sd:K1Fe-1
AC Herculis 0,6 5.225 F2pIb
Mu Cassiopeiae 0,74 5.341 G5Vb
L 97-12 0,59 5.700,0 white dwarf  DC8.8
QX Andromedae sec 0,45 6.420 F6
S Arae 0,51 6.563 A3II
HR 4049 0,56 7.500 B9.5Ib-II
GD 356 0,67 7.510 white dwarf   DC7
Zeta Cygni B 0,6 12.000 white dwarf   DA4.2
40 Eridani B 0,573 16.500 white dwarf   DA4
Kepler-70 0,496 27.730 sdB
V391 Pegasi 0,5 29.300,0 subdwarf   star
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,48 29.564 sdBV/M
PG 0112+104 0.52 ± 0.05 >30,000 white dwarf  
PG 1047+003 ~0,5 33.500 sdBe
LS IV-14 116 0,485 34.950 sdB0.5VIIHe18
HD 149382 0.29−0.53 35.000,0 B5 VI
NSVS 14256825 0,528 42.000,0 sdOB  / M V
Table 3. Small stars mass ~0,5 MSun (except 3 exoplanets and Kelu-1 ) in relation to temperature and type of stars

We see here that part of the white dwarfs is not separated from other star types in terms of temperature. The same mass of small stars does not give the same temperature. White dwarfs have low (3.800°K WD 0346+246; 4.270 (5.180) HIP 12961) and high temperatures (PG 0112+104 >30,000). The height of these temperatures covers the spectral type stars from K to O.

2.2. White Dwarfs vs. other types of stars with an emphasis on the speed of rotation
Now, let's determine which basic forces give stars different values of temperature,  luminosity, the relation of mass/radius and the value of surface gravity.

Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type
Star Speed rotation Maas Sun=1 Radius Sun=1 Temperature K Type
White Dwarf 
GD 356 115 minutes 0,67 / 7.510,0 white dwarf 
EX Hydrae 67 minutes 0,55 ± 0.15 / / white dwarf 
AR Scorpii A 1,95 minutes 0,81 – 1,29 / / white dwarf pulsar
V455 Andromedae 67,62 second 0,6 / / white dwarf 
RX Andromedae 200 km/s 0,8  
40.000-45.000,0
white dwarf 
RX J0648.0-4418 13 second 1,3 / / white dwarf 
Pulsar
PSR J0348+0432 39,123 m. second 2,01 ± 0,04 13 ± 2 km / pulsar
Vela X-1 283 second 1,88 ~11,2 31.500 X-ray pulsar, B-type
Cen X-3 4,84 second 20,5 ± 0,7 12 39.000 X-ray pulsar
PSR B0943 + 10 1,1 second 0,02 2,6 km 310.000 pulsar
PSR 1257 + 12 6,22 m. second 1,4 10 km 28.856 pulsar
Wolf–Rayet stars
HD 5980 B <400  km/s 66 22 45.000 WN4
WR 2 500 km/s 16 0,89 141.000 WN2-w
WR 142 1.000 km/s 28,6 0,80 200.000 WO2
R136a2 200 km/s 195 23,4 53.000 WN5h
Normal hot stars
VFTS 102 600±100 km/s ~25 / 36.000 ± 5.000 O9:Vnnne
BV Centauri 500±100 km/s 1,18 / 40.000±1.000 G5-G8IV-V
Gamma Cassiopeiae 432 km/s 14,5 8,8 25.000 B0.5IVe
LQ Andromedae 300 km/s 8,0 3,4 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 220 km/s 22,5 – 56,6 14 - 26 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 250 km/s 28 8,1 45.000 O5V
Melnick 42 240 km/s 189 21,1 47.300 O2If
BI 253 200 km/s 84 10,7 50.100 O2V-III(n)((f*))
Red Dwarf
Gliese 876 96,6 days 0,37 0,3761±0,0059 3.129 ± 19 M4V
Kepler-42 2,9±0.4 km/s 0,13±0,05 0,17±0,04 3.068±174 M5V
Kapteyn's star 9,15  km/s 0,274 0,291±0,025 3.550±50 sdM1
Wolf 359 <3,0 km/s 0,09 0,16 2.800 ± 100 M6.5 Ve
Normal cool stars
HD 220074 3,0 km/s 1,2 ± 0,3 49,7 ± 9,5 3.935 ± 110 M2III
V Hydrae 11 - 14 km/s 1,0 420 - 430 2.650 C6,3e
β Pegasi 9,7 km/s 2,1 95 3.689 M2.5II–IIIe
Betelgeuse km/s 11,6 887 ±203 3.590 M1–M2 Ia–ab
F Type Star
Beta Virginis 4,3 km/s 1,25 1,681 ± 0,008 6.132 ± 26 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  17 km/s 1,236 1,323 6.516 ± 19 F6 V
4 Equulei 6,2±1,0 km/s 1,39 ~1,2 6.213±63 F8 V
6 Andromedae 18 km/s 1,30 1,50 6.425±218 F5 V
Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

A column "Speed rotation" points to very fast rotations of white dwarfs [4], [5], pulsars, Wolf–Rayet stars and O, B type stars.
Small hot stars [6] make a rotation in a very short period (from miliseconds to a few minutes). Large hot stars rotate at the speed of above 400 km/s (Gamma Cassiopeiae). White dwarfs with a diameter of ~80 km makes a rotation generally in a few seconds (RX J0648.0-4418 13 seconds).
Wolf–Rayet stars are very fast-rotating stars, the speeds of which can be up to 1.000 km/s, which is generally accompanied by very high temperatures (WR 142 200.000°K, 1.000 km/s).
With the decrease of the rotational speed there is also the decrease of a star's temperature. Here it needs to be mentioned that
Quote: Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth [16]), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars. [7] end quote
Large (medium and small) red stars have the rotation from +0 to above 10 km/s and temperatures of 1.800 to above 4.000°K (S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Hya 2.160; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095;  etc.). [8]
A smaller star needs higher speed to achieve temperatures similar to those of large stars and the reason for it is that a larger object has more matter, which by friction and different speeds of rotation of different layers, creates higher temperatures.

Table 5.  The relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars

Star Temperature K Age Gyr Type of stars
Gliese 876 3.129,0 ± 19 0,1-9,9 M4V
LHS 1140 3.131 ± 100 >5 M4.5V
Kapteyn's star 3.550±50 ~11 sdM1
WD 0346+246 3.800 ± 100 11-12 white dwarf 
Castor C 3.820 370 Myr dM1e
G 240-72 5.590 ± 90 5,69 white dwarf  DQP9.0
G 99-47 5.790 ± 110 3,97 white dwarf  DAP8.9
V382 Carinae 5.866 6,8 G0-4-Ia
LSPM J0207+3331 6.120,0 3 white dwarf 
Beta Virginis 6.132 ± 26 2,9 ± 0.3 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  6.516 ± 19 1,4 F6 V
4 Equulei 6.213±63 3,07 F8 V
6 Andromedae 6.425±218 2,91 F5 V
GD 356 7.510,0 2,1 white dwarf 
Ross 640 8.100 1,2 white dwarf  DZA5.5
Denebola 8.500 100–380 Myr A3Va
LP 145-141  8.500 ± 300 1,44 white dwarf  DQ6
Gliese 318 9.120,0 550 Myr white dwarf  DA5.5
HD 21389 9.730 11 A0Iae
WD 0806−661 10.205 ± 390 0,62 white dwarf  DQ4.2
ε Reticuli B 15.310 ± 350 1,5 white dwarf 
η Aurigae 17.201 22-55 Myr B3V
GD 61 17.280 200 Myr white dwarf  DA
Sirius B 25.000 ± 200 228 Myr white dwarf  DA2
LQ Andromedae 40.000-44.000 3,4 Myr O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 40.000 3,2  Myr O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 45.000 2,0 Myr O5V
Melnick 42 47.300,0 ~1 Myr O2If
Table 5.  The relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars

By reviewing the relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars does not find separation of white dwarfs from other stars. White dwarfs are found within the range of K to O star type, in terms of the height temperature and the recommended age of stars. The temperature is directly related to the speed of rotation (with the exclusion of binary systems effects ...). this is shown in Table 4.
Table 6.   The relation temperature K / rotation speed
Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s
Slowly-rotating stars
Betelgeuse 3.590,0
Andromeda 8 3.616±22 5±1 
β Pegasi 3.689 9,7
Aldebaran 3.910 634 day
HD 220074 3.935 3
Beta Ursae Minoris 4.030 8
Arcturus 4.286 2,4±1,0
Hamal 4.480 3,44
Iota Draconis 4.545 1,5
Pollux 4.666 2,8
 ζ Cyg A 4.910 0,4 ± 0,5
Capella 4.970 4,1
The stars with fast and very fast rotations
Alpha Pegasi 9.765,0 125
Eta Ursae Majoris 16.823 150
η Aurigae 17.201 95
Spica secondary 20.900±800 199
Gamma Cassiopeiae 25.000 432
S Monocerotis 38.500 120
RX Andromedae (WD) 40.000,0 200
Zeta Puppis 40.000-44.000 220
HD 93129 42.500 130
LH54-425 O5 45.000 250
LH54-425 O3 45.000 197
HD 5980 B 45.000 400
Melnick 42 47.300 240
BI 253 50.100 200
HD 269810 52.500 173
WR 2 141.000 500
WR 142 200.000,0 1.000
Table 6.   The relation: temperature  / rotation speed

This table draws a sharp line between fast and slow rotating stars.
Quote: A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0,08–0,45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2.400–3.700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [10] end of quote

2.3. Similar mass of stars it's situated in different classes (type) and different temperatures
Table 4. can be presented in such a way to create a relation: approximately the same mass/temperature and relate it to a star type. The relation has to show the same results for the same quantity of mass. It is unacceptable to claim that a single quantity of mass abides by several laws of nature or has several states, which would provide different results. The conditions should be almost identical or we are to explain, why a single quantity of mass has different laws of manifestation. The same goes for the claims that stars realize nuclear fission and fusion on the different levels, because there is one and the same quantity of mass on the same place.

Tabele 7. Star, type / mass / temperature
Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1 EZ Canis Majoris WN3-hv 19 89.100
2 Centaurus X-3 O 20,5 ± 0,7 39.000
3 η Canis Majores B 19,19 15.000
4 HD 21389 A 19,3 9.730
5 Kappa Pavonis F 19 - 25 5.250 - 6.350
6 V382 Carinae G 20 5.866
7  S Persei M 20 3.000-3.600
8 DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
9 HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
Table 7. Stars, similar mass (except No 8, 9, ), different classes (type) and temperatures [7]

It is obvious from the table that the relation of the same mass, different temperatures and the other star type can be met only by the evidence from the table 4 and 6. [7] , [10] The decrease of the rotational speed (with other incoming factors taken into consideration).
This is no exception, but rather a rule, that a majority of the diapason of the star mass, from the smallest to the largest, the stars belong to different types for any quantity of mass.

Table 8.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature
  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 710 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834
Table 8.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature [10]

Table 9.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius
Star Type Mass (Sun = 1) Temperature K Radius (Sun=1)
S Pegasi M5e - M8.5e 1,4-1,8 2.107 459-574
R Leporis C7,6e(N6e) 2,5 – 5 2.245-2.290 400±90
Rho Orionis  K0 III 2,67 4.533 25
29_Orionis G8IIIFe-0.5 2,33 4.852 10,36
BX_Andromedae F2V 2,148 6.650 2,01
Mu_Orionis Aa 2,28 8.300 2,85
3_Centauri B8V 2,47 9.638 2,8
Vela X-1 B0.5Ib pulsar 1,88 31.500 ~11,2
HD_49798 sdO5.5 1,50 47.500 1,45
PSR J0348+0432 pulsar 2,01 / 13±2 km
14 Aurigae white dwarf 1,64 7.498 /
GQ Lupi b planet 1-36 MJup. 2.650 ± 100 Distance 100 AU
Table 9.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

The result of the two Sun masses is taken to exclude the discussions of the existence of different types of combustion that are created due to different star formations. This is particularly expressed by the planet display, with temperatures of 2650 ± 100, which is a star with an independent process of creating warmth and radiation. This is stressed in the table 8, with planets which temperatures are ~2.700°K and their mass being from 12-24 masses of Jupiter, and the star NML Cygni with its mass of 50 MSun and the temperature of 3.834°K.

2.4. Bodies in distant orbits can be stars – planets

Table 10. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance
Planet and Brown dwarf Mass of Jup. Temperature°K Distance AU

HD 106906 b 11±2 1.800 120
1RXS 1609 b 8 (14) 1.800 330
Cha 110913-773444 8 (+7; -3) 1.300 -1.400  
OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
GQ Lupi b 1 - 36 2.650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
HD 44627 13 - 14 1.600 -2.400 275
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
2M1207b 4 (+6; -1) 1.600±100 40
2M 044144 9,8±1,8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
HR 8799 c  7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~38
HR 8799 d 7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~24
HIP 65426 9,0 ±3,0 1.450.0 (± 150,0) 9
Table 10. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance

Table 6. eliminates the claims that objects below 13 masses of Jupiter can't have an independent production of high temperatures, which is measured also on stars S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Cyg 1.875; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940°K. [8]

2.5. Observing the density of bodies in our system

Table 11. Rotation/density
Body Rotation   Mean density g/cm3 Mass Jupiter=1 Magnetic field G Type
Sun 25,38 day 1,408 1047 1-2 (10–100 sunspots) G2V
Jupiter 9,925 hours 1,326 1 4,2 (10–14 poles) planets
Saturn 10,64 hours 0,687 0,299 0,2 planets
Uranus (−)0,718 33 day 1,27 0,046 0,1 planets
Neptune 0,6713 day 1,638 0,054 0,14 planets
PSR J1745-2900 3,76 second  / 1-3 (mass Sun) 1014 pulsar
Sirius A 16 km/s 2,063±0,023 MSun weak A0mA1 Va
Table 11. Rotation/density

Here I will give an additional explanation for a claim that "A small star with a high mass will have a high density, because all of its mass is getting squeezed into a small space…hence, it’s very dense. A larger star of the same mass will have a lower density due to its stuff not getting squeezed so much."[11] through the rotation of an object around its axis.
Jupiter has the fastest rotation in our system, but it doesn't affect the density of the planet – it is lower than the one of Sun, Neptune and Pluto. Saturn is particularly interesting  with its lowest density ( Pan 0,42 g/cm³, Atlas 0,46 g/cm³, Pandora 0,48 g/cm³, Prometheus 0,48±0,09 g/cm³ 67P/Ch-G  0,533 g/cm³, Amalthea 0,857±0,099 g/cm³) in the table 7. This states that density doesn't change with the increase of mass, temperature and the speed of rotation. The speed of rotation in our system is significant with the objects that are inside the area, rich with matter, i.e., the area, where disks of gas and asteroid belts are created. The higher the frequency of matter incoming onto an object generally means that the discussed object will have a faster rotation and higher temperature. Fast-rotating hot stars are generally situated in those parts of the space, which is rich with matter (nebulae).

Table 12. ~ % Mass of satellites, Satellites /Central body
Body ~ % Mass of satellites
Satellites /Central body
Mean density kg/m3
Pluto 12,2 1750
Earth 1,23 5515
Neptune 0,385 1638
Sun 0,14 1408
Saturn 0,024   687
Jupiter 0,021 1326
Uranus 0,00677 1270
Table 12. ~ % Mass of satellites Satellites /Central body

If only the influence of gravity on the objects in an orbit or in the correlation of two stars is exclusively measured, that would be a wrong thing to do and it is presented in table 12. Pluto is the smallest object and it has the biggest percentage of its satellites' mass in the relation an object's mass/its satellites' mass in the orbit. The stars with a fast rotation create impressive systems, independently of their mass or radius, to the opposite of the stars with a slow rotation.

a fast rotating star
Figure 1. a fast rotating object

2.6. The band of matter concentration and the influence of rotational speed on bodies in orbits and centers of galaxies
In the formula for determining the behavior of planets, must be included temperatures of space and proximity to the central body, with special observation of the belt that is richer in matter.
Confirmation of this correctness it's easy to see that the satellites of Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune .. are in the zone where matter is concentrated. Their mass is significantly larger than other satellites.
It is obligatory to observe here reducing the distance of that belt, with shrinking temperatures of space as the planets move away from the central body, independent of the mass of the central body and the speed of rotation, though mass and the speed of rotation is and here very important.

Table 13. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1
Exoplanets Mass Jup. orbital periods days Distance AU BD + 20 2457 c =1 orbital periods days
BD + 20 2457 c 12,47 621,99 2,01 1
HD 213240 b 4,5 951 2,03 +329,01
OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb 0,73 1.788,5 2,3 +1.166,51
Gliese 317 b 2,5 692 1,5 +70,01
HD 95089 b 1,2 507 1,51 -114,99
HD 183263 b 3,67 626,5 1,51 +4,5
HD 143361 b 3,48 1.046,2 1,98 +424,21
HD 5319 b 1,76 641 1,6697 +19,01
V391 Pegasi b 3,2 1.170 1,7 +548,01
Table 13. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1

Table 9. shows that similar or identical distance of planets from their central object doesn't result with the same orbital period. This data is seriously undermining the idea of the uniformed reduction of the gravitational influence on the objects in our system and it shows that the speed of the objects in the orbit depends on mass as well as on the rotational speed of the central object and the mass of the objects in the orbit.
All these principles mentioned above are the same for the galactical centers, which are the largest objects in the Universe.

Table 14. galaxies, type / rotational speed
  Galaxies Type galaxies Speed of galaxies

Fast-rotating galaxies

1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation

4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 14. (7) galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies. From [10]

3. Conclusion
When there is an increase of data quantity in the database, the preconditions are created to discuss the white dwarfs within realistic values as small, fast-rotating stars with the density, which is similar to other, both medium and large, hot stars. Small fast-rotating stars (white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, proto stars) have gas disks or significant asteroid belts, because they are formed inside the space, rich with matter. [7]   
Very fast rotation of the central body creates fast orbits of gas, small and large objects.
With the constant increase of matter [9], a star gathers it from the orbits (including the process of migration of hydrogen and helium from the smaller objects towards a star [12]) and, because of growth, disks and asteroid belts are growing smaller, accordingly to the relation of: a star's mass/the mass of matter in its orbit.
Due to high temperatures of the fast-rotating stars, matter disintegrates into hydrogen (some helium is the product of the process of constant joining of particles). The traces of complex elements on hot objects are detected because there is a constant daily influx of matter, within which there are complex elements and compounds.
The speed of rotation with the increase of an object's mass affects more the level of temperature, because more quantity of mass gives an object a more complex structure, higher values of matter mixture and the creation of higher forces of pressure and friction. A higher value of particle work and a higher quantity of work, due to rotation, binary effects,... make the difference between cold and hot stars. When binary effects, made by the activity of gravity (the attraction force of matter), are ruled out, the rotation speed of an object determines  the speeds of gas orbits and objects, with the remark that every object has an area in which matter is concentrated. Masses of the objects in that area are larger than masses of the objects in the orbit and therefore gas, dust and asteroids (disks and asteroid areas) are concentrated in such areas. [13], [14], [15], [16]
________________________________________________________________

Reference:
[1]. 272 linnks type RX J1131-1231HD 183263 bJupiter; GQ Lupi b; dist. 330 AU; BI 253 etc. in one to multiple steps leads to the source
[2]. https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/13644/how-do-star-densities-work How do star densities work?
[3]. https://sciencing.com/calculate-stellar-radii-7496312.html How to Calculate Stellar Radii
[4]   https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/dwarfs2.html „White Dwarf Stars“  Last Modified: December 2010
[5]. http://cds.cern.ch/record/435428/files/0004317.pdf  "The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars" Shmuel Balberg and Stuart L. Shapiro∗ Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801
[6]. https://www.universetoday.com/24681/white-dwarf-stars/  February 4, 2009 by fraser cain, „White Dwarf Stars“
[7]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars, W.Duckss
[8]. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.07017.pdf  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[9]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
[10]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13
2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation W.D.
[11]. https://scienceatyourdoorstep.com/2018/06/13/star-mass-and-density/  Star Mass and Density june 13, 2018 / Emma
[12]. http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W.D.
[13]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Jupiter#List Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
[14]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Saturn#List Rea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus
[15]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Neptune#List Proteus, Triton, Nereid
[16]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Uranus#List Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon

 

new
A Constant Growth, Rotation And Its Effects, Cyclones, Light And Redshift With Images

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 07/2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Abstract
This article is about a constant growth of objects and systems in the Universe, based on: the forces of matter attraction (gravity), rotation and its speed with their effects, too, the creation of whirls and cyclones as a result of the rotation of objects, systems and the Universe. The creation of light is related to the effects and force of waves (radiation) in their collision with visible matter. It is proven here that a redshift is directly related to the weakening intensity of waves to the distant objects. Instead of being over-intellectual, this text, as a form of evidence, also introduces images, created by the direct observation (NASA, ESA, etc.) or based on the observations of the other astronomers and their published findings.

1. Introduction
The main goal of the article is to document a visible matter's constant growth, ranging from the smallest particles to the largest systems. The creation of systems, from small objects, stars and the most complex systems, is analyzed through the forces of attraction, the rotation around their axis and the processes that are a consequence of the rotation and gravity. Some accent is also placed on the whirls and cyclones that occur on the poles of gaseous objects, stars and the centers of regular galaxies, which themselves are a product of their own rotation. Light is documented here as a product of collision between waves and the visible matter and it is also shown why the Universe is dark. A redshift is analyzed through the weakening intensity of waves, which is detected by the astronomers' instruments.
The articles [5], [7], [10] and [11], with this one, too, make the integral part of a constant growth, rotation and its effects, cyclones, light and redshift.

2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe
The processes of matter attraction inside and outside our Universe are based on the evidence and the fundamental principle of matter attraction. The matter attraction takes place on the level of particles , dust, smaller objects and to the galaxies, clusters of galaxies, ... Our Earth daily gets richer with the new quantities of matter, incoming from the Universe and estimated to be 300 tons per day. [1]
Figure 1
Figure 1. An image of a comet hitting into Jupiter and a meteor hitting Earth

The history of a constant matter incoming can be demonstrated by the percussive craters of those objects that did not get burned in the atmosphere. These processes are demonstrated the best with the direct images of Moon and other objects with no atmosphere or with a weak one.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Craters (NASA)

Besides fully covering (the surfaces of) some objects, the percussive craters also prove the ongoing process of the constant influx of new matter from outside an object. It is represented by the new craters, formed inside the older ones, while these older ones are also formed inside even older craters..
Figure 3 
Figure 3. Percussive craters on some objects (NASA)

A constant daily influx of new matter to an object causes a constant growth of the object. That process is never-ending through the whole history and nowadays there are no indications that it will be any different in the future.
Figure 4 
Figure 4. Percussive craters and a constant growth of body

The process of constant growth is not limited to the objects only. The processes of merger, collisions and other interactions are taking place on all levels inside the Macro-Universe, from gas and dust to superclusters, the Universe and the Macro-Universe.
Figure 5
Figure 5. A constant growth starts with the asteroids and all the way to the Multiverse and beyond, to the next two systems that exist in the Absolute Zero

With the help of the forces of attraction and the rotation, omnipresent in the Macro-Universe, the already formed objects create star systems and cause the creation of binary stars, smaller or larger irregular or spherical clusters of stars, create centers of galaxies, which create galaxies with the united forces of attraction of their objects and with the rotation, too. Galaxies are combined into groups and clusters of galaxies, which are further combined into superclusters and they are all combined into the Universe …
Figure 6
Figure 6. A star system, binary stars, a small and a large group of stars, galaxies, a cluster of galaxies, the Universe, Multiverse,...

The processes of systems merger are recognized from the small and large mergers of galaxies, their collisions, the attraction of the other objects and matter from the outside of a galaxy. All systems that are known to this day are gravitationally connected. [2], [3]
Figure 7
Figure 7. Interacting galaxies (Hubble Telescope)

2. The Rotation of Objects And Systems And Its Effects
An object with no rotation around its axis, or with an extremely slow one, can not have objects in the orbits around itself, because there is only the law of matter attraction present there. All of the other objects use rotation to capture particles, dust and other objects, in a lesser quantity, related to the total mass.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Venus, Mercury, Moon and internal natural satellites have no independent rotation and also have no satellites of their own or other matter in the orbits around them

Furthermore, an object can not form orbits around the poles (north – south direction). An object, incoming vertically to the poles, has the same speed as those incoming in the direction of rotation (vertically to the equator).
Figure 9
Figure 9.  "interstellar object" A/2017 U1 NASA/JPL-Caltech [4]

The orbits are created due to the rotation of an incoming object and also the central object
 Figure 10
Figure 10. 65803 Didymos, Rotation period 2.26±0.01 h; satellite orbital period 11.9 hours.

There is only a small percentage of stars with a very fast rotation in Milky Way (O (0,0003%), B and A type (together) 0,73003% [5] White Dwarf ~0,0002%, small number WR stars …) and they are mostly placed in the nebulae or in the part of space that is richer with matter.
Figure 11
Figure 11. NGC 346. HD 5980 is the brightest star on the left, just above centre.  Wikipedia.
HD 5980 B: 24 R Sun; Rotational velocity (v sin i) <400 km/s; T 45.000 °K.
 

The stars with a slow rotation (M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun; ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45%, all red stars above 0,45 M of Sun are also included here and K and G type starsIt is total 96,15 % [6]).
Figure 12
Figure 12. Size comparison between Aldebaran and the Sun. Wikipedia.
Aldebaran: 44.13±0.84 R Sun; Rotational velocity (v sin i) 3.5±1.5 km/s; T 3,900±50° K.

The increase of speed of an object's rotation causes the increase of the emission of the radiation spectrum from the cyclones on the poles of the object. The speed of rotation of the galactic center is responsible for the type or the shape of a galaxy.
Figure 13.
Figure 13. Quasar (blazar);  spiral galaxy; elliptical galaxy                      

Galaxies Type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies

RX J1131-1231 quasar

„X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  ([22] [23]) [7]
Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy

Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 ([24]) [7]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation

 

Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies. [7]

Figure 14
Figure 14. Pulsar

Star (pulsar) Temperature K Rotation speed in s; ms Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1

PSR B0943 + 10 310.000 1,1 s 0,02 2,6 km
PSR 1257 + 12 28.856 6,22ms 1,4 10 km
Cen X-3 39.000 4,84 s 20,5 ± 0,7 12
Table 14. Display of fast rotating stars, temperature and relation mass > radius. [5]

A faster rotation creates a larger magnetic field, a more significant asteroid belts, gas disks and a higher radiation emission from a cyclone.
Figure 15
Figure 15. „Protostar“ (a fast rotating object)

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km
Table 1. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and mass/radius. [5]

A central object of a galaxy (bulge) can have a diameter of more than 30.000 ly (Milky Way: 3,000-16,000 ly [8] or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly [9] (according to some other sources). The rotation of a galaxy center (There are around 10 million stars within one parsec of the Galactic Center) works the same way as the rotation of objects and creates a recognizable shape of a galaxy.
Figure 16
Figure 16. the Galactic Center rotate as one body

Rotation is confirmed for galaxies, clusters and galactic superclusters. The rotation of Universe is observed through: the existence of the galactic blueshift; the different galactic speeds, whereby the closer galaxies are faster than the significantly distanced ones; the existence of smaller and larger mergers; the collisions of galaxies and the clusters of galaxies. [Appendix 1]
Figure 17 
Figure 17. rotation of the Universe „The dark flow“

3. Cyclones and whirls
A slow rotation of the objects, stars, galactic centers creates whirls on their poles and their rotation is also slower in these regions than the object's rotation around its axis in the equatorial region. The situation is the opposite with the high speeds of rotation (only a small part of a total), the speed decreases from a cyclone in the middle of an object towards it surface (NGC 6109, Lenticular Galaxy, Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2; PSR B0943 + 10, rotation speed 1,1 in a second). When an object, which orbits around a central object, is in the orbit in the space, where the temperature is below the melting point of helium, it has higher orbital speeds than its neighbors that are closer to the central object, although they have a lower quantity of tidal forces from the central object (Hale-Bopp 52.5, Halley’s comet 66, Shoemaker-Levy hit into Jupiter by the speed of ~58 km/s; the data state the average speed of comets of 10 km/s).
Figure 18
Figure 18.  Tropical ciklon

The rotation around an axis and the structure of an object (gas, liquid,...) cause the appearance of whirls and cyclones on the poles of gaseous objects, stars and galactic centers, which rotate around their own axis. Slower rotations create whirls on the poles and very fast rotations create a cyclone with apertures (the eyes of a cyclone) on the poles of stars and rotating galactic centers.
Figure 19
Figure 19. Tropical ciklon, a blazar, planets and pulsar (turbosquid.com)

The rotation of a central object affects the rotation of the atmosphere of a tidally-locked object (Venus, Titan).
Figure 20
Figure 20. South Pole of Titan moon (NASA)

When the cyclones on the poles of an object suck matter in, it heats up by passing through the atmosphere (or the objects are stars) and it accelerates the rotation of a cyclone and produces strong emissions of gamma and other radiations. Depending on an object's incoming angle into a cyclone, a rotation may get slower or faster.
Figure 21
Figure 21. Artist’s concept of interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua) as it passed through the solar system after its discovery in October 2017. The aspect ratio of up to 10:1 is unlike that of any object seen in our own solar system.Credits: European Southern Observatory/M. Kornmesser [4].

When a cyclone on a fast-rotating star sucks an object of a sufficient size in, it goes deep into the interiority of the cyclone and the star, where its explosion causes the explosion of the star or a larger or smaller discharge of the higher layers of the star. The rest of the object or a core, depending on whether the object and the explosion went in the direction of rotation or against it, becomes hot and even faster-rotating (a pulsar) or, due to a slow down, it becomes a small, cold and slow-rotating M type star.
Figure 22
Figure 22.  Eta Carnae, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy

4. When Does Light Appear?
A space outside the visible matter is dark. There is no light just outside the atmosphere of Sun. There is no light outside the atmosphere of Earth and off the surface of Moon. Light does not travel through space. There is a total darkness between Sun and Earth, just as between Sun and any other form of visible matter.
Figure 23
Figure 23. the Moon and the Earth Apollo 8; Sun;  Pluto and Charon moon; stars look like from outer space of the Dawn spacecraft; NASA

There is no light just outside the more important part of the atmosphere of Earth. Light appears only on the visible matter.
Figure 24
Figure 24. Moon, comet, ISS; NASA

Sun emits  X-rays,  ultraviolet , visible light , infrared , radio waves and a very low quantity of gamma rays from sun spots. Radiation and waves are not visible and they are not a visible light, because space becomes dark just outside the visible matter of a star. When there is no visible matter, there is no light, there is only dark. Light appears when waves (radiation) collide with the visible matter (an object, an atmosphere, a significant quantity of particles of gas and dust).
Figure 25
Figure 25. Sunce prije i poslije sudara valova sa vidljivom materijom

5. The Correct Interpretation of Red Spectrum
The smaller and larger mergers of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, their collisions and interactions, higher movement speeds of the closer systems in the comparison to the more distant ones, show that the contemporary interpretation of redshift is incorrect. [Appendix 1] Redshift is not solely and exclusively related to the increase of speed of an object's distancing itself.

Space objekt Clusters, superclusters, galaxy Distance Mly Red shift (z)

The Laniakea Supercluster centre 250 0,0708
Abell 754 760 0,0542

CID-42  Quasar 3.900 (3,9 Gly) 0,359
Saraswati Supercluster 4.000 0,28

Einstein Cross 8.000 1,695
TN J0924-2201 galaxy 12.183 5,19
Lynx Supercluster 12.900 1,26 & 1,27

EGS-zs8-1 13.040 7,73
z8 GND 5296 galaxy 13.100 7,51
Table 21. The system, rotation within the Universe, distance 250 M ly- 13,4 G ly  [5]

If two or more systems merge or are in some other form of interaction, the detected redshift in all of these systems should not be interpreted exclusively as a result of distancing the systems. A part of these systems is getting closer to an observer and a blueshift should be detected there, but it is not. With the increase of distance, the intensity of waves is decreased – the consequence of which is the increase in red spectrum, independently of the object being distanced away or getting closer to an observer.
Figure 26
Figure 26. A red color before sunrise and after sunset; to the east (up) and to the west (down) at sunset (Zadar, Croatia)

A red color is directly related to the decrease of wave intensity from the emitting object. On the images, the Sun is behind the horizon. After a certain distance the weakening of radiation intensity overcomes the speed of the system getting closer to the observer and after that distance it gets impossible to detect the blueshift. In the processes of getting closer, merger and collisions of galaxies and clusters of galaxies there is only the blueshift among these systems, although the redshift is detected, because of the low wave intensity. Nowadays, the blueshift is not detected above 70 M Ly. An exact example is the appearance of a red moon. Moon gets red when it is in the shadow of Earth. The waves from Sun do not reach Moon then.

Figure 27. Red Moon, a display of the process

6. Conclusion
Millions of percussive craters scattered on the objects in our entire system, the daily influx of matter to Earth and the other objects, small and large mergers, collisions and other interactions among the objects, galaxies and galactic clusters are the representation of the process of the constant growth of the objects and systems. The existence of orbits, star systems, binary systems and other systems (from galaxies to superclusters, the Universe and the Multiverse) is impossible in the space without the effects of an object's and a system's rotation around their axis. The objects that have no rotation, or have an extremely slow one, do not create orbits around themselves. The objects with an independent rotation do not create orbits around their poles, where there is no effect of the rotation around the axis. The cyclones are the product of rotation. By sucking matter in, they increase or decrease the speed of an object's rotation. Only a very small quantity of the objects has a very high speed of rotation (O type and White Dwarf 0,0005% of the total quantity of stars in Milky Way). Light is the product of the collision between waves (radiation) and the visible matter. Space is very cold and dark where there is no visible matter or the intensity of waves is very low. Beyond the third level above the Universe the temperature of space is at 0° K. All processes at the absolute zero are extremely slow or in the state of rest. A red spectrum is a product of the weakening of the wave intensity, with the increase of the objects' orbital speeds inside clusters, galactic superclusters and the Universe. The decrease of the wave intensity is observed the best in our system from Mercury to the Oort cloud (Solar radiation pressure lbf/mi², 0.1 AU 526; 0.46 AU = Merkur 24.9; … 5.22 AU = Jupiter 0.19).
____________________________________________________________________________
Reference:
[1]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere 
[2]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Interacting_galaxies  Interacting galaxies
[3]. https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in
colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley Laboratoire d’astrophysique, EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland Royal Observatory, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK Institute for Computational Cosm., Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK Mullard Space Science Lab., University College London, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
[4]. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/asteroids-comets-and-meteors/meteors-and-meteorites/overview/ page=0&per_page=40&order=id+asc&search=&condition_1=meteor_shower%3Abody_type  Oct. 26, 2017 "Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System" NASA; https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitor-dazzles-scientists Nov. 20, 2017
Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists
[5]. DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908  https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.3. The Processes That Lead to the Acceleration and Deceleration of an Object's Rotation Around Its Axis
[6]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification#Harvard_spectral_classification  Harvard spectral classification
[7]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? W.D. 2.4. The formation of galaxies
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way#Galactic_Center  the Galactic Center of the Milky Way
[9] http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html
[10] http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf; https://doi.org/10.32370/IAJ.2055„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“  W.D.
[11]  https://www.ijsciences.com/status_check.php?track_article=V82019052067  „The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe“ W.D. https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#The-Processes-of-Violent-Disintegration-and-Natural-Creation-of-Matter

Appendix 1.
"It means that if 10 Mpc equals 32,6 millions of light-years
then Hubble's law doesn't apply for galaxies and objects, the values of which are more easily determined." Wikipedia
Let's check that on the distances at which Hubble's law should apply:

RMB 56 distance 65,2 Mly… blue shift.. -327 km/s…….(65,2 Mly x Hubble c. = -327 km/s Ha, ha..)
NGC 4419........56 Mly……..........-0,0009 (-342 km/s)…..(56 x H C = -342 km/s ..)
M90...............58.7 ± 2.8 Mly..........−282 ± 4 km/s……….(58,7 x H c = -282 km/s)"
+ "compiled a list of 65 galaxies in Virgo with VLG < 0 (blue shift). Distance 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)"
"Again, there is nothing in accordance with the constant and Hubble's law!" ..(53,8 Mly x Hubbl c. = 0 to -866 km/s ..Ha..)
Who lies? Autor or evidence? In the translations: a person who talks without a background (evidence) or scientific evidence?

If " "Objects observed in space - extragalactic space, 10 (Mpc)" = ~700 km/s
"NGC 7320c distance 35 Mly, speed 5.985 ± 9 km/s…(~10 Mpc x Hubble c. = 5.985 ± 9 km/s.. ha, ha..)
NGC 4178..............43 ± 8...................377 km/s
NGC 4214...............44.........................291 ± 3
M98 ........................44.4 ...............−0.000113 ± 0.000013
Messier 59...............60 ± 5..................410 ± 6
NGC 4414................62,3 ....................790 ± 5
NGC 127................188........................409 etc....

The Laniakea Supercluster.......250 Mly.......+0,0708 (z)
Horologium_Supercluster ........700 Mly..........0,063
Corona Borealis Supercluster ...946 Mly..........0,07 etc...
(The galaxy is distant 250 Mly is faster (has a bigger red shift) than the galaxy at the distance 700 and 946 Mly ..)

Q0906 + 6930 ..................12,3 Gly.....5,47.(z)...speed ....299,792 km/s 
Z8 GND 5296...................13,1 Gly....7,5078±0,0004.......291.622 ± 120 km/s
GN-z11..............................13,4 Gly...11,09.......................295.050 ± 119.917"
Who lies? .....
Object with red shift. 5.47 is faster than objects with red shift 7.05 and 11.09 ha, ha. Authors Hubble constant really need to go back to elementary school and learn math (basic for kids).
(Slavko Sedić commented on an article.28. kolovoza 2018. What Is The Hubble Constant? www.space.com)

 

new

2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 07/2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Abstract
In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.

2. A constant growth causes optimal temperatures for the appearance of life
A constant growth is a sum of the different quantities of growth of the objects in a star system. The differences are present in the respective masses of the objects, their chemical compositions, the existence of atmosphere and its composition, the speed of rotation around the axis. [1] In our system there are inner small planets and objects, then large objects with impressive atmospheres (these are located in the area rich with matter) and smaller objects outside that area.
Matter in an orbit around a star or smaller objects gets concentrated in the asteroid belt (when the rotation of a star around its axis is relatively slow) or in the disk of gas, dust, smaller and larger objects, when a star rotates faster around its axis. Generally, the objects in this area rotate faster than inner and outer objects of a star system. It needs to be mentioned here that the objects, captured in an orbit, may have different masses, no matter how far the orbit may be from a central object. Inside a star system and due to a constant object growth, smaller stars with high temperatures make orbits around a central star (due to fast rotations around their axes and the mass of an object).

Table 1. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperature

  Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
5 HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
6 1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
7 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
8 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243

Table 1. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass. [2]

Only very distant stars or planets that achieve their temperatures on their own, without a central object, are included in this table. They are shown as the examples here to avoid the discussions that would state that objects that are close to a star achieve their temperatures exclusively through the extreme radiation of the central object. High temperatures are registered in data bases at all distances.
Sirius B is distant 20 AU (Uranus' orbit), T 25.200° K (Sirius A 9.940° K); Procion B 15 AU, T 7.740° K (Procion A 6.350°K), 40 Eriidani B (C) 400 AU (B i C 15 AU between themselves) T 16.500°K (B) / 3.100 (C) / 5.300 (A); Acrux B 1 AU, T 28.000° K (Acrux A T 24.000); Epsilon Aurigae B 18 AU, T 15.000 (A 7.750° K)..
The stars (and planets) with a small radius and mass have temperatures higher or similar as a part of large central stars.

Table 2. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  / 2.200
2 CW Leonis 700 2.200
3 IK Tauri 451-507 2.100
4 W Aquilae 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
5 T Cephei 329 +70 -50 2.400
6 S Pegasi  459-574 2.107
7 Chi Cygni 348-480 2.441-2.742
8 R Leporis 400±90 2.245-2.290
9 R Leonis Minoris  569±146 2.648
10 S Cassiopeiae 930 1.800

Table 2. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470° K; V Hya 2.160° K; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; R Lep 2.290; W Ori 2.625; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095; RV Cyg 2.675° K.. [2]
These indicators point to a different perspective on the so-called zones suitable for the appearance of life. Just before the creation of these stars in the orbit, as a result of insufficient mass and possibly a slower rotation, these objects had a crust and atmosphere, i.e., they were objects with a melted interiority and very active geological processes.

3. The speed of rotation around the axis of an object accelerates the rise of temperature and creates a global magnetic field
A speed of rotation around an axis, with the binary effects and mass included, determines the level of temperature of an object. At the same time it enables the appearance of geological processes, because of the temperature amplitudes between a day and a night. A rotation creates a global magnetic field on the objects with a melted interiority and on stars.

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

1 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
2 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

3 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
4 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Table 3. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship:mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [2]

The objects from the table 3 have very distant orbits, where the influence of a central object is marginal. At the same time it is seen that the mass of an object is not responsible for the level of temperature. It should be particularly pointed out that a smaller quantity of mass is enough for an object to independently produce temperatures that are required for the appearance of life.

   Brown dwarf & planets Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

  Mass up to 13 Mass of Jupiter
1 CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
2 PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
3 2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
4 GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
5 WD 0806-661  6-9  300-345 2.500
6 Venus 0,002 56 737 0,723
7 Earth 0,003 15 184 - 330 1,00

Table 4. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C. [2]

The objects from 1-5 achieve high temperatures independently. Venus makes it possible due to the tidal forces of Sun and Earth does it independently and with the binary effects, too. The objects can achieve the optimal temperatures for the appearance and progress of life at all distances from a central object. Those objects that have an independent rotation and are closer to the central object make the optimal temperature conditions with the quantity of mass, which is lesser than the one of Earth and the distance a bit shorter than 1 AU. (depending on the speed of rotation and mass of the central object). With the increase of distance and the reduction of the tidal force effects, the objects need to gain mass and/or increase the speed of rotation to achieve the temperatures that are optimal for the appearance of life. The object 2MASS J2126-8140 is a star (T 1.800° K) with its mass of 13,3 (± 1,7) masses of Jupiter, at the distance of 6.900 AU, OTS 44 is a central object, which mass is 11,5 MJ (1.700 - 2.300° K), ROXs 42Bb  9 MJ, T 1.950 ± 100° K, distance  157 AU..

  Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s Radius Sun 1

1 8_Andromeda 3.616±22 5±1  30
2 β Pegasi 3.689 9,7 95
3 Aldebaran 3.910 634 day 44,2
4 HD 5980 B 45.000 400 22
5 BI 253 50.100 200 10,7
6 HD 269810 52.500 173 18
7 WR 142 200.000 1.000 0,40

Table 5. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-3 cold stars, 4-7 hot stars.[2]

Table 5 exhibits a primary influence of rotation to the level of temperature. Without rotation, the objects with completely or partially melted interiority can have no global magnetic field, which is an effective protector of an environment, in which simple and complex living organisms are created and existing.

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km

Table 6. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and radius. [1] 

The lack of global magnetic field is registered on Venus, Mars and other objects without a melted interiority (Uranus 0,1 Gauss, Neptune 0,14 G, Saturn 0,2 G, Jupiter 4,2 G, Pluto has no global magnetic field ..).

4. Working temperatures of elements and compounds and chemical composition
The quantity of elements (mass fraction (ppm)) in our galaxy: Hydrogen 739.000, Helium 240.000, Oxygen 10.400, Carbon 4.600, Neon 1.340, Iron 1,090, Nitrogen 960 ..
This is, roughly, similar to the chemical composition of gaseous planets and Sun - that quantity is almost all of the matter in our system.
Opposite to these objects, Earth has chemical composition of the crust: chemical composition of the crust: Silica SiO2 60.2%; Alumina Al2O3 15.2%; Lime CaO 5.5%; Magnesia MgO 3.1%; iron(II) oxide FeO 3.8%; sodium oxide Na2O 3.0%; potassium oxide K2O 2.8%; iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 2.5%; water H2O 1.4%; carbon dioxide CO2 1.2%; titanium dioxide TiO2 0.7% (Total ~100%).
Inner objects cannot hold H2 and He, which migrate towards Sun. This is the reason why an object that lacks independent rotation or insufficient mass has no significant quantities of water (Venus, Mars, Ceres, Vesta,...). The objects in the external orbits produce very low (minor) quantities of O2 and they also cannot produce significant quantities of water.
This is, of course, valid with the existing mass of the object in the orbit and their rotation speeds. With the increase of mass ( ~1,5 of the mass of Earth, depending on rotation) Mars will be able to hold a part of its hydrogen in the compounds of CH4, H2O, NH3 etc. although hydrogen will continue to migrate towards Sun.
In the area rich with matter, due to "fast" growth, the objects have a shorter period that is suitable to the appearance of life. The period becomes unsuitable when an object's mass reaches a point, after which hydrogen and helium remain on the object.
The objects outside the area rich with matter are in a significantly better position. These objects achieve a melted interiority when their mass equals a few masses of Earth.
Nowadays, on these distances, the objects that are below the mass of Jupiter are registered and their temperatures are significantly high (at these distances it is impossible to detect an object, unless it has a significantly high temperature (the radiation emission):(OGLE-2011-BLG-0173L b 0,19 MJup, dist. 10 AU; HD 163296 b 0,3 MJ, dist. 105 AU; HD 163296 c 0,3 MJ, dist 160 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-028L b 0,094 MJ, dist. 7,14 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-274 b 0,8 MJ, dist. 40 AU ..).
High temperatures are estimated at the objects, which mass is only a few times larger than the one of Jupiter: (Planet HD 95086 b  2.6 (± 0.4) MJ, distance 61.7 (-8.4 +20.7) AU, T 1.050° K; 2M1207b 4 (+6−1) MJ, dist. 24–231 AU, T 1600 ± 100 K; HR 8799 b 5 (+2, -1) MJ, ~68 AU, T 870 (+30, -70) K; GJ 504 b 4 MJ, dist. 43,5 AU,  544±10 ° K...).
The independent objects with high temperatures (brown dwarfs) are nowadays detected with the mass of 5 and more masses of Jupiter: (ULAS J0034-00 0,005 M Sun, T 550 – 600°K; WISE 1828+2650  3 – 6 M Jup, T 250 – 400° K; WISE 0855−0714  ~3 – 10 MJ, T 225- 260° K; CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7 MJ, T ~700° K; PSO J318.5-22 6,5 MJ, T 1160; ..).

A chemical composition of the objects in an orbit depends also on:
Quote: „ there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces.. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The comet shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3 i td).“ [2] end quote.

The temperature of space and an object determines, which elements create its atmosphere and enter the processes of the object's chemical structure construction.
The working temperature of water is from 0 to +100°C; oxygen from -218,35 to -188,14°C; nitrogen from -209,86 to -195,75°C; methane from -182,5 to -161,49; hydrogen from -259,14 to -252,87°C; helium from -272,20 to -268,934°C; sulphur dioxide from -72 do -10°C , etc.
Temperature and distance of the body in our system: Mercury distance 0.387 098 AU, temperature 80 – 700° K; Venus 0.723332 AU; 750 K; Earth 1 AU, 144-330 K; Mars 1.523679 AU, 130-308 K; Jupiter 5.2044 AU, 112-165 K; Saturn 9.5826 AU, 85-134° K; Titan 9.5826 AU, 93,7 K; Uranus 19.2184 AU, 47-76 K; Neptune 30,11 AU, 55-72 K; Pluto 39,48 AU, 33-55 K..
In the elements' and compounds' working temperature / the temperature of the object ratio, it can be determined, which elements and compounds will create the atmosphere and the structure of the object. If the temperature is above the boiling point of oxygen, which is 90,188 K (on Jupiter, it is 112-165 K), such an object needs to have almost all of its oxygen in the atmosphere; when all the compounds containing oxygen and oxygen itself are taken into account, there are only traces of water (0.0004%±0.0004%) on Jupiter.
There are some species on Earth that can use a kind of antifreeze and successfully progress in cold types of climate. Microorganisms on Earth can endure the temperatures from -20° C (Synechococcus lividus) do 121° C (Pyrolobus fumariiPyrococcus furiosus ). [3]  
antifreeze is a complex sugar called xylomannan). The spores of the bacterial species of Bacillus have endured having been heated to the temperature of 420 ° C . [4]
However, we discuss here the environment that is suitable for the appearance of (more complex forms of) life, because only when life appears and progresses to a certain level, there is a possibility to discuss the conditions, in which life can survive and adapt. Such an environment does not include extreme temperatures, in which survive such organisms that were created somewhere else and have evolved to survive in the extreme conditions. The appearance of life needs an optimal and balanced temperature in a long period of time. Besides such an atmosphere, these objects must have significant quantities of compounds that are a base to create life. The problem of our (star system's) planets is they have no liquids that would stay in the same place in the liquid form for a long period of time.

5. Conclusion
In reality, the appearance and progress of life are to be expected on all objects, but only during a particular period of time and under the conditions, needed for such an object to progress. Finally, these conditions come down to the achievement of the melted interiority and an independent rotation – which should not be extremely slow. Under these conditions, geological processes become very active. In the process of interaction of the melted interiority with crust, atmosphere and liquids in or on the crust, a complex atoms and compounds are created. Inside our system, nowadays only Earth meets these conditions. __________________________________________________________________

Reference
[1].https://www.academia.edu/37363821/A_Constant_Growth_Rotation_And_Its_Effects_Cyclones_Light_And_Redshift_With_Images  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophile#Characteristics
[4]. https://asknature.org/strategy/unique-antifreeze-protects-from-extreme-cold/ „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“

 

The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe

Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v1i4.474 "
https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 November 2019

Summary
This article completes the circle of presenting the process of the constant growth of objects and systems and the topics to complete it consist of the visible matter violent disintegration and its re-creation inside the Universe. A constant process of the visible matter disintegration is presented as the end of the process, the proportions of which are gigantic, and the creation of the visible matter as the beginning of it.
The disintegration of particles disturbs the balance of the Universe's wholeness; despite the enormous loss of the visible matter, the Universe is constantly growing.
After having postponed it for a while, this article discusses the age of objects and the Universe as a consequence of the process of the constant matter growth. The acquired results are completely different from those, offered by the renowned experts of the time.
The articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], with this one, too, make the integral part of the complete circular process of matter growth inside and outside of our Universe.

Keywords: disintegration of matter; particle formation; the age of the Universe

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to unite the total processes of the constant matter growth inside the Universe, based on the independent research, the use of databases of generally accepted, easily verifiable evidence for the broadest community of readers. This article is a summary of the materials inside the process of the constant matter gathering, with the articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], due to gravity or the law of universal gravitation.
The disintegration of matter is a process of turning the visible matter into the invisible matter and energy and it exists in the whole of the Universe. The loss of the enormous quantities of matter is replaced with the process of the visible matter constant growth out of the invisible matter inside the space or the whole of the Universe.
The age of the objects is analyzed through the time needed for matter to gather into dust, asteroids (comets) and increasingly larger objects, star systems, galaxies and finally the Universe.

2. The Disintegration of Matter
There are two stages of matter disintegration in the Universe.
The first one is the disintegration of complex atoms and compounds into hydrogen. This process exists on Earth. The crust of Earth has more complex chemical composition than the melted interiority of Earth.

Table 1. the Earth crust and s mantle
% crust of the Earth % mantle of the Earth
SiO2 60,2 46
Al2O3 15,2 4,2
CaO 5,5 3,2
MgO 3,1 37,8
FeO 3,8 7,5
Na2O 3 0,4
K2O 2.8 0,04
Fe2O3 2.5  
H2O 1,4  (1,1)  
CO2 1,2  
TiO2 0,7  
P2O5 0,2  
Table 1. comparison the chemical composition of the Earth crust and s mantle

High temperatures of the melted interiority of Earth, when in contact with crust, water, air, etc., create an entire diapason of complex elements and compounds. Additional favorable conditions to create complex elements and compounds are the rotation around an axis (the differences in temperature between day and night), the changes of seasons and active geological processes.

High temperatures of the melted interiority of Earth disintegrate a part of complex elements and compounds into those that are simpler or less present. When temperature increases, the chemical composition of an object grows ever simpler and the last to exist are hydrogen and helium, while the rest make up to 2%. 

Table 2. Sun composition of the photosphere
Hydrogen 73,46 %
Helium 24,85 %
Oxygen 0,77 %
Carbon 0,29 %
Željezo 0,16 %
Neon 0,12 %
Nitrogen 0,09 %
Silicon 0,07 %
Magnesium 0,05 %
Sulfur 0,04 %
Table 2. Sun composition of the photosphere (by mass) [1]

Although the table 1 does not represent it, it is known that inside Earth, as well as on its crust, there are significant quantities of hydrogen-based compounds (H2O, hydrocarbons CxHx..), there is no hydrogen on Mars, neither on its surface nor in the atmosphere, there is only „NASA again reported.. that Curiosity had detected a tenfold increase ('spike') in methane in the atmosphere around it in late 2013 and early 2014. Four measurements taken over two months in this period averaged 7 ppb, suggesting that methane is released at intervals“.

Table 3. The atmosphere of Mars
95,97% carbon dioxide
1,93% argon
1,89% nitrogen
0,146% oxygen
0,0557% carbon monoxide
0,0210% water vapor
0,0100% nitrogen oxide
0,00025% neon
0,00008% hydrogen deuterium oxide
0,00003% krypton
0,00001% xenon
Table 3. The composition by volume of the atmosphere of Mars [2]

(The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4; Fe3O4 ..)
The internal planets (just as Earth, hydrogen 0,00006%) have only minor quantities of hydrogen in their atmospheres, due to the process of constant migration of hydrogen towards a more massive object (Sun).
Despite that fact, hydrogen (and helium) are constantly incoming into the atmosphere (it is estimated that the loss of hydrogen from Earth is 3 kg/s and helium, 50 g/s). [3]
There are two options: either hydrogen was present in vast quantities on Earth long ago, or there exist the constant processes of hydrogen creation. The first option grows ever more incorrect, because of the fact that larger objects take hydrogen and helium from smaller objects, including Earth. That is obvious from the chemical composition of larger objects (such as Sun and gas giants) and the rest of smaller objects (with no exception).  

Table 4. The atmosphere of Saturn and Titan moon
Saturn
96,3 ± 2,4% hydrogen (H2 )
3,25 ± 2,4% helium (He)
0,45 ± 0.2% methane (CH4 )
0,0125 ± 0,0075% ammonia (NH3 )
0.0110 ± 0,0058% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0,0007 ± 0,00015% ethane (C2H6 )
Ices : ammonia (NH3 )
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
In contrast to Saturn, Titan (Saturn's moon) has:
Stratosphere
98,4% nitrogen ( N2 )
1,4% methane ( CH4 )
0,2% hydrogen ( H2 )
Lower troposphere:
95,0% (97%) nitrogen ( N2 )
1,4% (2.7±0.1%) methane (CH4 )
(0.1–0.2%) hydrogen ( H2 )
Table 4. Saturn and Titan (Saturn's moon)  atmosphere [4],[5]

Second stage, the existence of the process of disintegration or decomposition of matter is proved inside the small and large particle colliders. If the particles are influenced by the strong percussive force, then atoms (protons, electrons, neutrons) are decomposed after each collision into neutrinos and dark matter (invisible to our instruments).
Only in the process of the Sun's (as the object that emits waves) percussive waves to the atmosphere a significant quantity of matter gets disintegrated  (some 10 000 muons per m2 hits the surface of Earth every minute (the surface of Earth is ‎510 072 000 km²)). [6] 
In the period of 2,20 x 10-6 of a  second, muons are disintegrated into electrons and neutrinos:
μ - → e - + νe + νμ
μ + → e + + ν e + ν μ [7]
A chemical composition of atmosphere (Earth: N2 78,08%; O2 20,95%; Ar 0,934%; CO2 0,0408%; ~1% of vapor) is the first to be exposed to the percussive waves (above 200 km) consisting of the atomic oxygen (O), helium (He) and hydrogen (H) [8]. It can be found out from the chemical composition of the outer atmosphere, which particles muons are created from. These are the particles that are exposed to the percussive waves first. The impact of the waves to the atmosphere (to the particles, the visible matter) also creates light, heat and ionizes particles. [9]
The disintegration of particles also takes place when two objects (asteroids, planets,...) collide.  
There is a significant disintegration of particles when objects fall into fast cyclones and also at fast rotating stars and when stars fall into fast rotating cyclones of the galactic centers. These cyclones are situated on the northern and southern poles of the gas giants, stars and galactic centers.
There is an infinite quantity of particles' collisions in the explosion of a star, percussive values of which are of the higher or even value as those in LHC. These collisions lead to the disintegration of large quantities of the star's mass (the most of its total mass).  
To date it has been discovered (total number until today) just over 400 novae in the Milky Way. [10]
The information about the total quantity of the disintegrated visible matter can be found in the previous article  (or (real data) ~400 x (factor 3) = 1200 x ~100 billion galaxies in the Universe x min. 8 M Sun > 8 493 galaxies of the Milky Way size), an approximately real value of the disintegrated visible matter in the Universe caused by the explosions of stars.

3. A Creation of Visible Matter
That contemporary understanding of the Universe is seriously out of balance can be deducted from the facts of the Universe constantly expanding, gaining mass, from the omnipresent disintegration of the visible matter and the constantly ascending process of matter and system gathering. On one hand, enormous quantities of the visible matter get disintegrated every second, but on the other side, there is a constant growth of the visible matter, through objects and systems.

Table 5.  The small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected of object
  Object Red shift the small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected Distance M ly
1 Messier 66 0,002 425 M65 and NGC 3628 31
2 NGC 7479 0,00794 SN 1990U and SN2009jf 105
3 Arp 299 0,010 IC 694 and NGC 3690 130
4 Arp 87 0,023726 NGC 3808A i NGC 3808B 330
5 Arp 272 0,034239 NGC 6050 and IC 1179 494,13 ± 55,89
6 MRC 1138-262 2.156 It is formed from dozens of smaller galaxies that were seen in the process of merging  10600
7 CL 1358 + 62   3,035 the most distant galaxy merger discovered, as of 2008 11400
8 RD1 5,34 0140 + 326 RD1 12000
Table 5.  Object, the small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected

A disbalance is again noticeable in the following: "A chemical composition of a nebula is quite balanced; a fact which, by the way, follows the general composition of the Universe, which approximately consists of 90 %  of hydrogen atoms and almost all of the rest is helium (~10%) with oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen and other elements, which, put together, make two atoms per one thousand of them". [11]
A chemical composition of stars: (Sun Photospheric composition (by mass): Hydrogen 73.46%, Helium 24.85%, Oxygen 0.77%, Carbon 0.29%, Iron 0.16%, Neon 0.12% … all heavier elements total ~1,5-2% (There are only trace amounts of other elements, including oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, neon, iron, and sulfur. These trace elements make up less than 0.1 percent of the mass of the Sun.)); [12] there is again a significant discrepancy between their chemical compositions and the compositions of the remainders after the explosions of stars and also those of nebulae and the Universe.
Until now it has been discovered a bit more than 400 remainders of super novae in our galaxy (a total number of stars in our galaxy is 200-400 billion), which does not by far match the total mass of 3-5% of interstellar matter in the Milky Way. A chemical composition of nebulae and stars tell us that the explosions of stars reduce the diversity of elements, existing on a star prior to the explosion.
It is very important to say here that the diversity of a chemical composition of stars is significantly lower in the terms of quantity, ratio and complex atoms, than the ones of the objects that are in the orbit of a star.  [8] 
The claims that complex elements are created in the explosions of stars and that they arrived to our planet, without having analyzed the chemical composition of all the objects in our system, are unrealistic. Uneven and different chemical compositions of the Sun and its orbiting objects deny such a hypothesis. Relating the existence of complex atoms to the remainders of the stars' explosions is incorrect, because the chemical composition of the remainders, left after a star has exploded, is in a total discrepancy with the composition of objects in our system and because, if that were the case, the chemical composition of all the objects would have been the same, which is disproved by the research and the evidence.
Quote: The object 67P/Churymov-Garasimenko, classified as a comet, has a lower density of all so-called gaseous planets. Although it is relatively close to Sun, its aggregate state is solid, so Philae could easily land on its surface. This fact clearly states that gaseous planets are solid (and solid/melted) objects with impressive atmospheres.
There are solid objects with even lower density: Pan 0,42 g/cm3, Atlas 0,46 g/cm3, Pandora 0,48 g/cm3 – all of them the satellites of Saturn. Etc.
The objects that are closer to the central object possess a higher density (due to the higher tidal force effects), as well as the objects with bigger masses and higher temperatures of space (Ariel/Umbriel; Titania/Oberon; Proteus/Triton; Rhea/Iapetus; Galileo's satellites; Phobos/Deimos; internal/external planets; etc). Of course, it does not mean that all objects belong to this group. The very division of asteroids into S, M and V type suggests a dramatical deviation. One part of objects becomes more dense in the beginning of their approach to the Sun (because volatile matter disappears and higher temperatures help the creation of the more complex elements). The other part of objects was created during the disintegration of objects (the internal – the higher density, and the external – the lower density), due to the collisions. In both cases a continuation of growth must be taken into consideration, as the lesser objects keep arriving to their surfaces. A certain portion of satellites also does not abide the strict law (density, mass, space temperature and distance to the central object), which implies the different past of these objects before they got captured by the central object. A part of it definitely belongs to the different composition of objects that constantly bombard satellites and other objects. It is unlikely that more dense asteroids from the asteroid belt would hit the outer objects, unlike the interior ones, because the gravitational force of Sun is dominant.
The conclusion would be that it is a very complex and dynamic pattern related to the processes of objects' creation – it is constantly moving and growing. The complexity of objects is related to the space temperature, the mass of an object and the total sum of tidal forces. Furthermore, the complexity is influenced by the position of an object related to the planet, Sun, as well as the asteroid belt. The important role also belongs to time when object got captured, for how long the object had been near Sun (perihelion) and at what distance. end quote. [13]
The creation of complex elements is seen in the process of removing the volatile elements of the comets, which is violent and voluminous at the beginning. When a comet has made enough orbits around a star, the quantity of volatile elements in it is reduced and it turns into an asteroid. It should be pointed out that a chemical composition of a comet gets more complex with every turn around the Sun, which is at the end represented in the chemical composition of the asteroid. [14]
The impossibility to relate the chemical compositions of planets and stars with the compositions of nebulae and interstellar material indicates that there is a process of creating new visible matter. That is particularly seen from the chemical composition of a material, which is outside the objects in the space. The first complex particle in the creation is hydrogen (in the atomic state), the fact demonstrated by the presence of this particle in nebulae, between objects and inside the Universe (90%). During time, the creation of the other particles  follows the ratio:  helium ~10% and all the other elements are only in traces, up to 2% maximum (Sun ~1,7%).
A greater diversity of all elements starts to appear when, due to the forces of attraction, the objects orbiting around a star start appearing in the orbits around the stars (high temperatures decompose complex atoms).
The greatest diversity is found on the objects (i.e., in their crust) that have a melted core, have an independent rotation and are mostly closer to a star. The creation of complex atoms takes place in the crust of such an objects, due to the pressure of the melted core on the crust, which itself is like a laboratory for the creation of complex atoms and compounds. A part of creation also takes place in the contact of the melted matter with water, atmosphere, ... This is seen on Mars, which has no melted core nor there are dynamic geological processes, necessary to create large quantities of complex atoms and compounds. Small quantities of hydrogen quickly migrate from Mars towards the Sun or get decomposed because of the radiation waves and they leave the planet with deserts and without water or compounds based on hydrogen.

4.  Processes Related to the Constant Ascending Process of Matter Gathering
The process of matter gathering is seen on Earth and in the outer space. Matter gathers into nebulae, small and large objects, small and large systems. [15]  It can be deducted from the percussive craters on Earth and the other objects in our system.
Impact craters 
Figure 1. Percussive craters on some objects (NASA)

Percussive craters have covered completely such objects that lack atmosphere, independent rotation, that have a relatively solid surface and only minimal internal geological processes to remove the craters. A constant growth is presented by old craters, inside which new ones have appeared. Inside these new ones there are even newer ones... The frequency of such objects arriving to Earth (measured in their quantity, mass and the time interval in which they are appearing) makes it possible to conclude that the period of creating such reliefs on these objects is quite long and that it is a constant process. The duration of process is seen from the daily arrival of the space material onto Earth (quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day [3]).
Udarni krateri
Figure 2. Craters (NASA)

The duration of process is seen from the daily arrival of the space material onto Earth (quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day [8]).
With the increase of an object's mass and also with the participation of tidal forces from the central object and the other objects, too, as well as the speed of rotation around its axis, such an object starts emitting the surplus of its own radiation, which is the indicator of a melted (hot) core being created  (Jupiter, Neptune).

Table 6. Brown dwarf and planets, mass/temperature

Mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) Mass above 15 M
  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU
1 ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
2 54 Piscium B 50 810±50  
3 DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
4 ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 -31 500 -550  
5 OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
6 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
7 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
8 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

Mass vs Mass
9 2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
10 DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5 695±60 1.168
11 Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150  
12 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
13 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
14 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  
Table 12. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship: mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [10]

The core melting with the significant influence of tidal forces is seen on Venus, which is smaller than Earth and lacks its own rotation, but it has a significantly higher temperature and more active volcanic processes than Earth. A lack of mass is impossible to compensate with a rotation and tidal forces, which can be monitored on Mars, Mercury, Uranus, ... – these objects emit no significant radiation (Uran 1,06), at least they are less important than those incoming from the central object. The existence of melted core (i.e., matter) is the beginning of the process of creating hot objects from brown dwarfs to the largest stars and stars with a very fast rotation („O“ type ~0,00003% from the total number of stars in Milky Way).
A rotation of an object around its axis creates orbits for smaller objects and matter around a central object, creates also binary systems, globular clusters of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies, the Universe, Multiverse and, at the most, two systems more. When the objects that emit radiation (which creates light and heat in the collision with the visible matter) get diluted, the outer space and the visible matter that emits none of its own radiation have the temperature of 0°K and all of the processes either stop or become extremely slow.
One should always keep in mind that this is only one in the endless sequence of such or similar systems that exist in the Absolute zero.
Tidally locked objects (i.e., those that lack their own independent rotation) or those with an extremely slow rotation cannot create orbits, just as the objects with a rotation cannot create orbits around their poles (north – south). 

5. The Age of Objects and the Universe
A constant growth or a constant matter gathering, in contemporary terms of understanding the age of Universe, is a very slow process without any form of sensationalism and ascribing supernatural abilities to the laws of physics (nature). As a starting point in determining the age of the Universe I will use the agreed age estimate for the asteroids and the materials from the Moon, which is about 4.5 billion of years. The quantity of matter, which is daily arriving to Earth, is 50 to 300 tons per day.
It needs to be mentioned that in certain phases growth has a different pace, which is also different in the whole volume of the Universe. The same goes for any object in a star system. For example, an object existing in an asteroid belt has a different growth pace than the one existing in a gaseous disk outside that belt, no matter be it internal or external objects. 
When matter gets gathered into clouds (nebulae), the forces of attraction become stronger. The larger the object and the faster the rotation, the influence of the forces of attraction is more significant.
It would be much easier to determine the age of Earth if we were able to measure the age of melted matter. The rock, originated from lava, is 0 years old, equally today and 4 Gy ago (zircon from the Jack Hills Western Australia „Dashed line indicates 4.4 Ga(y) apparent 207Pb/206Pb age“ [17]).
If we were to adapt the matter gathering to the growing mass (an asteroid with 4,5 Gy of age) and the daily arrival of matter to Earth, which is 50 to 300 tons per day, we would have the approximate result of 6 x 1024 of years (1024: in short scale :  a septillion ; in long scale :  a quadrillion of years). It should be mentioned here that larger objects „steal“ matter (H2 and He) from smaller objects, which changes the approach in determining the age for each object.
The diameter of the Universe is calculated to be about 13,7 G ly. (If „the most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies  GN-z11 13,39 G ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 G ly, GRB 090423 13,18 G ly, etc.).

Table 7.(22.) the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

  Galaxy Right ascension Declination Red shift Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A 02h 39m 54.7s −01° 33′ 32″ 6,56 12,8
2 SXDF-NB1006-2 02h 18m 56.5s −05° 19′ 58.9″ 7,215 13,07
3 TN J0924-2201 09 h  24 m  19,92 s -22 ° 01 '41,5 " 5,19 12,523
4 UDFy-38135539 03h 32m 38.13s −27° 45′ 53.9″ 8,6 13,1
5 A2744 YD4 00h 14m 24.927s −30° 22′ 56.15″ 8,38 13,2
6 BDF-3299 22h 28m 12.26s −35° 09′ 59.4″ 7,109 13,05
7 SSA22−HCM1 22h 17m 39.69s +00° 13′ 48.6″ 5,47 12,7
8 EQ J100054+023435 10h 00m 54.52s +2° 34′ 35.17″ 4,547 (280.919 km/s) 12,2
9 ULAS J1120+0641 11h 20m 01.48s +06° 41′ 24.3″ 7,085 13,05
10 ULAS J1342 + 0928 13h 42m 08.10s +13h 42m 08.10s 7,54 13,1
11 GRB 090423 09h 55m 33.08s +18° 08′ 58.9″ 8,2 13
12 IOK-1 13h 23m 59.8s +27° 24′ 56″ 6,96 12,88
13 A1703 zD6 13 h 15 m 01.0 s +51° 50′ 04′ 7,054 13,04
14 Q0906 + 6930 09h 06m 30.75s +69° 30′ 30.8″ 5,47 12,3
15 MACS0647-JD 06h 47m 55.73s +70° 14′ 35.8″ 10,7 13,3
Table 7. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [10]

The Universe rotates at the speed of up to 30.000 km/s [10] (which is far below contemporary data that do not consider that distance contributes to the increase in red  spectrum). That speed is sufficient to create a disk-shaped form of the Universe.

Table 8. Red shift /distance
  Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster Red shift (z) Distance M ly
1 Leo_Cluster 0,022 368,6
2 ARP 87 0,023726 330
3 Abell 2152 0,041 551
4 Hydra_Cluster 0,0548 190,1
5 Abell 671 0,0502 600
6. Abell 1060 0,0548 190,1

7 Abell_1991 0,0587 812
8 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
9 Laniakea Supercluster 0,0708 250
10 Abell 2029 0,0767 1063

11 Abell 383 0,1871 2485
12 Abell 520 0,2 2645
13 Abell_222(3) 0,211 2400

14 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4000
15 Bullet Cluster 0,296 3700
16 Abell 2744 0,308 3982
17 CID-42 0,359 3900

18 Abell_370 0,375 4775
19 3C_295 0,464 4600
20 Musket Ball Cluster 0,53 700
21 Abell 754 0,542 760

22 MACS J0025.4-1222 0,586 6070
23 Phoenix Cluster 0,597 5700
24 RX J1131-1231 0,658 6050
25 ACT-CL J0102-4915 0,87 4000

26 Lynx Supercluster 1,26, 1,27 12000
27 Twin Quasar 1,413 8700
28 XMMXCS_2215-1738 1,45 10000
29 Einstein Cross 1,695 8000
30 TON 618 2,219 10,400
31 EQ J100054+023435 4,547 12200

32 z8 GND 5296 7.5078±0.0004 13100
32 A2744 YD4 8,38 13200
33 UDFy-38135539 8,6 13100
34 GRB 090429B 9,4 13140
35 Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13200

Etc.
Table 8. As the red spectrum increases, the distance between objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than  "expected") or remains similar. 

Quote: If two or more systems merge or are in some other form of interaction, the detected redshift in all of these systems should not be interpreted exclusively as a result of distancing the systems. A part of these systems is getting closer to an observer and a blueshift should be detected there, but it is not. With the increase of distance, the intensity of waves is decreased – the consequence of which is the increase in red spectrum, independently of the object being distanced away or getting closer to an observer.
Zadar
Figure 26. A red color before sunrise and after sunset; to the east (up) and to the west (down) at sunset (Zadar, Croatia)

A red color is directly related to the decrease of wave intensity from the emitting object. On the images, the Sun is behind the horizon. After a certain distance the weakening of radiation intensity overcomes the speed of the system getting closer to the observer and after that distance it gets impossible to detect the blueshift. In the processes of getting closer, merger and collisions of galaxies and clusters of galaxies there is only the blueshift among these systems, although the redshift is detected, because of the low wave intensity. Nowadays, the blueshift is not detected above 70 M ly. An exact example is the appearance of a red moon. Moon gets red when it is in the shadow of Earth. The waves from Sun do not reach Moon then. 
Red Moon
Figure 27. Red Moon, a display of the process.  end quote.

To achieve a disk-shaped form of a system, it takes, besides the speed of rotation, a large number of turns around some axis. The approximate diameter of the Universe is about 27 Gly (r  is ~13,7 Gy). Besides the process of constant growth, the processes of disintegration and the creation of matter  should also be included in the calculations about the Universe. With an approximate speed of rotation reaching 10% of the speed of light, the Universe makes a single turn in ~ 860 Gy. This number needs to be multiplied with a very large number of turns around its axis. .. [18]

6. Conclusion
Particles are disintegrated by force due to the percussive waves from stars to the atmospheres of the objects in their orbits, due to objects' collisions, due to cyclones in the objects' polar regions, due to explosions of stars and due to our particle colliders.
The creation of the visible matter is seen in the increase of mass of the Universe and its chemical composition (H ~90%; He ~10%, the rest of the elements are in traces, up to 2%).
A constant, ascending growth (the consolidation of objects and systems) is registered as the arrival of matter to the formed objects, which is proved by the millions of percussive craters on the objects, by the processes of collisions, merger and interaction of objects, galaxies and the clusters of galaxies.
The distance between the objects in the outer space creates a red shift; after some distance (= 70 Gly), no matter whether galaxies are approaching to the observer or not, which is concluded from the collisions, mergers and interactions of galaxies and the rotations of galaxy clusters and their collisions, mergers and the creation of super clusters.
The age of Earth and other objects is determined by the time needed to gather matter, influenced also by the constant forces of attraction. Every object has a different growth pace, which depends on its position in a system or the position of the system in the Universe.
The age of the Universe is determined by the constant growth, creation and disintegration of matter and the time needed to gather a whole system with a disk-shaped form, due to a relatively fast rotation.

Reference:
[1]. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 29 July 2008. Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.
[2]. Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Mars Fact Sheet"National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
[3].  http://www.eltereader.hu/media/2014/04/Atmospheric_Chemistry_READER.pdf  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[4]. Williams, David R. (23 December 2016). "Saturn Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017
[5]. Niemann, H. B.; et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe" (PDF). Nature438 (7069): 779–784. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..779Ndoi:10.1038/nature04122PMID 16319830
[6]. New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron, J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 – Published 1 November 1937
[7]. http://web.ihep.su/dbserv/compas/src/yukawa35/eng.pdf
[8]. http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive   W. Duckss
[9]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13    „How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?“ 2.8. Light   W. Duckss
[10]  https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf   „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.1 The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe,   W. Duckss
[11]. https://www.britannica.com/science/nebula
[12]. https://www.thoughtco.com/element-composition-of-sun-607581What Is the Sun Made Of? Table of Element Composition
[13]. https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system   W. Duckss
[14]. Astr. Soc. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stx2640 "Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta" 
Anaïs Bardyn,  Donia Baklouti,  Hervé Cottin,  Nicolas Fray,  Christelle Briois, John Paquette,  Oliver Stenzel,  Cécile Engrand,  Henning Fischer,  Klaus Hornung,  Robin Isnard, Yves Langevin,  Harry Lehto,  Léna Le Roy,  Nicolas Ligier,  Sihane Merouane,  Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay,  Jouni Rynö,  Rita Schulz,  Johan Silén,  Laurent Thirkell, Kurt Varmuza,  Boris Zaprudin,  Jochen Kissel,  Martin Hilchenbach
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 469, Issue Suppl_2, July 2017, Pages S712–S722
[15]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Interacting_galaxies  Category:Interacting_galaxies
[16]. http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf   W. Duckss
[17]. GSA Data Repository 2018087 Ge et al., 2018, A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization: Geology, https://doi.org/10.1130/G39894.1.
[18]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019072115.pdf  When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, W. Duckss

 

2. Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate from Some Planets and Smaller Objects?
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia
mail: wduckss@gmail.com
Project: https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/

https://doi.org/10.32370/IAJ.2055 The Intellectual Archive Journal March/April 2019.

Abstract
This article analyzes the processes through measuring the material incoming from the outer space onto Earth, through migrating of hydrogen and helium from our atmosphere and from other objects and through inability to detect the radioactive effects on stars and objects with melted interiorities. Habitable periods on such objects are determined through the processes. 

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to give arguments, based on the existing data bases, that a constant growth of space objects, as well as their rotation and tidal forces, cause their warming up and radiation emissions, therefore making radioactive processes of fission and fusion – which are not detected on stars and other objects anyway – unnecessary.  The article gives evidence of hydrogen and helium migrating towards the objects that have more mass and of temperature levels of stars being directly related to their chemical compositions and the objects in their orbits. The argumentation to support a habitable period will be derived from the natural processes of constant growth and matter gathering.

2. Why there is no radioactive emission, derived from the processes of fission and fusion, inside stars?
Data bases indicate that astronomic research (or, evidence) support the existence of a constant (monotonous), omnipresent, slow gathering of matter. The processes are "more accelerated" in such part of the Universe where there is more matter gathered (in the form of nebulae, molecular clouds, etc.) during a long period of time, but gathering takes place constantly in the whole volume of the Universe as well. The undisputed evidence of omnipresent gathering are millions of craters on the planets and smaller objects in our system. That process is further supported by the space material incoming daily from the outer space to our planet, with its quantity estimates ranging from 50 [1] to 300 [2] tons per day. Collision and merger of smaller and bigger objects, stars, galaxies [3] and the clusters of galaxies [4] is omnipresent in the whole volume of the Universe. 
The processes related with an object's mass and rotation are realized inside the constant process of gathering. [5]  Every object and system rotate around their respective axes, except the tidally locked objects. When an object has gathered a certain quantity of mass and if there is an adequate speed of rotation, it starts emitting radiation. That happens with the objects, which masses are smaller than the mass of Neptune (Neptune emits about 2,61 times more energy than it receives from the Sun), depending on the speed of rotation around their respective axes  (HD 192310 c, HD 10180 g, OGLE-2005-BLG-169Lb, OGLE-2017-BLG-1434L bBD-08 2823 b). When an object is influenced by the strong tidal forces, along with its mass and the rotation around the axis, the object melts its interiority (Y brown dwarfs, Earth, Venus) at the masses that are smaller than those of Earth or Venus (Kepler-70b 0,44 M Earth, temperature 7.662°K, semi major axis 0,006 AU). When an object's rotation speed increases, it decreases the quantity of mass needed for the object to start emitting more radiation than it receives from its main star, i.e., to start creating its own internal processes that result with radiation. If rotation is slower, it takes more mass. It should never be neglected that the outer space has its own temperature, which is higher near a star, and it gets lower (except the thermal deviation; Sun 1 - 5,2 AU [6]).
Radiation and light are not the same thing. There is no light and it is very cold just outside the atmosphere of Sun (outside Earth ... or off the surface of an object that has no atmosphere) (the lowest temperature on Mercury is 80°K). There is no light where radiation is minimal (extremely weak). Light appears on the visible matter (nebulae, planets, ... ) when it gets affected by radiation. The stronger the intensity of radiation waves, the more intensive the visible matter radiates.
Sun does not emit gamma radiation, except from sunspots [7], it emits X-radiation ,  ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation  and radio waves.
The strongest flashes (and gamma radiation within them) can barely be detected in the total of the Sun's radiation ("the solar constant"). The total of radiation emitted from the sunspots is only one tenth of the energy emitted by Sun per second. [8] The radioactive processes of fission and fusion are supposed to be followed with enormous radioactive radiation and they should be taking place within Sun, in the core with a diameter, which is 20-25% of the Sun's radius (radius of Sun is  696.342 km). [9] Although gamma radiation, emitted from the sunspots, are relatively minor and hidden in the total of the Sun's radiation, they get detected by the instruments, nevertheless. However, these instruments seem to fail to detect radioactive radiation, supposedly emitted by the object, which diameter is about 300.000 km long. During the period of 4,6 billion of years (the officially recognized age of Sun) [9], the radioactive pollution would pollute a star, as there are no obstacles to prevent the dislocation of matter from the Sun's core to its surface to happen. In all examples of the process of warming up, a warmer fluid or plasma migrates from the warmer parts to the colder ones, in the process

of equalizing temperatures. Independent of the statements about the core density, no element or compound is able to maintain its solid state at the temperatures that are many times higher than their boiling points (the forces of pressure in the Sun at the depth of 200.000 km are 0,2 g/m3 [10]). All hot elements and compounds, gaseous and liquid alike, migrate towards the surface, while the matter, which is cooled down, goes lower into the interiority of a star (the circular process of equalizing temperatures).
It is also necessary to accept the evidence, provided by astronomers, that stars generally are not radioactive, i.e., radioactive pollution is not detected on them, regardless of their type.
The existence of gamma radiation discharges, which are extremely rare events, can easily be explained with the processes that do not require radioactive pollution of stars. These discharges are related to the poles of fast-rotating stars and galaxies (quasars), and, to a much lesser extent, to the flashes of the stars' spots.  The similarity of these two processes is obvious. A fast drift (change) of matter from these spots is similar to the influx of matter into cyclones of fast-rotating stars, where a separation of elements takes place. The influx of a star into a cyclone of a quasar or another fast-rotating galaxy creates flashes of gamma (and all other types of) radiation. The discharge amounts are related to the speed of cyclone and the quantity of newly arrived matter to the eye of the cyclone. 
Our Earth (also: Venus, Jupiter, Neptune) is a good example to prove that melted matter is not radioactive and the processes of warmer melted matter and gas being dislocated are omnipresent.
Quote: The forces of pressure, rotation and the forces of attraction create high temperatures, create and determine the systems' appearance, determine the size of radius, surface gravity, the force of magnetic field, chemical composition and the color of objects and a star. Larger objects disintegrate complex compounds and atoms into hydrogen and some helium, due to temperatures above the boiling point of elements and compounds. The rest (approximately 1-1,5%),
Sun photospheric composition (by mass): 0.77% oxygen; 0.29% carbon; Iron 0.16%; Neon 0.12%; Nitrogen 0.09%; 0.07% silicon; 0.05% magnesium; Sulfur 0.04%) are also less complex atoms. A sum total of an object's mass, the forces of attraction and the speeds of rotation determine the conditions when a small orbiting object turns into a star. The mass of an object and the speed of its rotation determine the limit when an independent object starts emitting radiation (i.e., starts radiating). [5] end quote

3. The migration of hydrogen and helium
When comparing the data from data bases about the chemical composition  of the atmospheres (and surfaces) of different objects, it is impossible to ignore the specificity (regularity) that is related to the elements, existing in the atmosphere of an object.
The Sun and gaseous planets (gas giants) – as far as their higher layers, which are the ones that can be successfully measured, are concerned – are mostly made of hydrogen and helium (atmosphere by volume: Jupiter, 89% ± 2.0% hydrogen (H2 (molecular hydrogen), 10% ± 2.0% helium (He); Saturn, 96.3 ± 2.4% hydrogen (H2), 3.25 ± 2.4% helium (He); Uranus, 83 ± 3% hydrogen (H2), 15 ± 3% helium (He); Neptune, 80% ± 3.2% of hydrogen (H2), 19% ± 3.2% helium (He), Sun, He 24,85 % , H 73,46% (atomic hydrogen). The other objects have almost no hydrogen in their atmospheres and helium is registered only in traces (Titan H2 0,2%, Earth H2 0,53 ppm,  Venus has no H2 and in Mercury's atmosphere only in traces, Mars has no hydrogen, neither molecular nor in compounds nor on the surface, Ceres has no atmosphere, Pluto has no H2. H2 is also lacking on the other smaller objects (Moon, the moons of Jupiter, etc.).
It is known that on Earth there are processes that create large quantities of hydrogen through hydrogen-based compounds: H2O, CH4, other hydrocarbons (oil, gas), NH3 etc.). These processes also create large quantities of H2 but it is almost lacking from the atmosphere (0,53 ppm). The existence of the large quantities of H2 results in a proportional appearance of helium (9/1 H/He, which is approximately their average ratio for the whole Universe), but there is no helium in the atmosphere of Earth. There are  ~1% of hydrogen and ~1,84% of helium appearing in the process of natural gas extraction  [11].  Despite of large production of hydrogen and helium, and a constant release of these gases into the atmosphere as well, their share in the atmosphere remains unchanged. The loss of hydrogen from the atmosphere of Earth is estimated to be 3 kg/s and the one of helium 50 g/s. [12]
It can be concluded from the existence of melted core of Earth, ever higher average temperatures and shortening the duration and extent of the ice ages [13] that the total factors, which influence the temperature, are constantly growing. There are no data to support the rotation acceleration of Earth (scientists are more inclined towards its deceleration). The same goes for the rotation of Sun, although geologists and astronomers believe that the influence of Sun is constantly increasing (Sun increases its light by 10% every billion of years) [14]. The increase of the pressure forces grows with the increase of mass, which is registered to be a material incoming from the outer space. In the process of the constant growth, it can be determined that the increase of the mass of Earth is significantly larger than its total material losses. 
With regards to the distance of an orbiting object from its main object, the level of space temperature around such an object (~ minimal temperatures) and the rotation of the object, it can be concluded that hydrogen and helium are found in the atmospheres of the objects with a significant quantity of mass (the planets with impressive atmospheres and Sun). The distance from a main object does not stop the migration of hydrogen and helium to the direction of a main object or the closest object with a sufficient quantity of mass. It is concluded from the atmosphere compositions of internal planets and the satellites of gas giants. There are processes of hydrogen production on Titan (0,2% in its atmosphere) but it migrates towards Saturn. Smaller quantities of hydrogen-based compounds are registered in the atmosphere of Pluto (methane 0,25%, ethylene 0,0001%, acetylene 0,0003%, etc [15]) which confirms the existence of the process of creating hydrogen, but the mass of Pluto is insufficient to hold hydrogen and helium in its atmosphere, even though the distances from larger objects are very large and the space temperature is very low. Hydrogen and helium migrate towards the heavier objects, independent of the orbital distance, the level of temperature of such an object and the space around it and the rotation speed around its axis. In our system, the interstitial medium is almost pure vacuum.[16] It means that migrations do not go aimlessly into the space, but towards the heavier objects. It can be read from the chemical composition of the atmospheres of the largest planets that they successfully hold hydrogen and helium, independent of the influence of solar wind, the force of magnetic field and the level of temperature.

4. A habitable zone
To understand the process of life creation, one must understand the process of hydrogen migration, thermal deformations [6], the influence of space temperature on the atmosphere, structure and the rotation of an object [5].
Internal planets have no possibility to create water (in significant quantities) if they lack a melted core, very active geological processes and independent rotation around its axis, because hydrogen, created on the objects with the small quantity of mass, constantly migrates towards Sun. In our system, an independent rotation starts a bit outside the orbit of Venus. The appearance of a planet's independent rotation depends on the mass of Sun and that of the planet and the speed of rotation around the axis of the star. Mars is an equally  sterile planet in the orbit of Earth, due to the lack of mass. In the orbit of Mars, Earth would be a frozen object, due to the lack of mass and the lesser effect of the tidal forces (binary effect). Outside the region of thermal deformation (in our system, it is behind the asteroid belt), low temperatures do not support the appearance of oxygen, but support the appearance of hydrogen-based compounds, due to the difference in temperatures of space (< minimal temperatures of planets (the temperatures of space are approximate to the minimal temperatures of their distant satellites): Jupiter -108—161°C; Saturn -189°C; Uranus  -197,2 to -216°C; Neptune -201 to -218°C …) and the boiling point of hydrogen, -252,87°C (when talking about the oxygen compounds, there are only 0,0004% ± 0,0004% H2O on Jupiter; Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have water only in traces; Titan lacks oxygen-based compounds; in the thin atmosphere of Pluto there is only 0,05 -0,075% CO (estimated in 2015.[17]) from the binary effect with its moon, Charon. The melting point of oxygen is at -218,79°C and the boiling point at -182,962°C. The temperatures on Jupiter (and its satellites) and Saturn with its satellites are above the boiling point of oxygen, which means all of oxygen would be in the atmosphere without a process to remove it from there and crystallize it on the surface, or it would be a part of compounds (mostly water, since hydrogen is the most represented element there and helium is inert). Traces or extremely small quantities of oxygen and its compounds in the area outside the thermal deformation are the indicator there are some minimal processes of oxygen appearance in this zone after all. One of them is SO2 (its melting point is at -72 and its boiling point at -10°C) on the moon of Io from the tidal forces of Jupiter and Europa.
For life to appear in the thermal deformation zone, it takes a proper ratio of mass, the influence of tidal forces and the rotation of stars and planets.
An object needs to have more mass than Earth in the orbit of Mars for the conditions of melting down the interiority of the object to appear and for the geological processes to become very active. Although hydrogen would continue migrating towards Sun, a part of it would create compounds with oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, etc. That is, after all, a basic precondition to create life.
Habitable conditions are also possible for an independent object, placed in a space with a low quantity of matter; as a consequence, such an object would have a very slow rotation (these objects are classified as brown dwarfs). Under such conditions, the melting of the object's interiority is a result of the pressure forces (partially of the rotation, too) and a possible binary effect (Pluto – Charon). There are no processes of volatile elements migrating towards another object or aimlessly into space; all elements are held in the atmosphere and on the surface of the object. An object is habitable in the period before it becomes a star (while it still has a crust). (annex 1.) There are data, which suggest that objects in very distant orbits may realize such levels of temperature that are comparable to those of stars and it can further be concluded that these objects are also habitable in the period when they still have a crust.

5. Conclusion
The migration of hydrogen and helium is directed towards the objects containing more mass. The increase of the Earth's mass through the material incoming from the outer space is bigger than the total of all Earth's material losses. Every independent object and an object in the orbit, with an independent rotation around its axis, the object which is inside the region of thermal deformation, in some period of time is habitable. It is the period when such an object has a crust and the melted interiority, the consequences of which are intensive geological processes. An object's temperature is a result of the pressure forces, the object's rotation and tidal forces (binary effect). These inferences are derived from the measurements of stars, Earth and other objects, where there is no radioactivity that is supposed to be a product of the processes of fission and fusion, just as the following table state.

Annex 1.
Planets vs stars (temperature and mass)

 Planet
Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1. 2M1207b 4 (+6;−1) 1600 ± 100 40
2 GQ Lupi b 1-36 (20) 2650 ± 100 100
3 ROXs 42Bb 9 1800-2,600  157
4 HD 106906 b 11 1800 ~650
5 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2500 440
6 DH Tauri b 12 2750 330
7 HD 44627 13-14 1600-2400 275
8 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3±1,7 1800 6900 (> 4,500)
9 1RXS 1609 b 14 1800 330
10 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2600 670
11 Oph 11 B 21 2478 243
12 HIP 78530 b 24 2800± 200 710± 60

Brown Dwarf
13 Teide 1 57± 15 2600± 150
14 2M J044144 19± 3/9,8± 1,8 2100/1800
15 OTS 44 11,5 1700-2300
16 DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 55 1700-2000

 Star Mass (Sun 1)
17 R Cygni  Cool giant 2.200
18 CW Leonis 0,7 – 0,9 2.200
19 IK Tauri 1 2.100
20 W Aquilae 1,04-3 1.800 (2250-3175)
21 T Cephei 1.5-1.8 2.400
22 S Pegasi  1,8 2.107
23 Chi Cygni 2,1 +1,5 -0,7 2.441-2.742
24 R Leporis 2,5 – 5 2.245-2.290
25 R Leonis Minoris  10,18 2.648
26 S Cassiopeiae loss at 3.5 x 10-6 
MSun per year
1.800

Table: Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1). Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass.

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470°K;  V Hya 2.160°K;  II Lup 2.000°K;  V Cyg 1.875°K;  LL Pegasi 2.000°K;  LP And 2.040°K;  V384 Per 1.820°K;  W Ori 2.625°K;  S Aur 1.940°K;  QZ Mus 2.200°K; AFGL 4202 2.200°K:  V821 Her 2.200°K;  V1417 Aql 2.000°K;  S Cep 2.095°K;  RV Cyg 2.675°K  etc. 

Tables from my article (with minor modifications) [5] ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Reference
[1]. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/asteroids-comets-and-meteors/meteors-and-meteorites/overview/?page=0&per_page=40&order=id+asc&search=&condition_1=meteor_shower%3Abody_type  „What is a Meteor Shower?“
[2]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere 
[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Interacting_galaxies
[4]. http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf "The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters" David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley
[5]. https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Effects-of-Rotation-Arund-the-Axis-on-the-Stars-Galaxy-and-Rotation-of-Universe DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908   „Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ W.Duckss
[6].http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13  „The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems“ W.Duckss
[7].  https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/news/highest-energy.html „NASA's Fermi Detects the Highest-Energy Light From a Solar Flare“ June 11, 2012
[8].  https://www.windows2universe.org/?page=/sun/spectrum/multispectral_sun_overview.html  "The Multispectral Sun"
[9].  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/338/6107/651.full   "Apsolutna kronologija i termička obrada čvrstih tvari u solarnom protoplanetarnom disku" James N. Connelly, Martin Bizzarro, Alexander N. Krot, Åke Nordlund, Daniel Wielandt, Marina A. Ivanova
[10]. https://web.archive.org/web/20130510142009/http://mynasa.nasa.gov/worldbook/sun_worldbook.html  „World Book at NASA“
[11].  https://www.jstor.org/stable/3624173?origin=crossref&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents  "Composition of Gas from a Well at Dexter, Kan." D. F. McFarland. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-) Vol. 19 (1903 - 1904), pp. 60-62 (3 pages). doi : 10.2307 / 3624173 . JSTOR  3624173 
[12]. http://www.eltereader.hu/media/2014/04/Atmospheric_Chemistry_READER.pdf  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[13]. https://www.jstor.org/stable/633219?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents   Lockwood, J.G.; van Zinderen-Bakker, E. M. (November 1979). "The Antarctic Ice-Sheet: Regulator of Global Climates?: Review". The Geographical Journal. 145 (3): 469–471. doi:10.2307/633219JSTOR 633219.  
[14]. http://theconversation.com/the-sun-wont-die-for-5-billion-years-so-why-do-humans-have-only-1-billion-years-left-on-earth-37379 „The sun won’t die for 5 billion years, so why do humans have only 1 billion years left on Earth? Jillian Scudder“ Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Astrophysics, University of Sussex
[15]. Gurwell, M.; Lellouch, E.; Butler, B.; et al. (November 2015). "Detection of Atmospheric CO on Pluto with ALMA". American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #47, #105.06Bibcode:2015DPS....4710506G.
[16]. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Outer_space#Environment „Environment
Outer space is the closest natural approximation of a perfect vacuum.“
[17].  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4710506G Gurwell, M.; Lellouch, E.; Butler, B.; et al. (November 2015). "Detection of Atmospheric CO on Pluto with ALMA". American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #47, #105.06Bibcode:2015DPS....4710506G.

Keywords: Migration of hydrogen; Habitable zone; Constant growth of matter; the effects of rotation;

 

2. Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe

Author, Weitter Duckss,
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia
Project: https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html; (https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/>)
Email address: wduckss@gmail.com

Abstract
The article analyzes the blueshift of the objects, through realized measurements of galaxies, mergers and collisions of galaxies and clusters of galaxies and measurements of different galactic speeds, where the closer galaxies move faster than the significantly more distant ones. The clusters of galaxies are analyzed through their non-zero value rotations and gravitational connection of objects inside a cluster, supercluster or a group of galaxies.
Stalni rast tijela i sustava vidljiv je iz svakodnevnog pristizanja svemirskog materijala na Zemlju i druga tijela u The constant growth of objects and systems is visible through the constant influx of space material to Earth and other objects inside our system, through percussive craters, scattered around the system, collisions and mergers of objects, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Atom and its formation, joining into pairs, growth and disintegration are analyzed through atoms of the same values of structure, different aggregate states and contiguous atoms of different aggregate states. The disintegration of complex atoms is followed with the temperature increase above the boiling point of atoms and compounds.
The effects of rotation around an axis are analyzed from the small objects through stars, galaxies, superclusters and to the rotation of Universe. The objects' speeds of rotation and their effects are analyzed through the formation and appearance of a system (the formation of orbits, the asteroid belt, gas disk, the appearance of galaxies), its influence on temperature, surface gravity, the force of a magnetic field, the size of a radius. The processes related to low temperatures and their relation with the objects' chemical structure and their atmospheric compositions, dependent on the decrease of temperatures, are also analyzed, opposite to the processes related to high temperatures. The satellites' rotation around the planets is also determined; lower temperatures reduce the distance between planets (and other smaller objects) and satellites, which rotate around their axis. The effects of polar cyclones to the speed of rotation, the formation of Novae, the appearance of stars and galaxies are also analyzed.

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to relate blue shift and different galactic and larger systems' movement speeds with the rotation of Universe. [1] Today there are more than a hundred of registered galaxies that have a blue shift and are relatively close, the article, with the reference to larger systems, is going to point out that a blue shift is of the similar significance as a red shift. A similar quantity of systems approaches and distances themselves from an observer. [2]
The article will present evidence for the circular processes inside the Universe, from the particle formation, growth, disintegration of complex atoms, the formation of objects and systems to the explosions of stars, i.e., the disintegration of visible matter. [3] I am going to prove the influence of the star rotation speed around their axis on: color, temperature, radius, surface gravity, magnetic field, [4] chemical composition and the atmosphere of an object, [5] the formation of the belt of asteroids, gas disks and particles around the objects, [6] the legality of a satellite rotation around its axis and the ability to have its own satellites. [7] I will also prove the influence of temperature on the chemical structure of objects and their atmospheres. [8] The analysis of rotation will encompass small objects, brown objects, small and large stars, main stars and the objects in the orbit.
The tables in the article are the text (and the core of the discussion).

2. The Processes of Star Systems Related to Rotation
2.1. Rotation Forms Gas Disks, Asteroid Belts and Orbits of the Smaller Objects Around a Central Object
Besides forming orbits and the objects' speed in the orbits, rotation creates the asteroid belts and gas disks.
Around 900 stars with asteroid belts or disks around them have been discovered until this time; some of the most famous are Beta Pictoris 51 OphiuchiTau CetiFomalhautEpsilon EridaniZeta LeporisVega,  the Sun, …). The data from our system make the basis of the knowledge, but if the existing data for 900 stars and the majority of galaxies are included, these facts become clear:
1. The rings occur only around the objects, which have their own independent rotation around their axis;
2. The size of a ring is directly correlated with mass, the speed of rotation, the temperature and the quantity of matter around an object;
3. The existence of a ring is not related with the mass of an object and its speed of rotation.
 Bigger objects (such as stars and galactic centers) and faster rotation produce bigger rings and a very fast speed of rotation produces a disk (elliptic galaxies and so-called protostars 6).
The rings, asteroid belts and disks have their own orbits and an orbital speed, that is no different to the other objects' orbits. The faster rotation of an object and an orbital speed, measured closer to the object, is higher and it decreases with the distance from the main object. [6] It needs to be pointed out that asteroid belts can be and are formed also by those objects, which rotations are a bit slower (Sun, Epsilon Eridani, AU Microscopii, HD 107146, HD 92945, Tau Ceti, HD 207129, HD 207129 etc.). The asteroid belt is not a result of collision between two or more objects, but rather a typical product of rotation of a central object around its axis; it is formed on the same principles like the orbits of planets and other objects. "Gaseous" planets (objects with impressive atmospheres) in our system have rings and fast rotations, unlike Pluto, which has a slow rotation  (6,4 days). [8]

2.2. Natural Satellites and Rotation
There are satellites that are tidally-locked and the others that have an independent rotation.
There are five known satellites of Pluto, out of which only Charon is synchronous, while the others have their own rotations. Their distance from Pluto is from 17% of the Moon's orbitof 384.399 km (Hydra 64.738±3 km, rotation period 0.4295 ± 0.0008 d) to 11% (Styx 42.656±78 km, rotation period 3.24 ± 0.07 d  ) (Nix 48.694±3, rotation period 1.829 ± 0.009 day; Kerberos 57.783±19 km, 5.31 ± 0.10 day). Neptune's satellite Triton is (in its semi-major axis) 354.759 km away and has a synchronous rotational period; Oberon  (Uranus) 583 520 km,  synchronous; Titan (Saturn) 1.221.930 km, synchronous; Callisto (Jupiter) 1.882.709 km. The distance of the tidally-locked satellites does not allign with mass and the rotational speed of a planet. Uranus can lock the satellites at 583 520 km and Neptune at only 354.759 km.
When the mass of a planet is not taken into consideration, it is obvious that the maximal distance of the tidally-locked satellites decreases with the increase of distance from Sun, i.e., with the decrease of spacial temperature. When there is an independent rotation, a satellite controls the processes of capturing its own satellites and particles.[9]

2.3. The Processes That Lead to the Acceleration and Deceleration of an Object's Rotation Around Its Axis
The goal of this text is to point out the processes that lead to the acceleration and deceleration of a star's or a galactic rotation around the axis in the process of the constant growth and gathering of matter in the Universe.
Due to rotation, stars and gaseous planets, as well as the centers of galaxies, create cyclones and whirlpools on their poles. The difference between a cyclone and a whirlpool is in the speed of rotation.
A slower speed of an object's rotation creates whirlpools, which are relatively shallow and don't go deep into an object as cyclones do. Due to a very fast rotation, a lesser quantity of cyclones create one cyclone that has openings on the poles. Slower rotations of objects create lower speeds of rotation on their poles, compared to the speeds in the equatorial region. The opposite situation is when there is a very fast rotation. Only a very small quantity of stars, compared to their total quantity, have very fast rotations and they are mostly found in areas rich with matter (nebulae, etc.).
Acceleration and deceleration of the objects' rotation take place in two separate manners. The first one is caused by the constant influx of objects to the equatorial plane. A part of the objects that have retrograde orbits slow down a central object. A fair quantity of exoplanets have retrograde orbits. In the beginning of discovering the exoplanets, the astronomers have concluded that the ratio of normal and retrograde orbits is similar. It needs to be particularly mentioned that the change in the speed of rotation of a central object is more affected by the objects with prolate elliptical orbits and the objects that hit central objects, than the objects with steady circular orbits, which have already achieved orbital balance and the balance of a central object's rotation.
The acceleration of objects from whirlpools and cyclones is a constant, but very rarely existing process for gaseous planets, stars and the centers of galaxies. That can be concluded from a very low quantity of fast-rotating stars, O, B and A type 0,73003% [1], if F type is also included, then their quantity amounts up to 3,73003% of the total quantity of the main-sequence stars in the Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification). The process of rotation acceleration through cyclones is more important in the galactic centers, where one third of galaxies are fast-rotating (elliptical ones,...). The reasons for such a disproportion depend on that very large cyclones "devour" large objects with high temperatures (stars), while smaller cyclones mostly suck smaller and colder objects in, after they have been attracted by gravity.
Smaller objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere of a star and through a cyclone, but, when entering a cyclone, stars bring very high temperatures that are further affected by forces, which cause the temperatures to be even higher (acceleration, friction,...). It is similar with the cyclones on Earth. When cyclones (typhoons,...) suck warmer matter in (water,...), they grow stronger and accelerate and when the influx of warmer matter is reduced, they grow weaker. It only lasts much longer in the Universe, because the conditions are different (unlike the cyclones on Earth, outside the atmosphere of a star there is no visible matter to slow down the rotation).
It needs to be pointed out that stars with their masses are not sufficient to trigger the explosion of a galaxy center (explosions of galaxies have never been recorded). In order to explode, stars firstly have to achieve very fast rotations around their respective axes and the arrival of a smaller object of an appropriate mass and structure, which would go deep inside a star and trigger the event that results with different ways of a star's destruction. Independently of their mass, red, orange and yellow stars don't produce Novae, therefore we can be relaxed as our Sun will not turn into a Nova  (and neither will the other ~99,15% of slowly-rotating stars of M, K, G, F types), but Sun can accelerate and decelerate its rotation, which can negatively or positively affect the planets and other objects in its orbit. Very small quantity of events results with classical explosions of a total destruction. Many events have been recorded, in which a star rejects smaller or more significant part of its matter. In a part of an event (in a nebula), a star's core remains and it may become brighter (i.e., warmer), but also turn into a cold star of M type. These objects get detected after a star has exploded in the form of pulsars, "neutron" stars,... A reason for the change in the speed of rotation of the remaining part of an object is in the place of the event: whether a shock wave has started off in the direction of rotation or opposite to it (depending on the object's angle of entering into a cyclone or a whirlpool; including all other variations).

It should be mentioned here that a merger of stars, collisions of smaller stars with the larger ones and the collisions of other objects with stars, but outside cyclones, does not cause explosions, but these can significantly affect the speed of rotation of a central or a new object. It is seen from the already mentioned ratio of fast-rotating stars that they are constant and omnipresent at all stars and objects, but very intensive events are only one of the outcomes that has extreme consequences and it exists only in a small percentage (from a total of 200 – 400 billion of stars in the Milky Way, there have been only 3 star explosions in the last 1000 years). To date it has been discovered (total number) just over 400 Novae in the Milky Way. [10]   A daily influx of matter is detected on Earth (the estimates are around 100.000 tons per year). A constant matter influx is dependent on mass, the speed of rotation and the position of an object inside its system. The objects that are in the orbit within an asteroid belt and the gaseous belt are faster-growing and faster-rotating objects. The ratio may be different in a vast quantity of combinations and events, especially because the orbiting objects can extremely slowly migrate towards their main object or away from it. It depends on the changes in the orbital balance, due to more important matter influx (when there is a process of distancing) or less important matter influx (when there is a process of approaching) to an orbiting object. A merger of two planets or satellites will distance the orbit of a new object (as in a pendulum, the ratio of bob and rod weight and the speed of swinging).     

2.4. The Rotation Speed of the Objects with a Melted Core and a Magnetic Field

Table 1. The bodies, rotation speed/magnetic field and mass/radius

  Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass Radius
1 Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
2 Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
3 PSR J1745-2900 3,76 s 1014  G 1 – 3 >20 km
4 SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015  G 1 – 3 >20 km
5 Neutron star many times a sec. 104-1011 G 1,1 – 3 ~20 km

Table 1. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and mass/radius.

Mars current magnetic field is very weak, with strengths of at most about 1500 nanotesla. Earth magnetic field is  around 65.000 nanotesla, or more than 40 times stronger than Mars.
Solid objects that lack a core have no global magnetic field, which leads to the conclusion that pulsars have no solid structure. Their dynamo is very strong, the fact which is directly related to extremely fast rotations around their axis.
The objects with no or extremely slow rotation don't create internal magnetic fields, whether they lack a core or not. Venus has no internal magnetic field, although being considered "a twin sister of Earth".
Quote: It has been known for a long time that Ap/Bp stars are usually found to possess strong large-scaled organized magnetic fields. Current spectropolarimetric data give us new insights about main-sequence A-type stars. First, it is found that all Ap stars are magnetic [6]. The observed field is always higher than a limit of 100 G for the longitudinal field, which corresponds to a polar field of about 300 G..  Weak magnetic fields among O and B-type stars Among O and B-type stars, there is the extension of the Ap stars, i.e. stars with a typical polar strength of the order of kiloGauss (“strong” fields). In addition, evidence for fields with polar field of the order of hundred Gauss (“weak” fields) is increasingly being observed. So far, such weak fields seem to be observed in HD 37742 (ζ OriAa) [20], τ Sco [16], CMa [21], β CMa [21], and ζ Cas.. end quote  [11] [12] [13]

2.5. The Research of Relation Between Temperature and Mass of Stars
At this time, the opinion that a temperature of a star is determined by its mass is dominant. In tables 6 – 19 there is a real outlook of the influence of mass on the temperature of stars and the direct influences of rotation around an axis to the temperature level are also supported with evidence. The influences of the effects from the objects' binary relations, which can be observed inside our system (Sun-Venus-Earth, Pluto-Charon, Jupiter-Io-Europe..) are not analyzed here.

Table 2. Star,mass/temperature

  Star Mass, Sun=1 Temperature °K

1 TVLM 513-46546 0,09 2.500
2 Theta Sculptoris 1,25 6.395
3 Alpha Pegasi 4,72 9.765
4 Spica secondary 10,25 22.400
5 AB7 O 44 36.000
6 Melnick 42 189 47.300
7 R136a1 315 53.000 ± 3000

Table 2. Star,mass/temperature, the growth of the mass follows the temperature rise

These data are a strong evidence to support such claims, i.e., that  mass and temperature are strongly related. More mass means higher temperatures and more radioactive decay of matter by fission and fusion.

Table 3. Star,mass/temperature

1 NML Cygni 50 3.834
2 WOH G64 25 3.200
3 Antares 12,4 3.400
4 UY Scuti 7-10 3.365
5 Beta Andromedae 3-4 3.842
6 HD 220074 1,2 3.935
7 Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3.626
8 Wolf 359 0,09 2,800 ± 100
9 SCR 1845-6357A 0,07 2.600-2.700
10 2M1207 0,025 2550 ± 150

Table 3. Star,mass/temperature, cold stars, mass growth is not followed by temperature rise

A total absence of relation between mass and temperature of a star is presented in the second part of the table. "Cold" red stars of M class, with a very wide range of mass, are presented here.

Table 4. Star,mass/temperature

1 HD 149382 0,29-0,53 35.500±500
2 NSVS 14256825 0,528 42.000
3 HD 74389 0,69 39.500
4 Z Andromedae 0,75 90.000-100.000
5 RX J0439.8-6809 ~0,9 250.000
6 HD 49798 1,5 47.500
7 μ Columbae 16 33.000
8 S Monocerotis  29,1 38.500
9 AB7 O 44 36.000
10 Plaskett's star A 54 33,000 ± 2,000
11 HD 93403 A 68,5 39.300

Table 4. Star,mass/temperature, hot stars, mass growth is not followed by temperature rise

It is presented in this part of the table that, just as super-giant stars, the stars possessing a tiny mass can also have high temperatures (the examples given here deliberately state higher temperatures on smaller stars). The stars with a very wide range of mass can have either low or very high temperatures. Small stars have high temperatures, but they also may have very low temperatures; the same fact is valid for large stars and the other stars that are between these groups.

2.6. The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature
A bit of a remark: the author of this article disagrees with the current estimates of the stars' mass, as he claims they are the product of old hypotheses which lacked enough evidence to support them. The author suggests that a radius be equal to a mass when discussing slowly-rotating stars and that the mass decrease up to 100% with fast-rotating stars. For example, Melnick 42, 21,1 R of Sun, its mass should be around 30 M of Sun (currently, 189 M of Sun).
That would give the option to avoid these illogicalities:

Table 5. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1 EZ Canis Majoris WN3-hv 19 89.100
2 Centaurus X-3 O 20.5 ± 0.7 39.000
3 η Canis Majores B 19,19 15.000
4 HD 21389 A 19,3 9.730
5 Kappa Pavonis F 19 - 25 5,250 - 6,350
6 V382 Carinae G 20 5,866
7  S Persei M 20 3.000-3.600
8 DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
9 HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)

Table 5. Stars, similar mass (except No 8, 9, ), different classes (type) and temperatures.

A same or similar mass should produce the same or similar outcome, given other conditions are the same. These days, scientific community totally undervalues the rotation of objects and its effects. [14]
The stars with the same mass may have completely different temperatures and be classified in all types of stars. It is particularly important to point out that planets can have high temperatures in very distant orbits, where the influence of their main star on their temperature may not be considered at all.

Table 6. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperature

 

Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
5 HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
6 1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
7 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
8 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243

Table 6. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass.

2.7. The Temperatures of Planets and Brown Dwarfs Below 13 M of Jupiter
It is particularly important to point out those planets and brown dwarfs, the masses of which are below 13 M of Jupiter, which have temperatures above 500°K without the influence, i.e., independently, from their main stars. Contrary to the claims that such objects cannot start fission or fusion, the objects that are below 13 M of Jupiter can have significantly high temperatures (a part of these objects have the temperatures higher than large and very large stars) (table 12).

Table 7. brown dwarfs and planets, mass/temperature

   Brown dwarf & planets Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU
  mass up to 15 Mass of Jupiter
1 CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
2 PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
3 2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
4 GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
5 WD 0806-661 6-9 300-345 2.500
6 HD 106906 b 11±2 1.800 120
7 1RXS 1609 b 8 (14) 1.800 330
8 DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5  695±60 1.168
9 Cha 110913-773444 8 (+7; -3) 1.300 -1.400  
10 OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
11 GQ Lupi b 1 - 36 2650 ± 100 100
12 ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
13 HD 44627 13 - 14 1.600 -2400 275
14 VHS 1256-1257 b 11,2 (+9,7; -1,8 880 102±9
15 DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
16 ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 5 - 20 560 - 600  
17 2M1207b 4 (+6; -1) 1.600±100 40
18 2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
19 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
20 HR 8799 b 5 (+2; -1) 870 (+30; -70) ~68
21 HR 8799 c  7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~38
22 HR 8799 d 7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~24
23 HIP 65426 9,0 ±3,0 1450.0 (± 150.0) 92

Table 7. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C.

2.8. The Relation Between Mass, Radius and Temperature
Due to the quantity of mass, stars can have a certain level of temperature.

Table 8. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  Cool giant / 2.200
2 R Cassiopeiae Red giant 263-310 2.812
3 CW Leonis 0,7 – 0,9 700 2.200
4 IK Tauri 1 451-507 2.100
5 W Aquilae 1,04-3 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
6 R Doradus 1,2 370±50 2.740±190
7 T Cephei 1.5-1.8 329 +70 -50 2.400
8 S Pegasi  1,8 459-574 2.107
9 Chi Cygni 2,1 +1,5 -0,7 348-480 2.441-2.742
10 R Leporis 2,5 – 5 400±90 2.245-2.290
11 La Superba 3 307-390 2.600-3.200
12 R Leonis Minoris  10,18 569±146 2.648
13 S Cassiopeiae loss at 3.5 x 10-6 MSun per year 930 1.800
14 RSGC1-F04 19 1.553 2.858

Table 8. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470; V Hya 2.160; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; R Lep 2.290; W Ori 2.625; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095; RV Cyg 2.675 etc. [15]
There are examples of large stars in this table.
If all other factors that influence the temperature, such as smaller or larger binary effects, a significant rotation, dynamic processes caused by the influx of matter to a star and its polar cyclones, etc., are not considered, the stars reach the temperature of about  1 800°K by the pressure force.
Contrary to large stars, there are similar parameters at stars with small masses.

Table 9. Small stars, mass/temperature

  Star Mass M Sun Temperature °K
1 2M1207 ~0,025 2550 ± 150
2 Teide 1 0,052 2600 ± 150
3 VHS 1256-1257 0,07-0,015 2.620 ± 140
4 Van Biesbroeck's star 0,075 2.600
5 DENIS 1048-1039 0,075 2.200
6 Teegarden's Star 0,08 2.637
7 DX Cancri 0,09 2.840
8 TVLM 513-46546 0,09 2.500
9 Wolf 359 0,09 2,800 ± 100

Table 9. Small stars with low mass and low temperatures.

2.9. The Temperature Related to Surface Gravity, Mass and Star Radius
When a star, within a relation of mass / radius (Sun=1), has a significantly bigger radius than mass , its temperature is low, its color is red, its magnetic field is relatively weak, as well as its surface gravity.

Table 10. Stars, temperature/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Surface gravity cgs Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1
1 WOH G64 3.400 (3.008-3.200) -0,5 25 1.540±77
2 UY Scuti 3,365 ± 134 -0,5 7-10 1.708 ± 192
3 KY Cygni 3.500 -0,5 (-0,9) 25 1.420 (2.850?)
4 6 Geminorum 3,789 0,0 20 670
5 Beta Andromedae 3.842 1,52 3-4 100
6 Polaris 6.015 2.2 4,5 46±3
7 ζ Cyg A 4.910 2,41 3,05 15

Table 10. Stars, low temperature, low surface gravity; mass<radijus

On the contrary, when in the same relation a star's mass is more important than its  radius, the star has a high temperature, its color is white or blue, its magnetic field is strong, as well as its surface gravity.

Table 11. Stars, temperature/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Surface gravity cgs Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1
1 Denebola 8.500 4,0 1,78 1.728
2 Fomalhaut 8.590 4,21 1,92 1,842
3 Sirijus A 9.940 4,33 2.02 1,711
4 BPM 37093 11730 ± 350 8,81 ± 0,05 1,1 0,45
5 Albireo B 13.200±600 4,00 3,7 2,7
6 η Aurigae 17.201 4.13 ± 0.04 5,4 3,25
7 Sirijus b 25.200 8,57 0,978 0,0084
8 S Monocerotis 38.500 4,5 29,1 9,9
9 R136a 53.000±3.000 4,0 315 28.8 -35.4

Table 11. Stars, high temperature, high surface gravity, radius<mass (Sun=1).

2.10. The Temperatures on Brown Dwarfs and Planets
When masses of brown dwarfs and planets are compared, a negation of statement that only mass, through forces of pressure, determines the temperature of an object (a star) is confirmed.

Table 12. Brown dwarf and planets, mass/temperature

Mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) Mass above 15 M

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU
1 ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
2 54 Piscium B 50 810±50  
3 DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
4 ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 -31 500 -550  
5 OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
6 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
7 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
8 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

Mass vs Mass
9 2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
10 DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5 695±60 1.168
11 Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150  
12 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
13 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
14 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Table 12. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship: mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature.

The temperatures are different, regardless of whether some objects have similar masses or not. An object with a larger mass than another one can have lower temperatures and vice versa. Two objects with a similar mass and similar other conditions can have very significant differences in temperature.

2.11. Main Stars and the Objects in their Orbits
An object orbiting around a central object can have lower, similar or higher temperature.

Table 13. Multiple star system, mass/temperature

  Star Mass Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 Zeta Reticuli A 0,958 5.746
2 Zeta Reticuli B 0,985 5.859
3 Alpha Crucis α1 17,8+6,05 24.000
4 Alpha Crucis α2 15,52 28.000
5 Sirius A 2,02 9.940
6 Sirius B 0,978 25.200
7 Epsilon Aurigae A 2,2-15 7.750
8 Epsilon Aurigae B 6-14 15.000
9 Antares A 12± 20% 3.570
10 Antares B 7,2 18.500
11 KQ Puppis A 13-20 3.662
12 KQ Puppis B 17 30.000
13 Procyon A 1,499 6.350
14 Procyon B 0,602 7.740
15 Castor A 2,76 10.286
16 Castor B 2,98 8.842
17 Castor C 0,5992 3.820

Table 13. Multiple star system, relationship: central object / body in orbit, mass and temperature.

This is a confirmation there is a force directly influencing the temperature of a star, its color, radius, surface gravity and magnetic field, as well as of the objects in its orbit.  

2.12. The Rotation of Objects

Table 14. Fast rotating stars, rotation speed/temperature, mass > radius

  Star (pulsar) Temperature K Rotation speed in s; ms Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1
1 PSR J1748-2446ad / 0.00139595482 (6) s <2 16 km
2 PSR J1614-2230 / 3.1508076534271 ms 1,97 13 ± 2 km
3 PSR J0348 + 0432 / 39.1226569017806 ms 2,01 13 ± 2 km
4 PSR B0943 + 10 310.000 1,1 s 0,02 2,6 km
5 PSR 1257 + 12 28.856 6,22ms 1,4 10 km
6 J0108-1431 88.000 0,808 s / /
7 PSR J1311-3430 / 2,5 ms 2,7 /
8 AR Scorpii / 1,95  minuta 0,81 do 1,29 /
9 Cen X-3 39.000 4,84 s 20,5 ± 0,7 12

Table 14. Display of fast rotating stars, temperature and relation mass > radius.

A fast rotation means a high temperature and a small radius in a relation of mass / radius (Sun = 1). 
A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe (M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification); all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [16]   
A radius, related to mass (Sun =1) is negative, when stars with a fast rotation are the subject matter, while it is completely opposite with cold, red, slowly-rotating stars. [17]
There is a review of stars with low temperatures, the speed of rotation around their axis, mass, radius, surface gravity and finally high temperatures with the same parameters in the following table. If more significant binary effects on a star's temperature are not considered, one can find in the table that cold stars in the mass / radius relation have the radius bigger than mass, small rotation speeds and low surface gravity. Hot stars have all of these to the opposite.

Table 15. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity, mass/radius.

  Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1 Surface gravity cgs
1 Betelgeuse 3.590 11,6 887 ±203  -0,5
2 Andromeda 8 3.616±22 5±1  / 30 1±0.25
3 β Pegasi 3.689 9,7 2,1 95 1,20
4< Aldebaran 3.910 634 day 1,5 44,2 1,59
5 HD 220074 3.935 3 1,2 49,7 ± 9.5 1.3 ± 0.5
6 Beta Ursae Minoris 4.030 8 2,2 42,6 1,83
7 Arcturus 4.286 2.4±1.0 1.08±0.06 25.4±0.2 1.66±0.05
8 Hamal 4.480 3,44 1,5 14,9 2,57
9 Iota Draconis 4.545 1,5 1,82 11,99 2,5
10 Pollux 4.666 2,8 2,04 8,8 2.685±0.09
11  ζ Cyg A 4.910 0.4 ± 0.5 3,05 15 2,41
12 Capella 4.970 4,1 2.5687 11,98 2,691
13 Alpha Pegasi 9.765 125 4,72 3,51 3,51
14 η Aurigae 17.201 95 5,4 3,25 4.13 ± 0.04
15 Eta Ursae Majoris 16.823 150 6,1 3,4 3,78
16 Spica secondary 20.900±800 199 7.21±0.75 3,74±0.53 4.15±0.15
17 λ Scorpii 25.000±1.000 150 14,5 8,8 3,8
18 Gamma Cassiopeiae 25.000 432 17 10 3,50
19 Zeta Puppis 40.000-44.000 220 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 3,5
20 LH54-425 O5 45.000 250 28 8,1 4,07
21 S Monocerotis 38.500 120 29,1 9,9 4,5
22 LH54-425 O3 45.000 197 47 11,4 4,0
23 HD 93129 42.500 130 110 22,5 3,71
24 HD 5980 B 45.000 400 66 22 /
25 BI 253 50.100 200 84 10,7 4,20
26 HD 269810 52.500 173 130 18 4,0
27 Melnick 42 47.300 240 189 21,1 3,90
28 WR 2 141.000 500 16 0,89 /
29 WR 142 200.000 1.000 20 0,40 /

Table 15. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-12 cold stars, 13-29 hot stars.

The influence of rotation is more significant with stars that possess larger mass, because warming up and pressure are the result of friction, occurring between layers of a star. These stars that rotate faster will have higher temperatures than small stars, with the same or slower rotation (binary effects excluded).
Slowly-rotating stars have less significant surface gravity than the fast-rotating stars. [16]
Quote: The temperature of stars is directly related to the speed of its rotation. Those with slower rotation are red, while with the increase of the rotation speed, also increases the glow and temperature of a star. As a consequence, it turns white and blue. If we consult the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it is obvious that both very small and super giant stars can have the same glow; they can be white, red or blue. The mass and quantity of so-called fuel that they supposedly burn is obviously an unacceptable answer – there are stars of the same mass, or sizes, but with a completely different glow. If we were to try to explain that by the presence of different elements, it would make no sense. Diversity of elements depends exactly on the temperature heights: the higher the temperature, the lower the diversity and order of elements.
The lower the temperature, the higher are diversity and presence.
If stars were to burn some fuel, they would lose their mass, which is not the case. On the contrary, they constantly gain mass with the outer mass incoming from the system (comets, asteroids, planets). Furthermore, it is wrong and opposite to the evidence to claim that stars shine because of the radioactive processes deep inside them. Beyond any doubt, they are not radioactive..  end quote [18]

3. A Permanent Circular Process
3.1. The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe
The particle colliders have shown that particles disintegrate if affected by a force that is strong enough. [19] Before particle colliders were discovered, scientists were able to discover in laboratories some atoms that were incoming to the laboratories from the outside of the Earth. These were named muons. They were found again in the particle colliders in the process of particle disintegration. Their life span is very short (2,2 x 10-6) – they break into an electron and neutrino; they were never found anywhere outside the particle colliders. A process similar to the one in the particle colliders must have existed outside Earth, because muons had been found in laboratories before the existence of particle colliders. Some quantity of particles gets disintegrated in the collisions of radiation (waves) and the atmosphere. The disintegration of particles takes place during the collisions of objects or the smaller objects with the greater objects that have no atmosphere. There is another event in the Universe, in which particles get disintegrated. These are the explosions of stars. The forces within these explosions are similar or larger than in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [20] 
Because the matter of an exploded star is missing, the scientists have been filling these gaps with the black holes, neutron stars and dwarf stars, to which supernatural (impossible in the physical terms) density has been ascribed. After the results from the particle colliders have been presented, there should be no more need for hypothetical objects. Most of the visible matter gets disintegrated (destroyed) in a star explosion. The next example presents the disharmony of the nebulae mass and current theories.
The nebula IC 4628 has a diameter of about 250 light years and consists of numerous large shiny stars, which have very high temperatures (type O) and there are also two white-blue giants (type O) of the impressive size. 
Except for the very large quantity of stars that are created in the nebula and are inside it, the nebula has enough of gas and dust to create another circle of new stars. It should not be forgotten that such a large explosion needs to have a maximal black hole. [21]   
Three supernovae have been sighted with a naked eye in the last 1000 of years in the Milky Way (to date it has been discovered (total number) just over 400 Novae in the Milky Way). [10]  There are ~100 billion of galaxies in the Universe. If the intensity of star explosions is similar for all galaxies, there are 3 (3,170979)  stars exploding in the Universe every second (and 273.972,60 stars daily, etc.). A dominant opinion today is that only those stars explode, which mass is no less than 8 M Sun (Chandrasekhar limit 1,44 M Sun).   
(The author of the article relates the explosions to very fast-rotating stars, independently of their mass, and they occur when their cyclones on the north or south pole get hit by an object of a sufficient size. The cyclone makes it possible for the incoming object to go deep inside a star, where that object explodes, due to the friction. [22])
If stars had an average mass of 8 M Sun (and this is the lowest quantity), during the period of 13 billion of years, most of the matter, which is 10,96 x 1018 (10.096.000.000 billion of M Sun), has been disintegrated (or (real data) ~400 x (factor 3) = 1200 x ~100 billion galaxies in the Universe x min. 8 M Sun > 8.493 galaxies of the Milky Way size). (I have to point out that there is a constant process of growth and the size of 13,7 (8) G light years is used as a distance that is not to be used to determine the age of the Universe.) The total star mass of the Milky Way is estimated to be between 4,6 x 10 10  M Sun and 6,43 × 10 10  M Sun.   
Although the Universe is losing enormously large quantities of visible matter in the star explosions, objects' collisions and the collisions of radiation and visible matter, it increases its mass, a fact which scientists have been trying to explain by the expansion of the Universe.
Sir Fred Hoyle suggested the formation of a single particle per a star system. Billions of particles are lost daily only in the collisions of waves with the particles of our atmosphere. During the 1980s, the physicists of the subatomic physics suggested that they had been observing the formation of particles from a field. A majority of particles were unable to complete the process and were returning to the field.
Independently of the validity of these claims (or evidences), matter is being formed and it successfully replaces the disintegrated matter and contributes to the increase of the visible matter in the Universe. That can be supported by the fact that a visible part of  the Universe consists of hydrogen (~75%). The most of nebulae consists of ~90% of hydrogen. It can be concluded, at what speed and at what ratio are other elements in the space created, from the relation hydrogen/helium/other elements. Hydrogen is in the molecular state on Earth, while the majority of interstellar hydrogen is in the atomic state. [23] 
The higher density of an element (hydrogen) connects its atoms into molecules of H2, as a contrary to the lower density, where the atomic hydrogen has no possibility to create molecules.
The connection of hydrogen atoms into H2 shows that hydrogen has two sorts of charge + and – (a weak hydrogen bond) and that in such a dominantly positively charged particle there is a significant quantity of a negative charge. If that were not so, hydrogen would have been satisfying its need with smaller particles, electrons and neutrino.
H2  is the beginning of a permanent ascending process inside the visible part of the Universe and higher systems. Here it is necessary to point out that the results from the particle colliders suggest that hydrogen consists of a large quantity of electron and neutrino (the author of the article estimates it to be inside the relation of ~1.800 x 1.800) and it looks like a thread, curled up into a ball. The thread opens up in various processes and creates the next lines of atoms.
That is the way how an interwoven structure of more complex atoms is created. It gives a simple answer to the question, why two or three atoms with the same atomic mass differ utterly (argon, potassium and calcium, etc.) and exist in different aggregate states. The same goes for any pair of the neighboring elements (fluorine – neon, tellurium – iodine, etc.). The isotopes of elements also need to be mentioned here; they additionally confirm this way of creating the particles. Joining and growing of particles goes on even when a particle reaches its upper limits of natural sustainability, due to which a particle rejects the surplus of matter together with radioactive radiation. The same goes for the lower elements (who have irregular structures or the irregular ratio of protons and heavy protons), whose structure can not bear further growth (the system undergoes self-adaptations to achieve the sustainable state). [24]  
Growth doesn’t stop with atoms; on the contrary, joining goes on. Through joining, chemical reactions and combined, gas, dust, sand, the rocks named asteroids and comets, etc., are all created. Even further, planets are created the same way. Then, when planets grow to the 10% of Sun’s mass, they become stars, which can be really gigantic (super-giants).
Millions of craters scattered around the objects of our Solar system are the evidence of objects’ growth. Constant impacts of asteroids into our atmosphere and soil are the evidence of these processes being uninterrupted today, just the same as it used to be in any earlier period of the past. It is estimated that 4 000 – 100 000 tons of extraterrestrial material falls yearly to Earth. [25]   

3.2. The Disintegration of Complex Atoms
At the beginning of the permanent ascending process of the visible matter is hydrogen, after it helium and only then, other elements (generally less complex atoms), which are registered only in traces. It can be concluded from the chemical composition of the different types of nebulae. The differences in the chemical composition are the result of the density of a nebula. More dense nebulae (molecular clouds,...) give more possibilities for particle connection than less dense, thin nebulae. (Their chemical composition, however, is fairly uniform; it corresponds to the composition of the universe in general in that approximately 90 percent of the constituent atoms are hydrogen and nearly all the rest are helium (~10%), with oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen, and the other elements together making up about two atoms per thousand. [26])   
The more frequent the contact between atoms is, the higher is the complexity of a chemical composition. The objects with a melted core that still have a crust are chemically more diverse objects (Earth). Diversity is a result of the complex geological processes, particularly in the interaction of the magma and the crust of an object. Complexity depends mostly on the rotation of an object. If an object does not have an independent rotation, its chemical composition is less diverse. The same goes for the objects with monotonous conditions, i.e., if there are only high or low uniform surface temperatures, which do not serve the formation of more complex atoms. Their formation is better served by the existence of temperature amplitudes on a surface.
The chemical composition of a star is on the opposite side of the diverse chemical composition. Stars consist of hydrogen (Sun: ~75%), helium (~24%) and ~1-1,5 % of the other elements (oxygen, carbon, iron (0,16%), neon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, sulphur  (0,04%).
Chemical composition change becomes dramatic when matter becomes hot and melted. It is seen from the chemical composition of the Earth and Sun.

Table 16. the chemical composition of the Earth (crust and s mantle) and Sun

Melting point °C Boiling point °C % crust of the Earth % mantle of the Earth
SiO2 1.713 2.950 60,2 46
Al2O3 2.072 2.977 15,2 4,2
CaO 2.613 2.850 5,5 3,2
MgO 2.825 3.600 3,1 37,8
FeO 1.377 3.414 3,8 7,5
Na2O 1.132 1.950 3 0,4
K2O 740 - 2.8 0,04
Fe2O3 1.539 –1.565 Not Available 2.5  
H2O 0 100 1,4  (1,1)  
CO2 -56 Sublimation -78,5 1,2  
TiO2 1.843 2.972 0,7  
P2O5 sublimes 360 0,2  

Sun He 24,85 %,
H 73,46%,
O  0,77%,
C  0,29%,
Ostalo 0,53%

Table 16. comparison the chemical composition of the Earth crust and s mantle)/ Sun

Lava is mostly created by compounds that are in the solid state on the temperatures of lava  
"( Al Si 8 - Na Al Si 8 - Ca Al Si 8 (Feldspars), respectively MgO Melting point 2,825 °C, boiling point 3,600 °C,  Al2O3  2,072 °C/2,977 °C; SiO2 1,713 °C/2,950 °C; TiO2 1,843 °C/ 2,972 °C, CaO 2.613 °C/2886 °C, FeO 1.377 °C/3.414 °C, Na2O 1132 °C/1.950 °C  etc.
Here, the following discussion should not take place: that, due to stronger force of pressure, matter becomes melted at lower temperatures, because there are many volcanoes that maintain the melted matter during an extremely long period on the surface and with the pressure of one atmosphere.
Quote: Volatile elements and compounds (the boiling points of which are below the temperature of lava) evaporate from lava, but, because of low temperatures that are lower (for example, lava is 1 200°C, air is 15°C, melting point of magnesium is 648,85°C and boiling point is 1 090°C; instead of evaporating into atmosphere, magnesium particles get cooled down by low temperatures and they stay on the lava surface (which affects the level of lava viscosity: lower temperatures have smaller quantity of elements and compounds that change their state from liquid into gaseous and vice versa; with the increase of temperature, that quantity increases and viscosity decreases)) and the process goes on until a particle of magnesium becomes a compound of MgO, with the melting point of  2 825°C and boiling point of  3 600°C (or it only stays as Mg, in the process of hardening and cooling down the lava).
Due to the long-term exposure of more complex atoms and compounds to the temperatures above their boiling points, they get dissolved into atoms of hydrogen, helium, oxygen (~74/25/<1/<1). [5] end quote  
As the temperature of the star is higher, the chemical composition is less varied.
M type of stars (fraction of all main-sequence stars 76.45% in Milky Way), due to temperatures of 2 400–3 700°K can have on their surfaces, the majority of oxides, existing in lava nad magma on Earth, are in a liquid state. The expected diversity of chemical compounds will be lower, but the readings of compound presence will be lower, because the layer above a star is colder than the boiling points of atoms and compounds; here they get crystallized and fall on the surface. 
Inside stars (melted objects), hot matter constantly tends to move towards the surface. [27]
The processes of hot matter dislocation towards the surface and atmosphere are a good sign that a star's atmospheric and photospheric chemical composition reflect the complete chemical composition of hot objects. The temperature of Sun, 5.772°K,  turns all elements and compositions into a gaseous aggregate state. The same happens with all stars with high temperatures. Red stars (with the temperatures ranging from 1.800–2.900°K and all red stars above 0,08-0.45 M Sun) have lower temperatures than the boiling point of many compounds: SiO2,  2.950; Al2O3, 2.977; CaO, 2.850; MgO, 3.600; FeO,  3.414; TiO2, 2.972°K and some elements. Their processes and surface (chemical composition) are unlike the processes and surfaces of hot stars. In the long term, high temperatures inside "cold" stars will impoverish the chemical composition of their surfaces, but never as the hot stars will. Chemical composition of an atmosphere should be distinguished from a photosphere (surface) of a star. Due to a constant growth, stars generally create atmospheres from the gathered material, which is found in the relation: hydrogen/helium/other elements    (~90/10/to 1%), which is another reason, why larger objects have poor chemical composition. Higher temperatures do not serve the formation of more complex atoms and compounds.

3.3. The Distance from Stars Adapts the Processes
The temperature of space and objects (planets and smaller objects) is decreased with the increase of distance from the radiation source (except the thermal deviation from 1 to 5,2 AU (Sun)). The decrease of temperature is directly related to the "working" temperature of atoms and compounds. The elements have the points of melting and boiling. It is impossible to talk of the oxygen atmosphere if the temperatures on an object are below the melting point (-218°C); oxygen atmosphere appears if the temperatures of an object and its space have the temperatures above -182,96°C. By observing the atmospheric chemical composition of the external planets, a lack of oxygen is obvious. The internal objects lack hydrogen. The internal atmospheres mostly consist of  N2, CO2, and the external ones of N2, CH4, H2. A good example is Mars, which has no hydrogen in the atmosphere or on the surface. The lack of hydrogen makes the hydrogen-based compounds impossible.
The minimal temperature on Mars is -143°C, while the average and maximal one are -63°C and +35°C respectively. The chemical composition of its atmosphere is: carbon-dioxide 95,97%; argon 1,93%; nitrogen 1,89%; oxygen 0,146%; carbon-monoxide 0,0557%, which in total makes 99,9917% of the elements and compounds, present in its atmosphere.
The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4; Fe3O4 .. [28]
A chemical composition of an object can partially be detected from the composition of atmosphere. Titan moon: Stratosphere: 98.4% nitrogen (N2);1.4% methane (CH4), 0.2% hydrogen (H2); that indicates the lack of oxygen and oxygen-based compounds. "Working" temperatures of oxygen are from -218 to -182,96°C and are lower than the average temperatures – Titan moon, -179,5°C. All oxygen from a surface would end in the atmosphere, because Titan has no temperatures that go below the points of melting and boiling for oxygen. Knowing these processes contributes to the new awareness of the chemical composition of objects and atom behavior, due to temperature levels.
The occurrence of atmosphere is directly related to different geological processes: volcanoes; ejection of cold matter; attraction of new particles of matter; activity of intensive radiation; activity of gravitational forces among two or more objects on each other; rotation of objects (when different temperatures of day and night occur); constant bombardment of other, lesser or larger objects; inclination and form of an object; the change of calendar seasons; etc. The age of an object deserves to be particularly singled out here, although it will not be discussed now.
When a formation of atmosphere on the internal objects takes place, aside from a quantity of geological processes, the following needs to be taken into consideration:  Nitrogen does not burn nor it supports combustion. It is a bit easier than air and poorly soluble in water, chemically unreactive. ... 99,8% of all carbon on Earth is found combined in minerals, mainly carbonates... Only 0,01% of carbon exists in living beings. ... After hydrogen, carbon creates more compounds than all the other elements put together.
Although CO2 is mutual for all of the three planets with atmosphere, the differences among them occur due to the distance from Sun, rotation, mass; they caused different geological processes. The proximity of Sun and the lack of rotation – notwithstanding the similar masses – created the atmosphere of Venus: CO2 96,5% and nitrogen 3,5%. The rotation of Earth, the change of calendar seasons, binary relations between Earth and Moon and colder environment (related to that of Venus) are suitable for the creation of water, which in the form of rain removes CO2 from the atmosphere in the favor of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%).. [29]

3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars
The density of objects can be analyzed within our system. If other conditions remain similar, the objects closer to the main object have a higher density, due to more significant tidal waves.

Table 17. Sun system, density, radius, semi-major axis.

  Central  Object Body in orbit Ø Density g/cm3 Radius km Semi-major axis km
1 Earth   5,514 6.371  
2   Moon 3,344 1.737,1 384.399
3 Mars Phobos 1,876 11,27 9.376
4   Deimos 1,4718 6,2 23.463,2
5 Jupiter Io 3,528 1.821,6 421.700
6   Europa 3,013 1.560,8 670.900
7   Ganymede 1,936 2.634,1 1.070.400
8   Callisto 1,8344 2.410,3 1.882.700
9 Saturn Enceladus 1,609 252,1 237.948
10   Dione 1.478 561,4 377.396
11   Rhea 1,236 763,8 527.108
12   Iapetus 1,088 734,5 3.560.820
13 Uranus Ariel 1,592 578,9 191.020
14   Umbriel 1,39 584,7 266.000
15   Titania 1,711 788,4 435.910
16   Oberon 1,63 761,4 583.520
17 Neptun Proteus ~1,3 210 117.647
18   Triton 2,061 1.353,4 354.800
19 Pluto   1,86 1.187  
20 Charon   1,707 603,6 19.591
21 Sun   1,408 695.700 eq  
22   inner planets 3,9335-5,514   57,909,050-227,939.200 
23   external planets 0,687- 1,638   5.2044 AU- 30.11 AU 

Table 17. Sun system Ø density bodies, radius bodies, semi-major axis.

Quote: The objects that are closer to the central object possess a higher density (due to the higher tidal force effects), as well as the objects with bigger masses and higher temperatures of space (Ariel/Umbriel; Titania/Oberon; Proteus/Triton; Rhea/Iapetus; Galileo's satellites; Phobos/Deimos; internal/external planets; etc). Of course, it does not mean that all objects belong to this group. The very division of asteroids into S, M and V type suggests a dramatical deviation. One part of objects becomes more dense in the beginning of their approach to the Sun (because volatile matter disappears and higher temperatures help the creation of the more complex elements). The other part of objects was created during the disintegration of objects (the internal – the higher density, and the external – the lower density), due to the collisions. In both cases a continuation of growth must be taken into consideration, as the lesser objects keep arriving to their surfaces. A certain portion of satellites also does not abide the strict law (density, mass, space temperature and distance to the central object), which implies the different past of these objects before they got captured by the central object. A part of it definitely belongs to the different composition of objects that constantly bombard satellites and other objects. It is unlikely that more dense asteroids from the asteroid belt would hit the outer objects, unlike the interior ones, because the gravitational force of Sun is dominant.
The conclusion would be that it is a very complex and dynamic pattern related to the processes of objects' creation – it is constantly moving and growing. The complexity of objects is related to the space temperature, the mass of an object and the total sum of tidal forces. Furthermore, the complexity is influenced by the position of an object related to the planet, Sun, as well as the asteroid belt. The important role also belongs to time when object got captured, for how long the object had been near Sun (perihelion) and at what distance. [30] end quote
White dwarves: Sirius B, Procyon B, LP 145-141, Gliese 223.2, Stein 2051 B etc. have the same ratio: mass / radius / temperature as well as large blue stars R136a1, Melnick 34, WR 25 , R136c etc.
Red Dwarfs are small stars of the "M" type, HIP 12961, Lacaille 8760, Proxima Centauri, Barnard's Star, Teegarden's Star etc. and they follow other red stars in the relationship of mass / radius / temperature NML Cygni, WOH G64, Mu Cephei, VY Canis Majoris etc.
It should not be recommended to reduce the analysis of the influence of factors to the stars on mass, radius, temperature and the rotation of object around the axis in this reassessment of the old theories, because an inexact impression of the statistical analysis of the other objects may occur. This article should be used only as a quick approximate tool of star positioning, as a kind of control when determining a measurement and, if there are deviations, the cause of deviations must be determined or the measurement should be repeated. 
Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars.  
If we check the data of the objects' masses, we can see that independent objects with a bigger mass have a higher temperature, but the level of temperature is limited (S Cassiopeiae Radius 930   R Sun, Temperature 1.800 K) and it is more notable in smaller objects, which are in the phase of melting and changing into a star. [31] ..
The objects with a melted core and with a crust  have the most complex chemical composition. A melted core is created with the object's mass growth and with the action of all tidal waves and the speed of rotation. Independent small objects create a melted core with the increase of mass. A quantity of mass is determined by the speed of rotation around an object's axis; if binary effects are not considered, a melted core can be created with a higher speed of rotation even with a smaller mass, compared to the slowly-rotating objects.
Elements and compounds are disintegrating without a more significant radioactivity into lower order elements with the increase of mass and other factors that cause the creation of a star and the temperatures higher than the boiling point.  Cold stars (brown dwarfs and small stars of M class) have more complex chemical composition than hot stars because their lower temperatures are lower than the boiling points of the part of elements and compounds. When determining density, the data should be observed within identical parameters to avoid the following speculations: the density of Earth at the depth of 5 100-6 378 km (the core of Earth) is 12,8-13,1 g/cm2, the density of Sun at the depth of 552 000 km is 0,2 g/cm2 (radiative zone).  A chemical composition of magma (Ultramafic ( picritic ) SiO2 < 45%; Fe-Mg >8%; MgO  ~32%; Temperature: up to 1500°C; viscosity: Very Low; type Density Magma [kg / m³] Basalt magma 2650-2800; Andesite magma 2450-2500; Rhyolite magma 2180-2250) [5] [32]  which is approximately similar to scientific research: molten silica exhibits several peculiar physical characteristics that are similar to those observed in liquid water: negative temperature expansion, density maximum at temperatures ~5000 °C, and a heat capacity minimum. Its density decreases from 2.08 g/cm3 at 1950 °C to 2.03 g/cm3 at 2200 °C. [32] 

4. A Blue Shift, Different Speeds of Galactic Movements and Expansion
4.1. Local Group of Galaxies
The expansion is related to a red shift because a Hubble constant (and unavoidable Big Bang) determined the distancing of galaxies in the details. The first to damage the ideal image was the local group of galaxies, in which there is a similar quantity of galaxies with a blue and red shift. [2]

Table 18. Blue and red shift i rotacija

  Galaxies, local groups Redshift km/s Blueshift km/s
1 Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal    -354 ± 3 
2 IC 10   -348 ± 1
3 NGC 185   -202 ± 3
4 Canes Venatici I ~  31  
5 Andromeda III   -351 ± 9
6 Andromeda II   -188 ± 3
7 Triangulum Galaxy   -179 ± 3
8 Messier 110   -241 ± 3
9 NGC 147 (2.53 ± 0.11 Mly)   -193 ± 3
10 Small Magellanic Cloud 0.000527  
11 M32   -200 ± 6
12 NGC 205   -241 ± 3
13 IC 1613   -234 ± 1
14 Carina Dwarf 230 ± 60  
15 Sextans Dwarf 224 ± 2  
16 Ursa Minor Dwarf (200 ± 30 kly)   -247 ± 1
17 Draco Dwarf   -292 ± 21
18 Cassiopeia Dwarf   -307 ± 2

Table 18. Blue and red shift and rotation within our local galactic group.

There is no expansion of the local group of galaxies. The data suggest a classical rotation. There is a similar quantity of galaxies that are approaching and those that are distancing themselves from us.

4.2. Rotation of Clusters

Table 19. galaxies, distance 35 - 60 M ly and their speed of movement

  Galaxies Distance M ly Redshift, Blueshift km/s (z)
1 NGC 7320c 35 5,985 ± 9 
2 NGC 7320 39 (12 Mpc) 786 ± 20
3 NGC 2541 41 ± 5 548 ± 1
4 NGC 4178 43 ± 8 377
5 NGC 4214 44 291 ± 3
6 M98 44,4 -0,000113 (-142)
7 Messier 77 47,0  1137 ± 3
8 NGC 14 47.1 865 ± 1
9 Messier 88 47 ± 8  2235 ± 4 
10 IC 3258 48 -0,0015 (-517)
11 NGC 3949 50  800 ± 1 
12 NGC 3877 50,5 895 ± 4 
13 NGC 4088 51,5 ± 4,5  757 ± 1 
14 NGC 1427A 51,9 (+5,3, -7,7)  2028 ± 1 
15 NGC 1055 52 994 ± 5 
16 M86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
17 Messier 61 52,5 ± 2,3  1483 ± 4
18 NGC 4216 55 131 ± 4 
19 Messier 60 55 ± 4  1117 ± 6 
20 NGC 4526 55 ± 5 448 ± 8 
21 Messier 99 55,7 2407 ± 3 
22 NGC 4419 56 -0,0009 (-342)
23 M90 58,7 ± 2,8  -282 ± 4 

Table 19. galasies distance, which should be worth the Hubble constant (~700 (32.6 M ly) -1400 km / s (65.2 M ly))

Here are some examples of galaxies that are 35 to 60 M light years away. The speeds of the galaxies' distancing away, according to the theory of expansion, should be 700 (32 M light years) to 1400 (64 M light years) km/s, at this distance (Objects observed in deep space - extragalactic space, 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) or more - are found to have a red shift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth [2])
instead, we have the image, which is similar to the one in our local group.
A few more examples of galaxies that have a blue shift from the Virgo Cluster at the distance 53,8 ±0,3 M  ly (total 65 galaxies): IC3105  -284; VCC322  -323; VCC334  -350; VCC501  -224; IC3224 -100; VCC628  -540; VCC636  -113; IC3258  -593; IC3303  -427; VCC788  -3; VCC802  -318; IC3311  -287; VCC810  -470; VCC815   -866; VCC846  -845; NGC4396  -215; VCC877  -212; NGC4406  -374; VCC892  -784; etc. [9]
Except for a blue shift, it is equally important to notice that the other speeds of movement are not in line with expansion (and Hubble constant). At the distance of 35 M light years NGC 7320c has the speed of 5,985 ± 9 km/s. NGC 127 has z = 0.0137 at the distance of 188 M light years,  which equals the speed (helio radial velocity ) of ~ 409 km/s (the radial velocity is the component of the object's velocity that points in the direction of the radius connecting the object and the point, that is does not represent expansion),  a similar speed is present on Messier 59 z = 0.001368 of 410± 6 km/s at the distance of 60± 5 M light years.

The most of data is collected from many sources and their data are very different and prone to frequent changes. However, independently of the data source, similar data that support the stated claims can be found inside any of these individual source or data base or in the scientific magazines' pdf-format papers.

4.3. Blueshift and Mergers Galaxies and Cluster of Galaxies

Several examples of mergers of the cluster of galaxies:

Table 20. merger clusters of galaxies

1 Abell 520 galaxy cluster posjeduju neobičnu strukturu koja je rezultat velikog spajanja (a major merger).
2 Abell 576 dva clusters u prosesu spajanja
3 Abell 665 is composed of two similar-mass clusters which are at or very close to core crossing
4 Abell 754 formed from the collision of two smaller clusters
5 Abell 2142 has attracted attention because of its potential to shed light on the dynamics of mergers between galaxies.
6 Abell 2744 s a giant galaxy cluster resulting from the simultaneous pile-up of at least four separate, smaller galaxy clusters
7 MACS J0025.4-1222 created by the collision of two galaxy clusters
8 Musket Ball Cluster This cluster is further along the process of merger than the Bullet Cluster

Table 20. merger clusters of galaxies, process permanent system growth

Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters, including both ‘major’ and ‘minor’ mergers. [33]

Several examples of galaxy mergers: Arp 87, Arp 104, Arp 107, Arp 220, Arp 240, Arp 256, Arp 272, Arp 299, Arp 302, NGC 4194, NGC 4567 and NGC 4568, NGC 4618, NGC 4625, NGC 4627, NGC 4633, NGC 4634, NGC 4647, NGC 5090 and NGC 5091, etc. [34] 
Besides the forces of attraction that cause mergers and collisions among them, the objects in the Universe have different speeds of movement. An object, named Einstein Cross, which is at the distance of 8 G light years, is moving faster than the object named Lynx Supercluster, which is 12,9 G light years away. A few examples are given in the following table. [14]

4.4. The Uneverse and Rotation  

Table 21. system rotation within the Universe, distance/red shift

  Space objekt Clusters, superclusters, galaxy Distance Mly Red shift (z)
1 The Laniakea Supercluster centre 250 0,0708
2 Abell 400 326 0,0244
3 Abell 1656 336 0,0231
4 Horologium_Supercluster the nearest part 700 0,063
5 Abell 754 760 0,0542
6 Abell 133 763 0,0566
7 Corona Borealis Supercluster nearest part 946 0,07

8 CID-42  Quasar 3.900 (3,9 Gly) 0,359
9 Saraswati Supercluster 4.000 0,28
10 Abell 2744 4.110 0,308

11 Einstein Cross 8.000 1,695
12 Twin Quasar galaxy 8.700 1,413
13 TN J0924-2201 galaxy 12.183 5,19
14 EQ J100054+023435 galaxy 12.200 (12,2 Gly) 4,547
15 Lynx Supercluster 12.900 1,26 & 1,27
       

16 EGS-zs8-1 13.040 7,73
17 z8 GND 5296 galaxy 13.100 7,51
18 GN-z11 galaxy ~13.400 11,09; +0,08;  −0,12

Table 21. The system, rotation within the Universe, distance 250 M ly- 13,4 G ly

In the whole area of the Universe, from the local group and the local cluster, to the most distant objects, the astronomers register the existence of the blue specter (system mergers), different speeds (closer objects are faster than the objects that are significantly further from them), which indicates there are identical processes in the local group and in the Universe.
Here it must be taken into consideration that, the further an object is, the lower the radiation intensity gets (which our instruments detect as the increase of red shift, although in reality, those objects are in the phase of collision, merger or are on the move towards an observer).

4.5. Rotation vs. Expansion
A simple check of these claims can be made. If we place our Earth as a point inside the volume of the whole Universe some 300-400 thousand light years after the Big Bang, when the first radiation (cosmic microwave background) starts to appear (BD + 17 ° 3248 is a cluster in the Milky Way, only 968 light years away and the estimated age of  13,8±4 G years) and check the progress of expansion.
Our location within the expansion has the same direction with the closer and more distant neighboring galaxies and a red shift with more significant quantities is impossible in that direction. The astronomers have found nothing similar in their observations.
We have a claims, „The universe is spreading“, then there should be a small universe (with a small diameter) 300-400 thousand years after the so-called Big Bang, and a big universe, in which „...the most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies GN-z11, 13,39 G etc.
If an emission of light happened 13,39 light-years ago  (EGSY8p7, 13,23 G  ly, etc.), one could ask: did light travel at all through these 13,39 bilion ly, since we can see it now? [33]
Our Universe is created inside a whole that has started to brighten up  ("when photons started to travel freely through space" Wikipedia), which is in total accordance with "the radiance (CMB, cosmic microwave background) is almost even in all directions".
CMB (according to Big Bang theory), the photons started traveling freely into space, which is not our Universe. It is an area outside the whole, from which the radiation starts and inside which stars and galaxies (our Milky Way included, too) were created.
The radiance (CMB) is even in all directions and, according to Big Bang theory, it should mean that CMB and other radiations return back into the whole, from which they started 13,7 billion of years ago, because the radiance (CMB) is almost even in all directions and they don't originate from a single point, which should represent a starting whole, from which photons (CMB and other radiations) started.
Radiation is coming from all directions of the Universe, which is contradictory to the expansion of the Universe.

Table 22. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

  Galaxy Right ascension Declination Red shift Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A 02h 39m 54.7s −01° 33′ 32″ 6,56 12,8
2 SXDF-NB1006-2 02h 18m 56.5s −05° 19′ 58.9″ 7,215 13,07
3 TN J0924-2201 09 h  24 m  19,92 s -22 ° 01 '41,5 " 5,19 12,523
4 UDFy-38135539 03h 32m 38.13s −27° 45′ 53.9″ 8,6 13,1
5 A2744 YD4 00h 14m 24.927s −30° 22′ 56.15″ 8,38 13,2
6 BDF-3299 22h 28m 12.26s −35° 09′ 59.4″ 7,109 13,05
7 SSA22−HCM1 22h 17m 39.69s +00° 13′ 48.6″ 5,47 12,7
8 EQ J100054+023435 10h 00m 54.52s +2° 34′ 35.17″ 4,547 (280.919 km/s) 12,2
9 ULAS J1120+0641 11h 20m 01.48s +06° 41′ 24.3″ 7,085 13,05
10 ULAS J1342 + 0928 13h 42m 08.10s +13h 42m 08.10s 7,54 13,1
11 GRB 090423 09h 55m 33.08s +18° 08′ 58.9″ 8,2 13
12 IOK-1 13h 23m 59.8s +27° 24′ 56″ 6,96 12,88
13 A1703 zD6 13 h 15 m 01.0 s +51° 50′ 04′ 7,054 13,04
14 Q0906 + 6930 09h 06m 30.75s +69° 30′ 30.8″ 5,47 12,3
15 MACS0647-JD 06h 47m 55.73s +70° 14′ 35.8″ 10,7 13,3

Table 22. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly

There is no significant red shift in only one direction – a similarly significant red shift is found in all directions. There is nothing that would imply that something different from the other directions is happening in any particular direction (the possibility that we are in the very center of the Universe and that everything is distancing itself from us is disputed by collisions, smaller and larger mergers and the different speeds of the observed objects (blue and red shift) (table 19, 20, 21 and 22).

A following result can be concluded from these data: there is no expansion, but a rotation of the Universe and all the objects within it. Similarly to any spherical cluster of stars or galaxies, the speeds of the objects inside it are lower than the speeds of the objects outside such a cluster. The Universe is no exception either.

7. Conclusion
A rotation of the Universe can be observed: from the rotation of the local group of galaxies, the rotation of the  Virgo Cluster; the different galactic speeds – while the closer galaxies have many times higher speeds from the significantly more distant galaxies; from the gravitational connection of: galaxies, clusters, superclusters that rotate around some center. The rotation is visible from the omnipresent merger and collisions between objects and systems, which have a blue shift between themselves and occur in the whole volume of the Universe, in all directions and at all distances. These uninterrupted and permanent processes that confirm a constant matter growth from the smallest particles to mega systems. The rotation of objects around their axis creates orbits of stars, planets, smaller objects, asteroid belts, gas disks.    Lower temperatures make possible for the natural satellites to create an independent rotation – the lower the temperature, the closer the rotation gets to a planet or some smaller object. Independently of rotation, all rotating objects create their own systems with objects in the orbits.
The processes of disintegration, degradation of elements and matter take place inside the Universe, with the permanent growth of matter. An atom (or proton) is a complex, bipolar particle, made of a large quantity of electrons and neutrino, a thread curled up in a ball (like DNA) has an existing positive and negative charge (negative charge is >5%, i.e., it is larger than 90 electrons). This is a basic reason why a proton enters the relation with another proton, instead of realizing the relation with electrons ( H2, etc). The different working temperatures of particles and compounds (melting and boiling point) determine a chemical composition of the objects and the atmosphere. 
By these days scientists astronomers have gathered enough evidence which can relatively easily detect, name and define the processes inside a body, system and universe without the need for assumptions or theories.
All objects in universe rotate around their axis (except the objects that are tidally locked), travel in the orbits around central objects, around their also rotating systems and universe. Furthermore, all objects grow, as well as systems, which can be concluded from the millions of craters, scattered on the surfaces of the objects in our system. Systems grow, a fact which is obvious from their mutual collisions, small and large mergers.
The forces of pressure, rotation and the forces of attraction create high temperatures, create and determine the systems' appearance, determine the size of radius, surface gravity, the force of magnetic field, chemical composition and the color of objects and a star. Larger objects disintegrate complex compounds and atoms into hydrogen and some helium, due to temperatures above the boiling point of elements and compounds. The rest (approximately 1-1,5%),
Sun photospheric composition (by mass): 0.77% oxygen; 0.29% carbon; Iron 0.16%; Neon 0.12%; Nitrogen 0.09%; 0.07% silicon; 0.05% magnesium; Sulfur 0.04%) are also less complex atoms. A sum total of an object's mass, the forces of attraction and the speeds of rotation determine the conditions when a small orbiting object turns into a star. The mass of an object and the speed of its rotation determine the limit when an independent object starts emitting radiation (i.e., starts radiating). More significant magnetic fields are connected to a partially or completely melted objects, where the layers of an object have different speeds of rotation. In supporting the magnetic field of an object, its mass is not as important as its rotation. Significantly smaller objects can have more significant magnetic field, because, besides a faster rotation, they also have a more complex chemical composition (Jupiter/ Sun).
__________________________________________________________________________

Reference
[1] http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Where-did-the-blue-spectral-shift-inside-the-universe-come-from.pdf
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[3] https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-formation-of-particles-in-the-Universe.pdf
[4] http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/The-influence-of-rotation-of-stars-on-their-radius-temperature.pdf
[5] http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHY-ATMOSPHERES-OF-STARS-LACK-METALS.pdf
[6] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf Article No. 3
[7] https://www.academia.edu/32157268/Natural_Satellites_and_Rotation_The_Roche_limit_out
[8] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf „There is no ring around Pluto! ?“ Article No. 3.
[9] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf „Natural Satellites and Rotation“ Article No. 3.
[10] http://cbat.eps.harvard.edu/nova_list.html „CBAT List of Novae in the Milky Way“
[11] https://www.epj-conferences.org/articles/epjconf/pdf/2015/20/epjconf_sphr2014_05001.pdf  "Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence" Maryline Briquet1,2,a,b 1 Institut d’Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universit ´ e de Li ´ ege, All ` ee du 6 Ao ´ ut 17, B ˆ at B5c, 4000, ˆLiege, Belgium; ` 2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, UPMC, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen,92195, Meudon Cedex, France
[12] https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14516 Published: 22 June 2015 Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the ‘blue hook’ stars of ω Centauri
Marco Tailo, Francesca D’Antona, Enrico Vesperini, Marcella Di Criscienzo, Paolo Ventura, Antonino P. Milone, Andrea Bellini, Aaron Dotter, Thibaut Decressin, Annibale D’Ercole, Vittoria Caloi & Roberto Capuzzo-Dolcetta
[13] https://www.epj-conferences.org/articles/epjconf/pdf/2015/20/epjconf_sphr2014_05001.pdf  "Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence"
Maryline Briquet1,2,a,b 1 Institut d’Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universit ´ e de Li ´ ege, All ` ee du 6 Ao ´ ut 17, B ˆ at B5c, 4000, ˆLiege, Belgium; ` 2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, UPMC, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen,92195, Meudon Cedex, France
[14]http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 
[15] https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.07017.pdf  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[16]  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf Article No 1.
[17]  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf Article No 2. The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color
[18] https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
[19]  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf  Article No 3. Why did CERN fail?
[20] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf
[21] https://www.science20.com/news_articles/ic_4628the_prawn_nebula_recipe_young_stars-120675 „IC 4628:The Prawn Nebula Recipe For Young Stars“ By News Staff | September 19th 2013
[22]  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf „What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?“, Article No 7.
[23] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen#Atomic_hydrogen
[24] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf 
[25] http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#1growth [26] https://www.britannica.com/science/nebula
[27] http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHY-ATMOSPHERES-OF-STARS-LACK-METALS.pdf
[28] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf „Why Mars does not have the atmosphere like Titan or Earth?“ Atricle No. 2.
[29] http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf „Why there is not one and the same atmosphere on the objects of our system?“ Article No. 6.
[30] http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf
[31] https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-[32] https://engineering.ucsb.edu/~shell/papers/2002_PRE_silica.pdf "Molecular structural order and anomalies in liquid silica" M. Scott Shell, Pablo G. Debenedetti,* and Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544~Received 11 March 2002; published 23 July 2002!
[33] https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Where-is-the-truth-about-Big-Bang-theory.pdf
[34] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.750.3348&rep=rep1&type=pdf „Blueshifted galaxies in the Virgo cluster“ I. D. Karachentsev and O. G. Nasonova (Kashibadze)

Keywords: blue shift, disintegration of matter, rotation speed, chemical star composition, degradation of elements,

 

2017/2018.

1. The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems

Published in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics november 2018
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13

Author, Weitter Duckss,
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13  
mail: wduckss@gmail.com
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia
Project: https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html (https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/)

Hrvatski

Abstract
The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

2. The effects of rotation around an axis (objects) and a center (systems)
2.1. The formation of a system by rotation
The observation of the rotational effects can be done through the orbits of objects around a central object. All orbits (of an object) are placed around the equatorial region or cut through it if they are inclined, i.e., if there is an inclination from the equatorial plane. The speed of an object that approaches a central object has nothing to do with the appearance of the orbit, because if it did, we would have had orbits around the poles [7]. The objects that lack an independent rotation (i.e., the objects that are tidally locked) or have an extremely slow rotation have no possibility to take and hold other objects in their own orbits (for example, Venus, Mercury, internal satellites (tidally locked). 
Quote: These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits (new evidence, confirmation [8],  [9]), nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is. end quote
The objects on their poles have no rotation related to the vertically incoming objects, therefore their collisions are almost the only option.
Quote: One object becomes a nova and a large number (millions) of others with the same parameters just go on the same way. It is necessary to consider some very rare factors, like, for example, the impacts of large objects into planets, but even more rare – those that hit only a small part of the objects (one event in more than ten million of objects - stars).
Within the growth of an object, some smaller object is starting a reaction when colliding with a star. If that should remain a rare event, it needs to be a specific event under the specific conditions. The only possible specificity is for that object (the errant objects, incoming from outside the Solar system) to arrive vertically onto one of the poles and to hit the opening of a cyclone that exists on the poles of stars. That way, it would get an opportunity to break into the interior of an object.
When discussing the vertical trajectories, it is necessary to point out that only the forces of attraction exist there, because an object creates the forces of repulsion in the horizontal direction only. end quote [10]  
A part of an object goes through a central object, due to a constant movement of a central object (Sun 220 km/s) and goes irreversibly further into space.

2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation
A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [11]   
A radius, related to mass (Sun =1) is negative, when stars with a fast rotation are the subject matter, while it is completely opposite with cold, red, slowly-rotating stars. [12]
A bit of a remark: the author of this article disagrees with the current estimates of the stars' mass, as he claims they are the product of old hypotheses which lacked enough evidence to support them. The author suggests that a radius be equal to a mass when discussing slowly-rotating stars and that the mass decrease up to 100% with fast-rotating stars. For example, Melnick 42, 21,1 R of Sun, its mass should be around 30 M of Sun (currently, 189 M of Sun).
That would give the option to avoid these illogicalities:

Table 1. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K

1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834

Table 1. Stars, similar mass (except No 5, 6, 7), different classes (type) and temperatures.

A same or similar mass should produce the same or similar outcome, given other conditions are the same. These days, scientific community totally undervalues the rotation of objects and its effects.

Table 2. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity, mass/radius.  

  Star Mass, Sun 1 Radius, Sun 1 Temperature °K Rotation speed  km/s

  Stars with slow rotation
1. Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4
2. R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
3. HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
4. Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
5. Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
6. Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
7. Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
8. Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
9. Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
10. Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
11. Betelgeuse

Fast-rotating stars

11,6 887 ±203 3.590 5
12. IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
13. Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
14. η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
15. Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
16. Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
17. Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
18. Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
19. WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
20. Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
21. S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
22. Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
23. Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
24. HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
25. HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
26. HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
27. HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
28. VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
29. Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
30. R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200

Table 2. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-12 cold stars, 13-29 hot stars.

The influence of rotation is more significant with stars that possess larger mass, because warming up and pressure are the result of friction, occurring between layers of a star. These stars that rotate faster will have higher temperatures than small stars, with the same or slower rotation (binary effects excluded).
Slowly-rotating stars have less significant surface gravity than the fast-rotating stars. [12]

Table3. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Rotation km/s or day Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1 Surface gravity cgs

1. Betelgeuse 3.140-3641 5 7,7-20 950-1200 0,5
2. Aldebaran 3.910 643 d 1,5±0,3 44,2±0,9 1,59
3. Pollux 4.666±95 558 d 2.04±0,3 8.8±0,1 2,685
4. Polaris 6.015 119 d 4,5 46±3 2.2
5. Canopus 7.350 8,0 9,0-10,6 71,4±4,0 2,1
6. Beta Pictoris 8.052 (9.790) 130 1,75 1,8 4,15
7. Denebola 8.500 128 1,78 1.728 4,0
8. Fomalhaut 8.590 93 1,92 1,842 4,21
9. Vega 9.692±180 12,5 h 2,135 2,36x2,81 4,1
10. Sirijus a 9.940 225-250 2.02 1,711 4,33
11. Albireo B 13.200±600 0,6 days 3,7 2,7 4,00
12. Sirijus b 25.200   / 0,978 0,0084 8,57

Table 3. Stars, No 1-7 low temperatures, small rotation speed, small surface gravity, in relation: radius>mass; No 8-16 high temperature, high Surface gravity, in relationship: radius<mass (Sun=1).

2.3. Gravitationally Bound Objects
Gravity and rotation  create systems. Super clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally-bound objects known today. The rotation of a cluster is different from zero. [13]

Table 4. Galaxy, distance /speed

  Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

1. NGC 4450 ~50 1954 ± 4
2. NGC 4262 50,0 1359 ± 4
3. NGC 4550 50.0 381 ± 9
4. Messier 89 50 ± 3  290 ± 5
5. NGC 4435 52 0.002638(z)
6. Messier 86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
7. Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
8. Messier 91 63 ± 16  486 ± 4
9. NGC 4388 65.10 ± 18.43 2.524

Table 4. Galaxy, relationship: distance 50-65.10± 18.43 Mly/speed of movement.

Table 5. Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy, redsfift/distance

  Supercluster (galaxy) Redsfift (z) Distance M ly

1 The Laniakea Supercluster +0,0708 250
2 Horologium Supercluster 0,063 700
3 Abell 754 0,0542 760
4 Abell 133 0,0566 763
5 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
6 CID-42  0,359 3.900 (3,9 Gly)
7 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4.000
8 Einstein Cross 1,695 8.000
9 Twin Quasar 1,413 8.700
10 Lynx Supercluster 1,26 & 1,27 12.900

Table 5. The Universe, Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy: redsfift (z)/distance M ly(G ly).

Table 6. Galaxies, redsfift/distance/speed

  Galaxies Redsfift (z) Distance billion ly Speed km/s  

1 EQ J100054+023435 4.547 12,2 280.919
2 Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
3 Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
4 GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917

Table 6. The Universe, relationship: redsfift (z)/distance G ly/speed km/s.

Besides rotation, there is also the law of (matter) attraction, which causes collisions, larger and smaller fusions of galactical clusters and Supercluster. [14]  One should make a distinction between collisions, in which the orbits of objects or systems are different, and fusions, in which objects share the same orbit and gravity causes a soft fusion of objects (for example, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
The accumulation is a constant growing process from the formation of particles, the accumulation of particles  into nebulae, ... , joining into (chemical) compounds, the formation of smaller and larger objects. Stars, star systems, binary stars which are the initial stage of the formation of star clusters, galaxies, galactical clusters and finally Universe are all created with the increase in mass and in the force of pressure (which depends on the speed of rotation). A part of matter gets disintegrated by the explosions of stars. These explosions cause even or more significant results than those, made by the collisions in LHC in Switzerland. [15]
Quote: Despite destruction (the disintegration of matter), the observations show that the Universe is not losing its mass. On the contrary, it increases. It means that the Universe is efficiently replacing all of the lost matter, the minimum of which is 20 quadrillion of the Sun’s masses, and even “some” more.
It is not to be forgotten that a smaller part of matter is also been disintegrated in the collisions of waves and particles. In order for the muons to be registered at all in the laboratories, a countless number of particle disintegrations needs to occur. It is an everlasting occurrence on the objects orbiting around a star from the beginning of time till these days and until a star becomes a nova. A good portion of matter is being disintegrated in the collisions of objects and galaxies. Therefore, the colossal dimensions are not related only to the creation of matter, but also to the growth of all objects within stellar systems, galaxies and the Universe. Millions of craters are only a reminder of that process being contiguous and ongoing. end quote [16]
The author of the article discusses the following two or at the most three wholes (Multiverse,...), based on the decrease of temperature and radiation intensity with the increase of distance from the source, on the constant growth of gravitationally related systems, on systems behaving as a single object in attracting matter, inside the space in which the temperature is 0°K and the processes are still or extremely slow. [17]
An object in an orbit can approach or distance itself from a central object. It depends on the influx of matter to the object. If an object in an orbit has a relatively low influx of matter from a central object, it starts falling slowly to the central object (Mars/ Phobos) and the process is opposite when the influx of matter is more significant on the object in the orbit – it starts moving away (Earth/ Moon) (similar to the relation of a pendulum and a weight). The same situation is with the systems, with a remark that a faster rotation accelerates the processes.
The law of low temperatures is manifested in star systems and galaxies; the objects have higher orbital speeds with lesser gravitational effects. The temperature, which is below the melting point of helium, 4,216°K, is responsible for it. The stars that are on the edges of galaxies, just as the objects on the edges of star systems, have higher speeds with lesser gravitational effects than their neighboring objects that are closer to the center. [18]

2.4. The formation of galaxies
Matter attraction gathers objects into systems and rotation regulates these systems. When a large number of stars rotate around the common center in a relatively small volume (i.e., in the centers of galaxies), they act as a single object and create systems similar to star systems. A galactical disk is created on the same principles as the orbits of objects around stars and asteroid belts or gas disks; rotation, the speed of rotation, the force of attraction. [19]  In a large majority of situations, central objects represent almost the whole mass of a system (Sun 99,86 %).
There are different galactical centers inside the general process of growth. Slow rotations create centers made of stars and other matter that look like the spherical groups of stars (there is a big difference in the speed of rotation) and they do not create a familiar-looking center inside the galactical center. [20]  Cyclones, that break down a large part of stars and create a completely new and the largest object in Universe, are formed by fast rotation on the poles of the galactical centers. [21] 
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars. The same applies to cold stars and those stars, which temperatures are somewhere in between.

Table 7. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  galaxies type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies
1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation
4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)

Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies.

The speed of rotation affects the form of a galaxy and more dynamic processes inside such galaxies.

Table 8. Galaxies, type/ size

  galaxies type of galaxies speed of galaxies

  Large galaxies (fast-rotating)
1 APM 08279+5255 elliptical galaxy giant elliptical galaxy [25]
2 Q0906 + 6930 blazar the most distant known blazar
3 OJ 287 BL Lacertae object the largest known objects
4 S5 0014 + 81 blazar giant elliptical galaxy
5 H1821 + 643 quasar the most massive black hole

Contrary to: Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating)
6 Messier 110 elliptical galaxy dwarf elliptical galaxy 
7 Messier 32 "early-type" dwarf "early-type" galaxy
8 NGC 147 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
9 NGC 185 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Table 8. galaxies, relationship: type of galaxies/ size of galaxies; No. 1-5 Large galaxies (fast-rotating), No. 6-9 Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating).

2.5. Changing the Structure of Galaxy, the Increase of Radiation Intensity With the Increase of the Speed of Rotation
With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy.
If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, the nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc (3,000-16,000 ly [26]  or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly (according to some other sources [27] ) from a pole to the other one. It's diameter: the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU [28]   – there is a disparity between a central point (a black hole should be there) and a pole of the central structure of a galaxy (different occurrences and the beginning of different radiation emissions are measured there). The distance from the horizons (poles) and the center is 1.500 to 15.000 ly and more, when giant galaxies with a very fast rotation are discussed.
The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are 3.000 to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars [29]). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). Their existence have been confirmed on the poles of Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate.

2.6. Cyclones, Acceleration of Galaxies, the Increase of the Intensity of Radiation, due to the increase in rotation
Cyclones are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars [10]).
The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy; related to stars, objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere and photosphere of a star [29] ). It is known that hot and fast-rotating stars are mostly found in nebulae or other matter-enriched space.  Recent appearances of the objects from the outside of our system, A / 2017 U1 [30]  (1I / 2017 U1) [31]  (inclination 122.69°) and C/2012 S1 [32]  (inclination 62,4°) confirm that such events are no rarity even in the space, which is less matter-enriched.
The size of a galaxy (as well as stars) depends on the quantity of matter in the space around it (free stars, the clusters of stars, smaller and larger galaxies with or without a central structure, nebulae, etc.). Galaxies with a faster rotation experience stronger attraction forces and also the possibility to grow faster. That fact alligns them with the galaxies that are younger than those with a slower rotation – if there are similar masses or sizes and similar quantities of matter in their space. The same goes for the stars; the stars with a faster rotation grow faster – if other factors are similar. These similarities are present in our system, too, and are related to the planets with a faster rotation.
The formation of objects and galaxies occurs in a very cold space (the temperatures of 2-3°K ), it supports superconductivity (radiation expands at the speed of ~300.000 km/s), in space, waves and radiation lose their intensity with the growing distanceThe temperatures below 4,216°K (below the boiling point of helium) make it possible for the objects in that zone to move faster – if other conditions are similar – unlike the objects which temperatures are above 4,216°K. At galaxies and stars, these things happen on the edges of these systems, where the results of measuring the speed of objects indicate faster movement than of those objects, which are closer to the center of a system (The proof is accelerating Voyagers).

3.  Dark matter in space and Light
3.1. Dark matter
I give evidence for the connection of dark matter existence by the processes that are visible and measurable inside our system. If a part of space is (almost) empty, without the presence of matter (dark matter), there should exist the following: an even spreading of Sun radiation and independence of the temperature increase  due to radiation. The temperature of space can be observed indirectly. The easiest way to gain the result is to observe the temperature on the dark side of an object (the minimal temperatures).

Table 9. Sun system, temperature deviation, temperatures/ distance

  The body in orbit around the Sun Minimum temperatures °K Distance from the Sun AU

1 Mercury 80 (100 equator) 0,39
2 Moon 100 1
3 Mars 143 1.52
4 Vesta 85 2,36
5. Ceres 168 2,77
6 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 180 3,46
7 Ganymede 70 5,20
8 Callisto 80±5 5.20
9 Triton 38 30,11
10 Pluto 33 39,48

Table 19. Sun system, temperature deviation, relationship: minimum temperatures °K/distance from the Sun AU.

These measurements of minimal temperatures show deviations from the accepted claims that the intensity of ("termal") radiation decreases with the square distance. Except Mars and Pluto, not all objects have enough quantity of atmosphere, which could cause doubt about the correct way of selecting objects in the example. If a factor of measurement imprecision is also taken into consideration, the deviations are still impossible to be removed as they show that the objects from the examples  1 – 5,20 AU have the same or higher minimal temperatures than Mercury and they are also of the lesser or similar mass. Mercury and Ceres are in a group of objects, which are explored equally well and in details; however, it is shown that the minimal temperature on Ceres is two times higher, even though it should be decreasing, according to the law of radiation intensity decrease with the increase of square distance.
If deviation is excluded and minimal temperatures are observed very roughly, it is obvious that there is a temperature decrease with the increase in distance: Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878. [33] 
At the end of our system, the temperature is estimated at less than 4 ° K.
The decrease of radiation intensity is (visually) the most notable when measuring the radiation of stars. The further the objects, the lower the intensity (with regards and correction of mass and temperature of a star). An example of deviation can also be found in the termosphere of our planet (although that example is (partially) solved in the way that a certain quantity of radiation, allocated to a lesser quantity of particles, results with easier temperature rise to higher temperatures). The examples from the table eliminate the claims that radiation dissipate with the increase of space  (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is more than 3 AU further from Mercury and its minimal temperature is by 100°K  higher).
Quote: The existence of matter can be observed here, on Earth, too. A balloon, inflated 2-3 km deep under the water surface, will explode just before the surface or on it, due to the air expansion. The similar thing happens to the balloons, which are sent outside the atmosphere – they explode at the maximum altitude of 40 (104) km above the surface of Earth, due to the equalizing the pressures. There are different kinds of matter and different outcomes, but the final outcome is the same: the pressures get equalized. The balloons are moving in the direction, which is opposite to the activity of gravitation and they exclusively abide the law of equalizing the different pressures. The balloons "know" where is the less dense matter inside a volume. end quote [34] 
The termal deviation and the decrease of temperature from a source to the edges of a system indicate that there is a similarity between some processes in space and in the atmosphere (of Earth).  Due to the interaction of radiation with particles of atmosphere and object itself, matter warms up. Space also warms up, due to the activity of the same radiation and without visible matter being present. As radiation waves distance themselves from a source, the intensity of radiation decreases, as well as temperature (both minimal and maximal) of space and visible matter (an object). A similar example can be found on Earth. Water is the warmest on its surface. The lowest temperatures are in the deepest waters, if geological warmings are excluded (hot spots). Energy, different kinds of radiation and visible matter (which does not create its own warmth by geological processes) are very cold. The temperature of visible matter, when sources of radiation are not there at all or when they are too far, tends to be absolute zero (0°K).
Space is the purest vacuum, but only if related to visible matter. According to evidence and definition, vacuum does not create friction which could reduce the intensity of radiation waves. A smaller part of particles in space, when collided by waves of radiation, turn into high-energy particles.
Quote: Different kinds of matter coexist one by the other and the transition from one into the other is more or less defined. That is impossible between matter and vacuum, because the pressures of matter and vacuum always tend to equalize and that is not what can be seen between the atmosphere and vacuum and with the gas (particle) gathering into nebulae, etc.
Right here, just outside (even inside) the atmosphere, there is the kind of matter, which is known to us, which had been defined and its influence on the visible matter calculated – it only remains to be detected. end quote [34] 
If we push water out of a bowl, which is placed under water, it starts moving towards space with a lower pressure. The same thing happens to a balloon filled with helium.

3.2. Light
Light appears on the place of collision between radiation waves and particles. If there is no radiation, or if it is minimal, matter is very cold. If there is no visible matter, space warms up  (80 to 180°K), just as visible matter. An important difference is that space does not produce light in collisions with radiation, no matter the intensity or sort of radiation.
Warmth and light are produced only by visible matter. The light of Sun disappears immediately after leaving the atmosphere of Sun or with the disappearance of visible matter. Temperature drastically falls after leaving the atmosphere, but it does not disappear immediately (80 to 100°K) – it gradually diminishes with the increase of distance through space. It does not matter, whether to name a space between a source and an object as invisible matter or just space. The important fact is that invisible space actively supports the processes that can be recognized in the visible mattter, too.
Space equals complete dark. Light appears only on objects (nebulae,  planets,  etc ). If there is no visible matter, there is no light. Stars (Sun - on the image) do not emit light, stars emit radiation. Light appearance and temperature growth occur in the collision of radiation and visible matter. There is no light immediately outside the atmosphere of Sun. [35] 

4. Conclusion
Rotation and attracting matter create systems. Gravity without the effect of rotation, does not create systems.
The force of attraction (gravity) and the rotation of objects are basic preconditions to create dual or more complex systems (spherical and other groups of stars, galaxies and groups of galaxies). If gravity was the only existing or even dominating force, there would be no universe at all. Without the main creator of all systems – the rotation of objects, which places the falling objects into their orbits – the objects would fall vertically one upon the other. Rotation should not be observed only in the frame of a rotating object, but as a whole of an object and the space, with the attraction forces in it. Not only an object rotates, but the forces within its space rotate with it, too. [36]
 The rotation acts as antigravity. Due to the rotation, the antigravitational forces are changing the course of movement of the incoming objects from straight into round or ellyptic, around the bigger rotating object. In that way, the collapse of the minor part of that mass or these objects, existing in a new way, does not occur.[37]
The rotation creates vortexes and cyclones (at the poles) in the center of galaxies and stars.  Central objects in the centres of the galaxies observe more complex laws that are not based on the physical black holes. Beginning from the stars the size of our Sun, even the low speed rotations cause polar cyclones, which will in time turn into whirlwinds of the galactic size (up to 30 000 light-years). They are able to hold together such a massive objects; the rotation of matter around a whirlwind holds the whole galaxy together. [38]
  Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered, or the blue shift between the objects in collision . There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies (speeds of movement by orbits) and the Universe (the rotation) is occurring many times slower. [39] 

Acknowledgments
Madam  Sylvie Wallimann-Crépin's Editorial Committee of EPD Sciences (2004) for the first boost at the beginning of the research.
Professor Zoran Ćoso, University of Zadar, for the translations in English and Russian.
My wife, Ranka Sedić, who funds this independent research.
_________________________________________________________________
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[31]  https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitor-dazzles-scientists Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_ISON#Orbit the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] https://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/properties-of-sunlight/solar-radiation-in-space „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/37363821/Processes_in_Universe_in_Pictures
[36] W.Duckss  Https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
[37] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/29645047/Universe-2010.doc „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.

Keywords:
Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;

2. Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology

constante

„If two objects are represented by ball bearings and space-time by the stretching of a rubber sheet, the Doppler effect is caused by the rolling of ball bearings over the rubber sheet in order to achieve a particular motion. A cosmological red shift occurs when ball bearings get stuck on the sheet, which is stretched.“ Wikipedia

OK, let's check that on our local group of galaxies (the table from my article „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

galaxies, local groups Redshift km/s Blueshift km/s

Sextans B (4.44 ± 0.23 Mly)   300 ± 0  
Sextans A 324 ± 2  
NGC 3109 403 ± 1  
Tucana Dwarf 130 ± ?  
Leo I 285 ± 2  
NGC 6822    -57 ± 2
Andromeda Galaxy   -301 ± 1
Leo II (about 690,000 ly)  79 ± 1  
Phoenix Dwarf 60 ± 30  
SagDIG   -79 ± 1
Aquarius Dwarf   -141 ± 2
Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte   -122 ± 2
Pisces Dwarf    -287 ± 0
Antlia Dwarf 362 ± 0   
Leo A 0.000067  
Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal    -354 ± 3 
IC 10   -348 ± 1
NGC 185   -202 ± 3
Canes Venatici I ~  31  
Andromeda III   -351 ± 9
Andromeda II   -188 ± 3
Triangulum Galaxy   -179 ± 3
Messier 110   -241 ± 3
NGC 147 (2.53 ± 0.11 Mly)   -193 ± 3
Small Magellanic Cloud 0.000527  
Large Magellanic Cloud - -
M32   -200 ± 6
NGC 205   -241 ± 3
IC 1613   -234 ± 1
Carina Dwarf 230 ± 60  
Sextans Dwarf 224 ± 2  
Ursa Minor Dwarf (200 ± 30 kly)   -247 ± 1
Draco Dwarf   -292 ± 21
Cassiopeia Dwarf   -307 ± 2
Ursa Major II Dwarf   - 116 
Leo IV 130  
Leo V ( 585 kly) 173  
Leo T   -60
Bootes II   -120
Pegasus Dwarf   -183 ± 0
Sculptor Dwarf 110 ± 1  
Etc.    

Something is wrong! It seems that „ ... by the (space-time) stretching of a rubber sheet ...“ not everything is getting stretched. Lots of things are getting reduced and ashamed.
Maybe I have misunderstood Hubble´s law. Indeed: „Objects observed in deep space - extragalactic space, 10 megaparsecs(Mpc) or more - are found to have a red shift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth;“.
It means that if 10 Mpc equals 32,6 millions of light-years then Hubble's law doesn't apply for galaxies and objects, the values of which are more easily determined.
Let's check that on the distances at which Hubble's law should apply:

Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

NGC 1073 80          kly 1208 ± 5
NGC 1169 114 ± 27 kly 2387 ± 5
NGC 1.600 149,3 kly 4.681

Messier 33 2.38 to 3.07 -179 ± 3  (blue shift)
Messier 32 2.49 ± 0.08 -200 ± 6 
NGC 1569 10,96 ± 0,65 -104
NGC 404 10-13 -48 ± 9

NGC 2976 11,6±1,2  3 ± 5 
NGC 4236 ~11,7 0±2
NGC 3077 12,8±0,7  14 ± 4
NGC 6946 22,5±7,8 48±2

NGC 7320c 35 5.985 ± 9 
NGC 7320 39 (12 Mpc) 786 ± 20
NGC 2541 41 ± 5 548 ± 1
NGC 4178 43 ± 8 377
NGC 4214 44 291 ± 3
M98 44.4 −0.000113 ± 0.000013

Messier 77 47.0  1137 ± 3
NGC 14 47.1 865 ± 1
Messier 88 47 ± 8  2235 ± 4 
IC 3258 48 -0,0015 (-517)

NGC 3949 50  800 ± 1 
NGC 3877 50,5 895 ± 4 
NGC 4088 51,5 ± 4,5  757 ± 1 

NGC 1427A 51,9 (+5,3, -7,7)  2028 ± 1 
NGC 1055 52 994 ± 5 
M86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5

Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
NGC 4216 55 131 ± 4 
Messier 60 55 ± 4  1117 ± 6 
NGC 4526 55±5 448 ± 8 
Messier 99 55,7 2407 ± 3 
NGC 4419 56 -0,0009 (-342)
M90 58.7 ± 2.8  −282 ± 4 

Messier 59 60 ± 5 410 ± 6
NGC 4013 60,6 ± 8,1 831 ± 1
Messier 58 62 1517 ± 1 
NGC 4414 62,3  790 ± 5
RMB 56 65,2  -327
NGC 613 67.5 1487
NGC 1427 71±8  1388 ± 3 

NGC 148 85.56 1516
NGC 473 98 2.134
NGC 3370 98 1.279
NGC 3021 ~100 1541
NGC 3244 100 2758

NGC 7007 131,13 3098
NGC 5010 140 2975 ± 27
NGC 7074 140 3476
NGC 9 142 ± 31 4528 ± 10
NGC 922 150 3063
NGC 12 183 3941 ± 4

NGC 127 188 409
NGC 106 199 6.059
NGC 6872 212 4.555 ± 30
NGC 5 212 5111 ± 41
NGC 21 234 ± 29 4770 ± 4

NGC 476 261 6337 ± 126
NGC 7047 270 5811

NGC 965 294 6794 ± 39
NGC 800 300 5.966 
NGC 1128 300 6940 ±20
NGC 90 333.8 ± 146 5353 ± 10

NGC 300 447 9.740
NGC 280 464 3.878
NGC 427 467 10.162

If the first three paragraphs from the table are not accounted for – as these galaxies are below 32,6 Mly – the remaining data still remain the same!
Hubble constant  „For most of the other half of the 20th century, the value was estimated between 50 and 90 (km / s) / Mpc. "Wikipedia (there are several constants today and all of them are about 70 km/s).
There is again something wrong with the law and a constant!  M90 is 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly away and, can you imagine the „miracle“: it has a blue shift of  −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
According to „nobody-knows-whose-constant“, the galaxies that are 32,6 Mly away should possess the speed of some 700 km/s and on the double distance of 65,2 Mly they should have the speed of increasing distance of some 1.400 km/s, etc.

It is interesting that
NGC 1.600 is 149,3 Kly away and its speed is 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c is 35 Mly away and with the speed of (a red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  2.975 ± 27, and the galaxy
NGC 280 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  3.878!

The guys and girls that measure these values must have missed something or Hubble´s law and the constant don't apply (any value of the constant).

At the distance of 52 ± 3 (M86) there is a blue shift (-244 ± 5 km/s)  that is also present with the galaxy M90 at the distance of 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), while the other galaxies at the same distance (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99 (except NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) are with a positive sign and completely different speeds.
I wonder where „the Doppler effect (caused by the rolling of ball bearings over the rubber sheet in order to achieve a particular motion)“ gets stretched and spread over?
It is impossible to find a galaxy that is under the rule of Hubble's law or some constants (any of them) either.
An average reader's common sense is sufficient to understand that the galaxies in this table also reduce and increase their speeds like in our local group of galaxies.
This may be a characteristic because all the observed galaxies are not in the same direction?
Let's check Virgo Cluster (as there are data for it)

Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

Messier 98 44.4 −142 ± 4
Messier 88 47 ± 8  2235 ± 4
NGC 4536 48.7 ± 0.9  1808 ± 1
NGC 4527 48.9  1736 ± 1
NGC 4450 ~50 1954 ± 4
NGC 4262 50,0 1359 ± 4
NGC 4550 50.0 381 ± 9
Messier 89 50 ± 3  290 ± 5
NGC 4435 52 0.002638(z)
NGC 4438 52 0.002638(z)
Messier 86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
Messier 87 53.5 ± 1.63 1307 ± 7
Messier 100 55 1571 ± 1
Messier 60 55 ± 4 1117 ± 6
NGC 4654 55.0 1046 ± 5
NGC 4526 55±5 448±8
NGC 4216 55 131 ± 4
Messier 99 55.7  2407 ± 3
Messier 49 55.9 ± 2.3 997 ± 7
NGC 4571 58 ± 11 342 ± 3 
Messier 90 58.7 ± 2.8 −282 ± 4
NGC 4567 59.4 +2.255
NGC 4568 59.4 +2.255
Messier 84 60 ± 3 1060 ± 6
Messier 85 60 ± 4  729 ± 2
Messier 59 60 ± 5  410 ± 6 
Messier 58 62 1517 ± 1
Messier 91 63 ± 16  486 ± 4
NGC 4388 65.10 ± 18.43 2.524
NGC 4651 72.0 788 ± 2

Again, there is nothing in accordance with the constant and Hubble's law! This cluster rotates, too.

„The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)[2] away in the constellation Virgo.“ Wikipedia

Quote from:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.750.3348&rep=rep1&type=pdf
„compiled a list of 65 galaxies in Virgo with VLG < 0 (blue shift).
Designation VLG…(blue shift)

NGC4419 −383
VCC997 −360
KDG132 −100
NGC4438 −43
DSS −0
VCC1129 −105
VCC1163 −564
VCC1175 −118
VCC1198 −470
IC3416 −198
VCC1239 −672
VCC1264 −539
IC3435 −150
VCC1314 −37
IC3445 −470
IC3471 −235
IC3476 −280
IC3492 −604
IC3548 −37
VCC1682 −66
NGC4569 −345
UGC7795 −78
VCC1750 −258
VCC1761 −269
KDG172 −42
VCC1812 −351
VCC1860 −124
IC3658 −69
UGC7857 −7
VCC1909 −16
IC0810 −188
VCC2028 −52
Designation VLG…(blue shift)

IC3036 −126
IC3044 −298
VCC087 −267
NGC4192 −246
NGC4212 −199
VCC181 −267
VCC200 −98
A224385 −204
IC3094 −275
VCC237 −423
IC3105 −284
VCC322 −323
VCC334 −350
VCC501 −224
IC3224 −100
VCC628 −540
VCC636 −113
IC3258 −593
IC3303 −427
VCC788 −3
VCC802 −318
IC3311 −287
VCC810 −470
VCC815 −866
VCC846 −845
NGC4396 −215
VCC877 −212
NGC4406 −374
VCC892 −784
NGC4413 −16
VCC928 −395
IC3355 −126
VCC953 −563

„ end of quotations.

However, if we analyze it roughly, a red shift increases. Why?

„Alternative hypotheses and explanations for the red change, for example, tired light, are generally not seen as acceptable.“

The reducing of light intensity with the distance traveled:
"The interaction of space and radiation directly influences the temperature of an object. On the following objects' surfaces it is as follows: 440°K on Mercury; 288°K on Earth; 152...16 on Jupiter. The space around the objects has the same decreasing curve starting from the Sun towards the end of the system. The same goes for the dark side of the objects. The lowest temperature on Mercury is 100°K, on Uranus 49°K, on Pluto 28°K, in the Oort cloud 4°K. During observation, a compensation for the atmospheric influence and the interior temperature of an object needs to be taken into consideration, as these are the factors of interference when comparative data are being acquired. However, even without doing that, it is completely obvious that a curve of the radiation decreasing effect is in accordance with the distance from the source of radiation."  article

Sunrise and Sunset in Zadar Croatia; W. Duckss          red-moon
article                                                                                              credit

In the image of sunrise and sunset one can see the red spectrum is related to weak intensity waves coming from Sun and not exclusively to the Doppler effect. Weak wave intensity is also seen in the image of the red moon.

One group of scientists loudly shouts as they conduct the measuring:

ULAS J1120+0641 
(at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7.
UDFy-38135539
The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years).
EGS-zs8-1 
The galaxy has a comoving distance (light travel distance multiplied by the Hubble constant, caused by the metric expansion of space) of about 30 billion light years from Earth.
Z8 GND 5296 
Due to the expansion of the universe, this position is now at about 30 billion light-years (9.2 Gpc) (comoving distance) from Earth. 
Q0906 + 6930 
But since this galaxy is receding from Earth at an estimated rate of 285,803 km/s[1] (the speed of light is 299,792 km/s), the present (co-moving) distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc).  
Etc. …“ article

That group of scientists can't be „stretched“ like „rubber sheet“, but their results, which represent fairy tales that preserve their divine intervention and Big bang, should be „stretched“ (scrutinized)!
„Clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the universe and were believed to be the largest known structures in the universe until the 1980s, when superclusters were discovered.“

Clusters not only rotate, but they also merge into greater structures and create superclusters, the next whole that also rotates ... “Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters, including both ‘major’ and ‘minor’ mergers”.
The authors of Big bang and the constants of spreading the Universe did not know that.

Space objekt Clusters, superclusters, galaxy Distance Mly Red shift

Abell 3526 170,9 0,01140
Abell 3627 221,1 0,01570

The Laniakea Supercluster 250 0,0708
Abell 400 326 0,0244
Abell 1656 336 0,0231

Horologium_Supercluster the nearest part 700 0,063
Abell 754 760 0,0542
Abell 133 763 0,0566

Corona Borealis Supercluster nearest part 946 0,07
Abell 2142 1.234,0 0,0909
Caelum Supercluster the nearest part 1.400 0,126

Saraswati Supercluster 4.000 0,28
CID-42  Quasar 3.900 0,359

Lynx Supercluster 12.900 1,26 & 1,27
Twin Quasar galaxy  8.700 1,413
Einstein Cross 8.000 1,695

EQ J100054+023435 galaxy 12.200 (12,2 Gly) 4,547
z8 GND 5296 galaxy 13.100 7,51
GN-z11 galaxy ~13.400 11,09; +0,08; −0,12

etc. etc …

Can a reader find any sense in their official data and how can they be trusted?

galaxies

Redsfift (z)

Distance billion ly

Km/s  to Earth

M33 -0,000607 2,38-3,07 (Mly) -179± 3
M64 0,001361 24± 7 (Mly) 408±4
CID-42  Quasar 0,359 3,9 89.302
MS 1054-03

0,8321

6,757

246.759

Q2343-BX442

2,1765

10,7

EQ J100054+023435

4.547

12,2

280.919

TN J0924-2201 5,19 12,523  
Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
SSA22−HCM1

5,74

12,7

 

HCM-6A 6,56 12,8  
IOK-1 6,96

12,88

 

ULAS J1120+0641 7,085 12,85  
GN-108036 7,2 12,3  
Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
EGS-zs8-1

7,7 13,04  
UDFy-38135539

8,55 13,1  
Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13,2  
MACS0647-JD 10,7 13,3  
GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917
UDFj-39546284 11,9 13,2  

Table from: „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?

Generally,  „Empty space does not interact with radiation, it is void.
The radiation of Sun changes through space – its intensity (force) is weakening as the distance from the source is increasing.“   article

The more a space object is distanced (it does not move away, but it rotates in an orbit), the weaker is the wave intensity emitted by the same, analyzed object. The Doppler effect's influence should be strictly separated from the wave intensity weakening and a completely new set of real speed values inside the Universe should be brought about. The speeds in the Universe should be measured only within large wholes like clusters, superclusters, etc., with a modified pattern of the speed increase inside the globular clusters.
10.03.2018.y.

 

3. What is happening to oxygen and hydrogen?

All gaseous planets of our system (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) lack oxygen – except in traces -  in their impressive atmospheres.
Oxygen has a melting point at -218,79°C and a boiling point at -182,962°C.

I.  The lack of O2
Composition of Jupiter's atmosphere by volume:
89% ± 2.0% hydrogen (H2)
10% ± 2.0% helium (He)

0.3% ± 0.1% methane (CH4)
0.026% ± 0.004% Ammonia (NH3)
0.0028% ± 0.001% hydrogen deuterium (HD)
0.0006% ± 0.0002% ethane (C2H6)
0.0004% ± 0.0004% water (H2O)
Atmospheric temperature of Jupiter at 1 bar is -108 ° C, at 0.1 bar -161 ° C.

"While in conventional observations, sulfur on Jupiter is not detected, the presence of a large number of sulfur-containing compounds, for example, carbon disulphide, allotrope S2 and others, has been established in the products of the explosion. In addition, in numerous spectra of spots on Jupiter there were also identified emission of sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, silicon atoms; glow of ammonia molecules, carbon monoxide, water, H2S, CS, CS2, S, methane CH4, C2H2, C2H6. Many of these compounds have been observed in comets before. The scientific data on the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy-9 with Jupiter will remain a unique material for a long time, perhaps even for millennia. "
http://galspace.spb.ru/index452-2.html

Saturn has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
96.3 ± 2.4% hydrogen (H2)
3.25 ± 2.4% helium (He)
0.45 ± 0.2% methane (CH4)

0.0125 ± 0.0075% ammonia (NH3)
0.0110 ± 0.0058% hydrogen deuterium (HD)
0.0007 ± 0.00015% ethane (C2H6)
Ices:
ammonia (NH3)
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
The saturated atmosphere temperature is -139 ° C (1 bar), -189 ° C (0.1 bar).

Uranus has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
83 ± 3% hydrogen (H2)
15 ± 3% helium (He)
2.3% methane (CH4)

0.009% (0.007-0.015%) hydrogen deuterium (HD)
Ices:
ammonia (NH3)
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
methane hydrate
Uranium atmospheric temperature is -197.2 ° C (1 bar), -220 ° C.

Neptune's atmosphere composition by volume is:
80% ± 3.2% of hydrogen (H2)
19% ± 3.2% helium (He)
1.5% ± 0.5% methane (CH4)

~ 0.019% hydrogen deuterium (HD)
-0.00015% Ethane (C2H6)
Ices:
ammonia (NH3)
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
methane led (?) (CH? 5.75 H 2 O)
The Neptune atmosphere temperature by volume is -201 ° C (1

Titan moon has a chemical composition of atmospheres by volume:
Stratosphere:
98.4% nitrogen (N2),
1.4% methane (CH4),
0.2% hydrogen (H2);
Lower Tropospheres:
95.0% N2,
4.9% CH4;

(97% N2,
2.7 ± 0.1% CH4,
0.1-0.2% H2)
The temperature on Titan (Saturn Moon) is -179.5 ° C.

Science claims there are oceans of water on the moon of Europa. The chemical composition of water is H2O. The existence of water implies the existence of O2. Europa has no atmosphere (0.1 µPa (10−12 bar)).
Surface temperatures on Europa range from  -223°C to -125°C (Ø -171,15°C). The average temperature of -171,15°C is above the boiling point of oxygen, which is -182,962°C. Therefore: if there was O2 on the moon of Europa, it would be in its atmosphere, notwithstanding the process of removing O2 from the atmosphere, due to low temperatures (~-223°C) (the melting point of O2 is -218,79°C and its boiling point is -182,962°C). It goes without saying that all of the free H2 would remain in the atmosphere because there is no process of removing H2 (the melting point of H2 is -259,16°C and its boiling point is -252,879°C).
Jupiter has 89% ± 2.0% of hydrogen (H2 ) in its atmosphere, with the pressure of  0,1 bar and the temperature of -161°C.

II.  The lack of H2
„The minimal temperature on Mars is -143°C, while the average and maximal one are -63°C and +35°C respectively. The chemical composition of its atmosphere is:
carbon-dioxide 95,97%;
argon 1,93%;
nitrogen 1,89%;
oxygen 0,146%;
carbon-monoxide 0,0557%,
which in total makes 99,9917% of the elements and compounds, present in its atmosphere.
(The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4; Fe3O4 .“4

Venus has a chemical composition of atmospheres by volume:
96.5% Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
3.5% nitrogen (N2)

0.015% sulfur dioxide
0.007% argon
0.002% water vapor
0.0017% carbon monoxide
0.0012% helium
0.0007% neon
trace carbonyl sulfide
a trace of hydrogen chloride
hydrogen fluoride trace
Venus temperature is 462 ° C.

The earth has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
78.08% nitrogen (N2 dry air)
20.95% Oxygen (O2)
0.930% argon
0.0402% carbon dioxide
~ 1% water vapor (air-variable)
Surface temperature on Earth is -89.2 to 56.9 ° C.

comet1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet

In its beginning, every (historic) object is a comet. When an object has made enough number of orbits near a star, it has lost the most of its volatile elements. The objects with a minimum of volatile elements are called asteroids or solid (rocky) objects. Those objects that have not been approaching closer to a star possess the elements' structure of the lower order, which is typical for a cold or colder space. These elements are directly related to the temperature  (operating temperature) which exists in the space around and on such objects. Therefore, there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces. These objects, which possess a melted interior (Jupiter, Neptune, Earth, Venus), create their broad chemical structure and their heat on their own. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The photo above shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3, etc.)).

The appearance of  O2 requires relatively higher temperatures (closer to 0°C and higher) and more significant geological activities. Such an example is present on Io, one of the moons of Jupiter.

Io is a small object exposed to strong tidal forces of Jupiter and Europa; it possesses a very thin atmosphere which  „ranges from 3.3 × 10−5 to 3 × 10−4 pascals (Pa) or 0.3 to 3 nbar”. With 90% of SO2 in the atmosphere there are also free O2 (and SO, NaCl). As time goes by, O2 is going to increase its share because the average temperatures on Io are 20° higher than its boiling point. SO2 has a melting point at -72°C and the boiling point at -10°C, so the low temperatures (ranging from -180°C to – 140°C) remove it quickly from the atmosphere.

This model needs to be applied to the exoplanets, with a footnote that:
„The objects keep growing all the time (they get bigger). When an object reaches a certain level of mass (<10% of the Solar mass), it grows into a star (“the objects to shine. They start shining when they reach a sufficient mass if they are in a distant orbit or are independent, or when they reach a sufficient mass and the effects of the gravitational forces if they are closer to the central object (the most often, to a star). Earlier, people were taught that for an object to become a star, it would be sufficient to reach 10% of Sun's mass. Now, the ever-improving technology is providing more and more new evidence to change that mass level. That mass level has become even more blurred through the discovery of exoplanets and more detailed observation of brown dwarfs, because the mass level was unable to provide the needed answers”) 6. In the previous period, such an object still has a crust and develops life (with the obligatory condition of rotation), since for the long period of time, very intensive geological processes take place on such an object, which is not dependent on zones; it could be placed on the distance of Jupiter and Neptune. The evidence to support the claim can be found in the observations of brown dwarfs. According to the new criteria, Earth and Venus are also able to be considered as such objects.” 5  


21.02.2018.y.

 

4. How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?

The goal of this article is to prove the formation of galaxies via rotation of objects around their axis, with the strict abiding of the law of universal gravitation.
Rotation of objects (smaller objects, stars, galaxies,...) is analysed through the effects of rotation 1 in the formation of objects and in processes that follow, due to: the rotation around the axis; the effects on the other orbiting objects or on binary objects; the effect of rotation on the displacement of an incoming object into the orbit; the influence of the speed of rotation on the quantity and mass of particles and objects orbiting around a main object 2; its influence on the radius, temperature, and accordingly on the color and surface gravity of a star 3 4

The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems. The rotation of a central object makes it possible for a small quantity of objects5 and other matter to overpower the forces of attraction of the central object and to keep existing in their orbits around it (the objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites).

The hierarchy within the universe, relating the objects within it, is as follows:

  • the primary role has its own rotation (the rotation of the universe);
  • the next is the mass of the objects within it;
  • the rotation of the objects;
  • temperature is a very important factor, directly related to the mass and rotation speed of the objects;
  • the last, but not the least, is age.

Not before we consider all these factors can we understand the relations within the universe and towards the universe itself, as a whole, in a logical, meaningful and simple manner.“

kako-nastaju-galaksije   

It is a very widespread occurrence that a central object consists of almost all of the system matter (to 99% of the total system matter). The constant activity of rotation and gravity leads to the creation6 of binary systems, but also to the melting of smaller and larger objects that are on the same orbit. Melting occurs when two or more objects share the same trajectory, direction (orbit) and have the same speeds in the orbit, where the forces of attraction cannot significantly influence it.     

„Opposite to the process of rotation there is the approaching of an object to the poles of a central object, where there are no orbits created, but only collisions of the incoming objects with the central object. These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits (new evidence, confirmation 11, 12), nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is.“ 6

The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems. Since rotation and the force of attraction are constant processes, binary systems grow into clusters (there are ~150 of the globular stellar clusters).

With the increase in a cluster's mass, some of these binary systems overcome the balance of stable orbit around the central object and their orbits start to distance themselves (the process of Earth / Moon).  By distancing themselves from the center of galaxy and the entrance of a stellar cluster into the outer edge of the galaxy, the rotation increases its speed due to very low temperatures (below 4,216°K 7) and the objects turn into a disc-shape form. They (now already dwarf galaxies) become long-lasting companions of the galaxy, as their fast growth is ended once they are out.

There are also „two ways of creating galaxies with their recognizable rotating center. The first is that a star with a higher speed of rotation survives all the challenges of the dynamic universe and sufficiently increases its mass so that the number of objects in its orbit can be considered a further growing galaxy.

The other is to create a cyclone out of gas or invisible matter inside the irregular galaxy and with the assistance of rotation. That cyclone turns the irregular galaxy into a regular one.

The similarity of these ways is obvious, because even the fast-rotating stars, just as all the rest, have a cyclone in the center, from one pole to the other. A switch of poles occurs when there are slower cyclones on the stars; the cyclones then fail to reach one another. Due to that, matter on the poles rotates faster than the one in the center, in the equatorial area. Faster rotation balances an object and alternating switches of poles are then unexpected.“ 8

This implies the existence of no less than two types of galaxy centers, which structurally differ from each other. The first type is created by the growth of stellar clusters and the start of cyclones in the center of an irregular galaxy, while the other is gaseous-liquid and is formed by the stellar growth.  With the increase  of the rotation speed and the formation of cyclones in the center, the first type galactic centers overgrow into a gaseous-liquid form (this implies the existence of transitional phases). (Addition 1)

The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes.

A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars (Addition 1) and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.

„The stars with a very fast rotation around their axes have an increased emission of radiation at their poles, which sometimes can vary, due to the increased influx of matter into cyclone or a faster whirl 1116.  
The layers and matter inside a star create friction, due to the different speeds of layers’ rotation. „
8a (Table no7)

A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A cluster of a very large number of stars around the same center creates a common gravity, where the stars act as a single body (it stands for the mass of the center, to 99 % of the total galactic mass), around which a famous disc of stellar systems, gas, etc., is created.

A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.  

The speed of rotation of a galaxy center, together with mass and quantity of stars and other matter in space, determines the form and the size of a galaxy (Jupiter... / Mars,... on planets, their environment temperature also has the influence to it). The center of a regular galaxy without a recognizable center rotates faster on the surface (equator) than on its center (just as in a part of globular stellar clusters). With the high speeds of rotation in the center that stretches from one pole to the other, the speed decreases in the direction of the surface  of the galaxy center, all the way to the edge of galaxy, when, due to the low temperatures (below 4,216°K), there is an increase of speed of the border objects (like in the Oort cloud9). The decreasing speeds of the orbiting objects into the depth, like in our system, also contribute to the form of a galaxy, and these are the conditions in which the allignment of planets (the stars in a galaxy) can take place, etc. (November 2017.)

The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars. The same applies to cold stars and those stars, which temperatures are somewhere in between.

The speed of rotation affects the form of a galaxy and more dynamic processes inside such galaxies. With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy.

If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years ("The nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc (3,000–16,000 ly)" or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly (according to some other sources) from a pole to the other one. It's diameter: "the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU" – there is a disparity between a central point (a black hole should be there) and a pole of the central structure of a galaxy (different occurrences and the beginning of different radiation emissions are measured there). The distance from the horizons (poles) and the center is 1.500 to 15.000 ly and more, when giant galaxies with a very fast rotation are discussed.

The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are 3.000 to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). Their existence have been confirmed on the poles of Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate. 

Cyclones are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars).
The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy; related to stars, objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere and photosphere of a star). It is known that hot and fast-rotating stars are mostly found in nebulae or other matter-enriched space.  Recent appearances of the objects from the outside of our system, A / 2017 U1 (1I / 2017 U1) (inclination 122.69°) and C/2012 S1 (inclination 62,4°) confirm that such events are no rarity even in the space, which is less matter-enriched.

The size of a galaxy (as well as stars) depends on the quantity of matter in the space around it (free stars, the clusters of stars, smaller and larger galaxies with or without a central structure, nebulae, etc.). Galaxies with a faster rotation experience stronger attraction forces and also the possibility to grow faster. That fact alligns them with the galaxies that are younger than those with a slower rotation – if there are similar masses or sizes and similar quantities of matter in their space. The same goes for the stars; the stars with a faster rotation grow faster – if other factors are similar. These similarities are present in our system, too, and are related to the planets with a faster rotation.

The formation of objects and galaxies occurs in a very cold space (the temperatures of 2-3°K ), it supports superconductivity (radiation expands at the speed of ~300.000 km/s), in space, waves and radiation lose their intensity with the growing distance. The temperatures below 4,216°K (below the boiling point of helium) make it possible for the objects in that zone to move faster – if other conditions are similar – unlike the objects which temperatures are above 4,216°K. At galaxies and stars, these things happen on the edges of these systems, where the results of measuring the speed of objects indicate faster movement than of those objects, which are closer to the center of a system.

Conclusion: galaxies are created by the ongoing attraction of stars (objects) and the rotation, which is a creator of all systems in Universe. All processes are in accordance with the laws of physics, without hypothetical assumptions for the emptinesses to exist and to be filled (hypothetical objects of the extreme density) and the use of dark matter (dark matter is a means in which all processes take place, but it does not significantly influence them).10

 08.23.2018.y.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Addition 1

Rotation
quotes

  • RX J1131-1231 quasar; distance 6.05 Gly,
  • By measuring the radius of the disk, the astronomers were able to calculate the black hole's rotational speed, which was almost half the speed of light.
  •  Spindle galaxy A prolate rotator galaxy is an elliptical galaxy in prolate rotation.[2][3] That is they possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis
  • NGC 6109   Galaxy, Lenticular Galaxy nach verschiedenen Messungen zwischen 128,6 und 128,8 Millionen Parsec von der Erde entfernt.
  • Radio polarimetry shows a complex magnetic field structure across the doughnut, directed predominantly radial to the jet axis.
    Along the main jet, the rotation measure is constant, at 32 ± 2 rad m−2 for 500. Beyond this region the RM is unavailable due to low signal to noise, until the bright knot at 1200 from the core. Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2

Contrary to

  • Andromeda Galaxy  is a spiral galaxy; 2.5 million light-years from Earth
  • The rotational velocity has a maximum value of 225 kilometres per second 
  • UGC 12591 (400 million light yearsaway from the Earth)
  • it is the spiral galaxy with the highest known rotational speed[3] of about 500 km/s, almost twice that of our galaxy, the Milky Way. ( citirati NASA)
  • Milky Way  spiral galaxy  Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately 220 kilometers per second. The constant rotation speed

Size of galaxys

Contrary to

Table (No 7) from my Article: „Reassessment of the old but still employed theories of Universe through database checking

Star Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1 Temperature K Rotation speed km/s

Stars with slow rotation
Arcturus
 
1,08
 
25,4
 
4.286
 
>2,4 
R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
Betelgeuse

Fast-rotating stars

11,6 887 ±203  3.590 5

 

WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200
R136a1 315 28,8-35,4 53.000±3.000 -

 

5. Why Atmospheres of Stars Lack Metals?

There is an ongoing discussion on this topic on www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum  

Inside this process there is a process of growth and disintegration of elements, which is related to temperature and rotation. The atoms of the lower order are generally present on smaller objects: asteroids, comets and the majority of satellites and smaller planets. When an object’s mass is sufficiently increased, given other forces, too, it becomes geologically active. Its temperature grows inside and outside its crust, due to the formation of heated core. The atoms of the higher order are created under these conditions. The more active and warm a planet is, the higher is the presence of the higher order elements. However, at certain point temperature begins to destroy (disintegrate) higher elements.
As temperature gets higher, a variety of elements gets poore

The topic of this article is evaporation of atoms and compounds inside hot objects.
Strictly speaking, when temperature rises above the point when an atom shifts into the gaseous state, the atom goes into the atmosphere. Atmosphere is the best indicator of a hot object's composition. It is not the case on Earth.   

At the bottom of sea or ocean, there are hot spots, where water gets heated far above the boiling point, but water does not evaporate. Heated water gets cooled down fast, as it moves towards the surface. 3  Aerated water, mostly created on the surface layer by heat waves from Sun,  goes into the atmosphere.
On the moon of Io, SO2 from cold volcanoes does not create an atmosphere due to the low temperatures on the surface (minimal surface temperature 90°K, average one is 110°K and maximal one is 130°K) and above the moon's surface. The low temperatures immediately crystallize SO2 (its boiling point is 263°K, melting point is 201°K) and thus make it return to the moon's surface.4 
There are elements and compounds inside lava and magma that are incompatible with a liquid state, because their boiling points, as well as the melting points, are higher than the temperatures of lava (SiO2, MgO, Al2O3, TiO2 etc.).

  Melting point °C   Boiling point °C % crust of the Earth
% mantle of the Earth
Zemlje
  Melting point °C  Boiling point °C % crust of the Earth % mantle of the Earth
SiO2    1.713    2.950 60,2 46 Si 1.410 2.355 27,7 21,5
Al2O3    2.072    2.977 15,2 4,2 Al 660,35 2.467 8,1 2,2
CaO    2.613    2.850 5,5 3,2 Ca 839 1484 3,6 2,3
MgO    2.825    3.600 3,1 37,8 Mg 648,85 1.090 1,5 22,8
FeO    1.377    3.414 3,8 7,5 Fe 1.535 2750 5,0 5,8
Na2O    1.132    1.950 3 0,4 Na 97,81 882,95 2,8 0,3
K2O      740       - 2.8 0,04 K 63,65 774 2,6 0,03
Fe2O3  1.539 -  1.565 Not Available 2.5   Fe 1.535 2750    
H2O    0   100 1,4  (1,1)   H -259,14 -252,87    
CO2    -56 Sublimation -78,5 1,2   O -218,35 -182,96 46,6 44,8
TiO2    1.843    2.972 0,7   Ti 1.660 3.287    
P2O5 sublimes    360 0,2   P 44,15 280 P4    
Sunce  He 24,85 % , H 73,46% , O 0,77% , C 0,29% , other 0,53%   He -272,20 -268,934    

Why there are elements and compounds in the melted matter that have boiling and melting points above the temperatures  of lava and magma (why there are compounds in lava that have melting points far below the temperature of lava)?
The temperature of lava is from 500°C to 1 600°C („Magmas of komatiitic compositions have a very high melting point, with calculated eruption temperatures in excess of 1600 °C.” 5). The temperature of mantle is 500 – 900°C, and of the core 4 000°C (the average thickness of mantle is 2 886 km).    
If that matter is coming out of core,  2 886 km is by many times enough for it to gets cooled down, especially if a time frame is taken into account (most of the volcanoes are inactive for centuries). High temperatures in the core dissolve the elements with high quantity of protons into the elements with lower quantity of protons (from the table: Fe has 26, Ti 22, K 19, the most commonly found Si has 14 protons (oxygen has 8 protons)).
Complex atoms are created inside the crust of Earth due to the action of different temperatures (between mantle and crust) and pressure. Furthermore, oxides are created by the constant influx of oxygen and carbohydrates by the influx of hydrogen (CH4, CxHx). The compound of oxygen and hydrogen is water, etc.

Lava is mostly created by compounds that are in the solid state on the temperatures of lava  
"( Al Si 8 - Na Al Si 8 - Ca Al Si 8 (Feldspars), respectively MgO Melting point 2,825 °C, boiling point 3,600 °C,  Al2O3  2,072 °C/2,977 °C; SiO2 1,713 °C/2,950 °C; TiO2 1,843 °C/ 2,972 °C, CaO 2.613 °C/2886 °C, FeO 1.377 °C/3.414 °C, Na2O 1132 °C/1.950 °C  etc., which is best demonstrated in the presence ratio of the two compound groups:
Anorthosite je Ca Al Si 8 . 90-100 /Na Al Si 8  0-10 via bytovnit 79-90 /30-10 labradorite 50-70 / 50-30, Oligoclase 10-30 / 90-70, albit 0-10 /100-90, or
Basalt generally has a composition of 45–55 wt% SiO2, 2–6 wt% total alkalis, 0.5–2.0 wt% TiO2, 5–14 wt% FeO and 14 wt% or more Al2O3. Contents of CaO are commonly near 10 wt%, those of MgO commonly in the range 5 to 12 wt%,
Granite: SiO2 72,04% (silika gel), Al2O3 14,42% (glinica), K2O 4,12%, Na2O 3,69%, CaO 1,82%, FeO 1,68%, Fe2O3 1,22%, MgO 0,71%, TiO2  0,30%, P2O5 0,12%, MnO 0,05%  etc.).

The explanation that granite turns liquid at low temperatures with the pressure of a few atmospheres does not explain why it is in a liquid state in lava at the pressure of one atmosphere.

Volatile elements and compounds (the boiling points of which are below the temperature of lava) evaporate from lava, but, because of low temperatures that are lower (for example, lava is 1 200°C, air is 15°C, melting point of magnesium is 648,85°C and boiling point is 1 090°C; instead of evaporating into atmosphere, magnesium particles get cooled down by low temperatures and they stay on the lava surface (which affects the level of lava viscosity: lower temperatures have smaller quantity of elements and compounds that change their state from liquid into gaseous and vice versa; with the increase of temperature, that quantity increases and viscosity decreases)) and the process goes on until a particle of magnesium becomes a compound of MgO, with the melting point of  2 825°C and boiling point of  3 600°C (or it only stays as Mg, in the process of hardening and cooling down the lava).

Let us have a look at this from the viewpoint of subduction and spreading away of the tectonic plates. If there is a process of creating melted matter by friction in the subduction of plates (convergent boundaries) and the results are volcanoes – then why in the process of spreading away of plates (divergent boundaries) there is melted matter? Two opposite processes create the same outcomes and provide a simple answer: there is melted matter (magma) under ther crust.
I am hereby stopping any further discussion of providing evidence for the process of creating and existing of the oxide compounds, etc., although they (evidence) are almost obvious by themselves, when the comparison of Sun's and Earth's compositions is done.


Sun photospheric composition (by mass)

Melting point °C

Boiling point °C
Hydrogen 73.46% -259,14 -252,87
Helium 24.85% -272,20 -268,934
Oxygen 0.77% -218,35 -182,96
Carbon 0.29% 3.547,00 4.827,00
Iron 0.16% 1.535,00 2.750,00
Neon 0.12% -248,67 -246,05
Nitrogen 0.09% -209,86 -195,75
Silicon 0.07% 1.410,00 2.355,00
Magnesium 0.05% 648,85 1.090,00
Sulfur 0.04% 112,85 444,674

Average density of Sun 1,408 g/cm3
Temperature photosphere : 5.772 K

Today, the relation of pressure with density and temperature does not exist, but to the opposite, that the increase of pressure gets matter diluted and density decreases.
The accepted theories (for Sun) suggest that pressure for a matter layer, which is 552.000 km thick, and with the gravity of the object, which mass is ~2 x1030 kg, results in the density of 0,2 g/cm2 (radiative zone), and, as the opposite to this, there is the pressure inside the core of Earth, which is  5.100-6.378 km deep under the surface, and with the gravity of the object, which mass is ~6 x 1024 kg, results in the density of 12,8-13,1 g/cm2. This (the relation of accepted theories) does not sound convincing and it is not justified by science.

Accepting that: 
Growth doesn’t stop with atoms; on the contrary, joining goes on. Through joining, chemical reactions and combined, gas, dust, sand, the rocks named asteroids and comets, etc., are all created. Even further, planets are created the same way. Then, when planets grow to the 10% of Sun’s mass, they become stars, which can be really gigantic (super-giants).
Millions of craters scattered around the objects of our Solar system are the evidence of objects’ growth. Constant impacts of asteroids into our atmosphere and soil are the evidence of these processes being uninterrupted today, just the same as it used to be in any earlier period of the past. It is estimated that 4 000 – 100 000 tons of extraterrestrial material falls yearly to Earth


the processes on and in the stars are similar to the processes on melted planets and other minor objects. Interiority of a star is a mix of matter, which is chemically less diverse (both in quantity and diversity) than lava (magma). 
Due to the long-term exposure of more complex atoms and compounds to the temperatures above their boiling points, they get dissolved into atoms of hydrogen, helium, oxygen (~73/24/1/).      
M type of stars (fraction of all main-sequence stars 76.45%), due to temperatures of 2 400–3 700°K can have on their surfaces, the majority of oxides, existing in lava nad magma on Earth, are in a liquid state. The expected diversity of chemical compounds will be lower, but the readings of compound presence will be lower, because the layer above a star is colder than the boiling points of atoms and compounds; here they get crystallized and fall on the surface.
Inside stars (melted objects), hot matter constantly tends to move towards the surface, but it gets slowed down by high pressure and rotation in layers, so it gets cooled down.
The hottest place on a star is its center. Matter that is melted above the boiling point moves towards the colder surface and even colder atmosphere. Because of the high temperatures, the photosphere and atmosphere (4 100°K on Sun) should be full of heavy metals, but they are not.
A problem here is that surfaces of a part of stars (F, A, B, O, WR, white dwarfs (Sun 5.500°C, Sirius 9.940°K, WR 2 141.000 , etc.)) are also above the boiling points of atoms; here, the process occurs on the edge of a cold surrounding outside the visible matter. If the cores of stars (Sun...) were created of heavy metals (iron,...), they would have been proportionally represented on the surface and atmosphere of a particular star.   
The claims that there is a radioactive disintegration need to be dismissed as incredible; more than half a million of people live only around Vesuvius in Italy and they are not irradiated. Lava can be hot, but never radioactive (low radiation that exist in the lava is considered that they are not harmful to people and life).
Radioactive elements and compounds are present in the crust of Earth. Lava can go through that matter and demonstrate radioactivity, but that does not provide evidence of magma being radioactive. Plates and volcanoes move.
The conduct of matter in blast furnaces for melting iron is known; therefore, it is also known that hot mass is dislocating, which means that radioactive elements should be equally present in lava now and 4,5 billion of years earlier – but, they are not "(Ultramafic (picritic): SiO2 <45%, Fe-Mg> 8% and up to 32% MgO, temperature up to 1500°C))".
The mass which creates pressure and the effects of the gravitational forces of Sun are responsible for the melted core. That is the reason why Venus is more warm than Earth and has more active volcanoes, although it is smaller than Earth.
Therefore, there are convincing and verifiable evidence for the objects to shine. They start shining when they reach a sufficient mass if they are in a distant orbit or are independent, or when they reach a sufficient mass and the effects of the gravitational forces if they are closer to the central object (the most often, to a star). Earlier, people were taught that for an object to become a star, it would be sufficient to reach 10% of Sun's mass. Now, the ever-improving technology is providing more and more new evidence to change that mass level.
6

 

6. The influence of rotation of stars on their radius, temperature...

 

The goal of this article is to prove a universal principle  of causal correlation between the rotation of a star with its temperature and radius. Instead of tables, links leading to them or towards an encyclopedia or other published articles are given here.  

„A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. A three-dimensional object always rotates around an imaginary line called a rotation axis. If the axis passes through the body's center of mass, the body is said to rotate upon itself, or spin. ..
Mathematically, a rotation is a rigid body movement which, unlike a translation, keeps a point fixed.” 1  

Stars are not solid objects, their rotation can be analyzed with the average density of some 1,4 g/cm3, which is 40% more than the density of water (“lava is a liquid usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C ..  lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water” 2).
Due to the rotation of a larger object (a galaxy, a cluster of galaxies, ...), stars have their own orbital speed, to which the orbital speed of the galaxy inside the local group and cluster of galaxies is added; it positions stars as very dynamic fluid objects.  
The rotation of a liquid object, which, with these already mentioned things, has different temperatures in the parts of layers, as well as between the layers in depth and there are also different speeds of rotation on the surface layer of a star on the equator and on the poles, cannot be analyzed as the rotation of a solid object (“Lava can be hot, but never radioactive (low radiation that exist in the lava is considered that they are not harmful to people and life). The conduct of matter in blast furnaces for melting iron (and spots on the Sun, volcanoes) is known; therefore, it is also known that hot mass is dislocating, which means that radioactive elements should be equally present in lava now and 4,5 billion of years earlier – but, they are not”) 7.
With chemical composition, the speed of rotation determines the force of magnetic field (a larger mass does not create more significant effects here; Jupiter (1.8986×1027 kg) has a stronger magnetic field than Sun (1.98855x1030 kg) (“Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times as strong as that of Earth, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (except for sunspots”)), although it has a lower density (1.326 g/cm3) than Sun(1.408 g/cm3).

Fast-rotating objects, white dwarfs and blue stars 3  {(There are higher and lower limits of density. Matter constantly tends to be less dense ( Sun 1,408 g/cm3); from the total amount of stars in Milky Way, 96,15% are the stars of the classes M, K and G with low temperatures, up to ~ 6.000 K. Very small, even insignificant part of them are extremely hot, hot and warm stars, 3,85% (class O making only ~0,00003%) and with the white dwarfs probably following this percentage. 5) (If type F is added to types M, K and G, then these are almost all stars in Milky Way, except ~0,73003%  of fast-rotating stars.)}, a Wolf-Rayet star ( WR 2   “the exact rotation rate is not known. Estimates range from 500 km/s;  WR 46  “The terminal velocity of the stellar wind reaches 2450 km/s“  etc.),  pulsars, so-called neutron stars, generally have a negative ratio of the radius in the mass/radius relation (Sun = 1), and the opposite goes for the low-speed rotation stars  (M, K and G type of stars, which make  96,15 % from the total amount of stars in our galaxy3,  4), they have a positive ratio of this relation5,6,7,. It needs to be stressed that “It should not be recommended to reduce the analysis of the influence of factors to the stars on mass, radius, temperature and the rotation of object around the axis.. Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars” 5 with the comment that evidence suggest that the stars outside nebulae (the majority of Milky Way stars), which do not have a close relation to another star (having in mind the range of several dozen AU, depending on the mass of a star), generally follow the mass/radius relation, which is related to the speed of a star’s rotation around its axis 5, 6, 8.

The speed of stellar rotation is impossible to analyze without its forces of attraction (electromagnetic forces) (. If an object is approaching vertically to an equator and movement direction of a central object (which, by definition, needs to be a larger object, which can dictate the rules), the gravitational forces need to adjust the direction of the created movement length of a central object in every single point, thus changing the direction slowly to a curve. At the final stage, the rotations of both objects, with the speed included, place the incoming object into the orbit. ..
Opposite to the process of rotation there is the approaching of an object to the poles of a central object, where there are no orbits created, but only collisions of the incoming objects with the central object. These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits, nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is.” 7.

There is a similar situation with magnets, when a rotating magnet affects the nearby objects, attracted to it. A star has great forces of attraction (gravity) and they affect continuously, without limits, which can be observed on the orbits of the objects around a star (particles, gas, dust, asteroids, comets, etc.). Except for the smaller part of objects (up to a 1% of the central object’s mass) in the constant orbits, which are less elliptic, the rest of the objects get connected with the central object (one part gets connected with larger or smaller objects in the orbit or they get connected among themselves, thus creating a new object). 7, 9 That process is constant: faster, if the surroundings are richer with matter, and slower, when there is less matter. 
The stars with a faster rotation have more objects (in terms of mass and mostly in numbers, too) (“The objects without an independent rotation (such as Venus, Mercury, etc.) can't direct the other objects into their gravitational field.” 7, 15) orbiting around themselves.
If the speed of rotation increases, the conditions for an asteroid belt to exist are created.
The stars with (a very) fast rotation have a disk of gas (there can sometimes be no disk, if there are only small quantities of matter in the stellar surroundings and it happens rarely, because the increase of a stellar speed is related to the influx of matter to the whirls and cyclones at the poles of a star6, 7, 9, 10).
The stars with a very fast rotation around their axes have an increased emission of radiation at their poles, which sometimes can vary, due to the increased influx of matter into cyclone or a faster whirl 11, 16.  
The layers and matter inside a star create friction, due to the different speeds of layers’ rotation.
The pressure inside a star contributes to its heating up, but only to a point, which depends on a star’s mass. A large star S Cassiopeiae 930 R Sun has the temperature of 1 800°K, and CW Leonis 700 R Sun (with very dynamic activity around it) has a surface temperature of 2 200 °K.
The temperatures above these are mostly affected by the speed of rotation around the axis and binary effects of close stars (which are inside the range of a few dozen of AU) and smaller bodies; depending on the mass and rotation of a close star and smaller bodies, the effects can be more or less significant: the closer the relationship, the stronger the effects which influence the temperature “The origin of Earth (and other objects) can only be related to growth and gathering matter together in Universe. The sequence of gathering matter can be seen through the existence of gas, dust, lesser and larger asteroids and comets, small planets, planet-size objects, small and large stars and centers of galaxies at the same place (in the same part of Universe). When their mass is insufficient, the objects are cold. Matter gets warmed up with the increase of pressure and other forces: gravity, the interrelation of two or more objects, fast rotation. After a critical point (the sum of forces) they become hot objects that emit radiation (which we interpret as light)“.17  

Very hot stars are the combination of mass and fast rotation. 6 However, even small stars can have very high temperatures, because of the high speed of rotation:  PG0112+104 0,5 M Sun has the temperature of 30 000°K, HD 149382 0,29 – 0,53 M Sun has the surface temperature of  35 500±500°K, Wolf-Rayet star etc.

“Young stars can have a rotation greater than 100 km/s on the equator. The B-class star Achernar, for example, has an equatorial velocity of about 225 km/s or greater” 12   “Young” stars are only very fast-rotating stars (“proto”-stars included here, too14), which are most frequently found where the events are intensive, in nebulae and where there is a high concentration of visible matter.
96,15 % of all stars in Milky Way are stars with slow and slower rotation, while “young” stars represent only less than  ~0,00003%3.
Besides the forces of attraction, rotation is the principal creator of all systems in our Universe and beyond   (“A rotating object (universe) has a direction of movement. Based on everything that has been proved about the universe so far, it means that direction can’t be outside some kind of a system and there can’t be only one whole.
That space (multi-universe) has one basic characteristic and it is that the temperature of that space is lower than the temperature of universe,“). 9, 13    

------------------------- 
1.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotation
2.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lava
3.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification#Harvard_spectral_classification
4.  https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf
5.   https://www.academia.edu/32926807/Reassessment_of_the_old_but_still_employed_theories_of_Universe_through_database_checking
6.   https://www.academia.edu/18485381/The_causal_relation_between_a_star_and_its_temperature_gravity_radius_and_color
7  . https://www.academia.edu/26326626/Weitter_Ducksss_Theory_of_the_Universe
8.   https://www.academia.edu/32296347/Why_is_The_Evolution_of_Stars_incorrect.doc
9.   http://www.ijoart.org/research-paper-publishing_october-2016.shtml Universe and rotation
10. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
11. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#12b
12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star#Rotation
13. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#15b
14. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf
15. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#10b
16. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
17. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#iron

 

7. Where is the truth about  Big Bang theory?

"Based on the findings of the WMAP, astronomers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center proclaimed the age of Universe as 13.7 billion years (Benett et al. 2003). They claim that the WMAP data along with the complementary observations from other CMB experiments like CBI (Cosmic Background Imager) and DASI (Degree Angular Scale Interferometer) confirm the inflationary Big Bang model of the Universe (Figs. 1 and 2). However, these claims are based on interpretations of data which are guided by the belief that there is no alternative explanation. Hence, rather than the data shaping the theory, the theory of the "Big Bang" dictates how data are interpreted and even which data should be included vs ignored.
Ashwini Kumar Lal, Ph.D. and Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. http://cosmology.com/BigBangReview.html Added later . "

Let us check some old articles 1, 2, 3, with the use of more evidence/hypotheses relations. The theme is expansion of the universe, CMB, blue shift ..

„Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the law was first derived from the general relativity equations by Georges Lemaître in a 1927 article where he proposed the expansion of the universe and suggested an estimated value of the rate of expansion, now called the Hubble constant.: v = H0 r. ..
For most of the second half of the 20th century the value of  H0 was estimated to be between 50 and 90 (km/s)/Mpc.“

The most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies  GN-z11 13,39 bn.  ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn. ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn. ly, etc.

„The term "protogalaxy" itself is generally accepted to mean "Progenitors of the present day (normal) galaxies, in the early stages of formation.”. 

The age of universe is (Wikipedia,  arXiv:1502.01589 ) 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years.

„The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe. Under this theory, space and time emerged together 13.799±0.021 billion years ago with a fixed amount of energy and matter that has become less dense as the Universe has expanded. ..
when the temperature was around 3000 K or when the universe was approximately 379,000 years old. As photons did not interact with these electrically neutral atoms, the former began to travel freely through space, resulting in the decoupling of matter and radiation.

The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s.“ 

As well as

„One interpretation of this effect is the idea that space itself is expanding. Due to the expansion increasing as distances increase, the distance between two remote galaxies can increase at more than 3×108 m/s, but this does not imply that the galaxies move faster than the speed of light“ 

If an emission of light happened 13,39 light-years ago  (GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn. ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly, etc.“), one could ask: did light travel at all through these 13,39 bilion ly, since we can see it now?

ad1
Photo by ESA and COBE

If the official science claims, „The universe is spreading“, then there should be a small universe (with a small diameter) 300-400 thousand years after the so-called Big Bang, and a big universe, in which „...the most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn. ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly, etc.“

„About 300,000 years after the Big Bang, at a temperature of 3000 K, the universe becomes transparent.“ Wikipedia hr.

and they still say

„The light that comes from the "edges" of the universe started on your way to us at the time of last scattering of photons at 3000 K. This is the light gathered by the satellite COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer), and later the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe)“

Then, these two universes in the picture should be placed in such a way they could meet the need for the light from the edges of universe to be the light from the small universe inside the present-day universe (since it is claimed the universe is expanding). Our Earth can be placed in any place of the big universe.

How is it possible for an event of a single point to arrive from the edges of the present-day universe? The same goes for the center of galaxy, it can be only in one direction. The small universe can freely be placed around or outside the present-day universe, but the results will remain unchanged; light will not be appearing from the edges of universe, but exclusively from a single point. For better understanding, our location – which could be in any chosen point in universe – can be connected with the small universe with a line and it immediately becomes obvious that, in the case of a universe in the time of 300-400 thousand years after Big bang, light needs to be coming from a single point (it is impossible in the case of two universes, proto-universe and present-day universe, that so-called proto-light, or the light of the distant past, would be coming from all directions).
The only possible idea is that the light from the distance of more than 13 billion years would be coming from present-day universe to the universe of 300-400 thousand years after Big Bang, but that goes against all official claims.
These evidence point to the non-existence of the so-called Big Bang. The readings of the ever increasing red shift with the increase of distance between galaxies can support that. If „the most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies  GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn. ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly, etc.“ are also the fastest objects, then, according to Big Bang, these galaxies are also the oldest ones.

The relation is obvious: the greatest speed is related to the oldest and most distant objects.

How can, then, Hubble's law be valid? How can universe be spreading with the increasing speed, if that applies only for the oldest and most distant galaxies?

The same applies for the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Let us apply here the idea of „small“ and „big“ universe. CMB, just as light, hasn't got even the theoretical possibility to arrive from the „small“ universe, particularly because the speed of light (and cosmic microwave background, too) are in the terms of speed beyond the spreading speed of universe, according to Big Bang. These types of radiation have always been moving in the outer direction and there is no possibility for them to be moving inwards (radiation supposedly arriving from all directions, from the „edges“ of universe).

The lack of evidence to support the spreading of universe can also be seen in the existence of  blue shift of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The objects in universe collide with each other, they do not run away one from another. Smaller objects, stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies – they all collide. „ ... (with) Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions (Cluster of galaxies), including both ‘major’ and‘minor’mergers.“

It is incorrect that:

1. „Light and radiation are arriving from the „edges“ of universe, from different directions“?,
or, this is incorrect:
2. „There was a Big Bang and everything related to it“?

The first are the evidence (and can be accepted), while the other is a bad hypothesis (and can be rejected).
The first is science and the scientific attitude, the second is religion and belief, the official attitude of the church.
The question is simple: science (1) or imposed religion belief (2)?
2017.y.

  Supercluster (galaxy) Redsfift (z) Distance M ly

1. The Laniakea Supercluster +0,0708 250
2. Horologium Supercluster 0,063 700
3

Abell 754 0,0542 760
4 Abell 133 0,0566 763
5. Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946

 

6 CID-42  0,359 3.900 (3,9 Gly)
7 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4.000

8 Einstein Cross 1,695 8.000
9 Twin Quasar 1,413 8.700
10 Lynx Supercluster 1,26 & 1,27 12.900

The Universe

  galaxies Redsfift (z) Distance billion ly Speed Km/s  

1. EQ J100054+023435 4.547 12,2 280.919
2. Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
3. Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
4. GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917

The Universe
from https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Svemir-i-vrtnja-kratki-tekst.html#Promatranje-procesa-u-svemiru
2018.y.

See also: Ashwini Kumar Lal, Ph.D. and Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. http://cosmology.com/BigBangReview.html Added later.

 

Censorships of the authors' works and the legalization of published plagiarisms
Why are they allowed to freely plagiarize?

Plagiarism is forbidden to all but high-ranking science magazines and organizations. The others, who are ranked lower than them, must not plagiarize, because there are severe sanctions for it, such as the loss of career, metaphorical dragging someone's reputation through mud by both high- and low-ranking institutions and all kinds of media. To the contrary, „high-ranking players“ who do plagiarize, they get rewarded for it and remembered by history as great scientists.

„Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the law was first derived from the general relativity equations by Georges Lemaître in a 1927 article where he proposed the expansion of the universe and suggested an estimated value of the rate of expansion..“

Even though the author is known and the act of stealing his merits from him was recognized, we keep reading today about Hubble's law and his constant, although he has no credits for them, except for having unconditionally accepted someone else's work as his own and taking their merits.

The plagiarism law is clear and unambiguous; immediately after recognition, the plagiarized work should be removed (which is something low-ranking authors, magazines and others must abide by), but, to the opposite and against the law, there are acts of glorifying plagiarism at stake and the memory of the real author is very often forgotten.
The low-ranking authors have no means to remove the plagiarism  of „high-ranking players“ by themselves, because the system itself is not only inert, but it also imposes its will further on, regardless of scrupulousness, like, for example, here: Hubble, Galileo and telescope, etc. Plagiarism is punishable by law and such works need to be automatically removed from all media, encyclopedias and debates. Nobody talks about the sportsmen who use illegal drugs to improve performance as heroes and medal winners – to the contrary, their medals and merits get taken away, with all the sanctions brought upon them.

These are the reasons why so-called low-ranking authors can't publish in famous, high-ranking science magazines; a legalization of plagiarism rules there.

May 16th 2017.

A few of my own examples:

The „Dark Flow“ & existence of other  Universes = plagijat
http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/objavljeni-clanci.html#18
1. Гравитационные волны - открытие (или скандал, т.е. плагиат) мирового масштаба? http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#scandal

 

Weitter Duckss <wduckss@gmail.com> 10. 10. 2013.

prima rh4a

Poštovani,
Vaš citat: and Richard Holman, professor at Carnegie Mellon University, predicted that anomalies in radiation existed and were caused by the pull from other universes in 2005.
 Rad "svemir, ipak se vrti" kao Theory of Zara je razmatrao još 2004. godine Edital Committee of EDP Sciences iz Francuske. Vrtnja svemira i postojanje drugih je u osnovama rada, a Dark Flow je samo dio koji se može naći u ovome tekstu.
Dio teksta koji je na engleskom nalazi se na: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com zajedno sa ovjerenom Zadarskoj teoriji kao i povratni mail iz Francuske. 
Zaključak: Multisvemir i Dark Flow i dosta drugog nije nikakva novost već samo kopiranje dijelova  već objavljene materije na mojoj stranici.
S poštovanjem.
Weitter Duckss


Područje privitaka
mail

 

 

Slavko Sedić <slavko.sedic@zd.t-com.hr> 02. 07. 2015.    
Deer Sir / Madam,
Article:

"Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri" Marco Tail, Francesca D'Antona, Enrico Vesper, Marcello Di Criscienzo, Paolo Ventura et al.

Nature (22 June 2015) | doi: 10.1038 / nature14516
It contains parts of my work as part of the basic ideas which are located at: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Processes.

Please check the authenticity of origin and whether it is plagiarism wrapped in fine, cellophane or unintentional copyright infringement.

„As temperature gets higher, a variety of elements gets poorer; the heated stars generally consist only of hydrogen and helium, with other elements below 1%. Both of these processes can be traced on Earth; the other one is visible through the composition of magma. Magma consists of the lower order atoms, which is confirmed by its cooled rocks. Neither gold nor silver or any other higher order element, exist in magma; for them to be created, more conditions need to be met.
The temperature of stars is directly related to the speed of its rotation. Those with slower rotation are red, while with the increase of the rotation speed, also increases the glow and temperature of a star. As a consequence, it turns white and blue. If we consult the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it is obvious that both very small and super giant stars can have the same glow; they can be white, red or blue. The mass and quantity of so-called fuel that they supposedly burn is obviously an unacceptable answer – there are stars of the same mass, or sizes, but with a completely different glow. If we were to try to explain that by the presence of different elements, it would make no sense. Diversity of elements depends exactly on the temperature heights: the higher the temperature, the lower the diversity and order of elements.“

Sincerely.
Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedić)
Zadar Croatia

Nature@nature.com <Nature@nature.com> 02. 07. 2015.

prima Slavko

   
Dear Dr Sedić,
Thank you for your email. We would advise you to submit a presubmission enquiry to our editors via our manuscript system here - http://mts-nature.nature.com/cgi-bin/main.plex 

If you experience any problems with this system please do not hesitate to contact us.

For more details on how to submit please view our guidelines at http://www.nature.com/nature/authors/submissions/presubs/

Best wishes,
Nature Administration

From: Slavko Sedić [mailto:slavko.sedic@zd.t-com.hr
Sent: 02 July 2015 07:13
To: Nature@nature.com
Cc: wduckss@gmail.com
Subject: The authentication of the article, search the


Weitter Duckss <wduckss@gmail.com> Prilozi16. 03. 2016.

prima info

Dear Sir / Madam,
Article: "Young Stars May Feast frantically, Grow Chaotically, New Study Shows'
By Charles Q. Choi, Space.com Contributor | March 15, 2016 07:12 am ET
copyright infringing my works " http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Processes "
It is disputable that the published article claims that this is a new idea and simulation which indicate the growth of the body due to the influx of new substances and that their contribution.
The attached is evident that this is incorrect.
Please remove the article.
As this is not the first case, please, responsible editor read out my work how in the future not be coming up the same situation.
Best regards.
Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedic ) Zadar Croatia

 

Jun 23, 2015
"This is the first time that we could determine the individual orbits of such pieces of debris around a comet. This information is very important to study their origin, and is helping us understand the mass loss processes of comets," says Davidsson.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2015-06-rosetta-tracks-debris-comet.html#jCp

wduckss

1 / 5 (4)Jun 23, 2015
The existence of a body in orbit around the comet means that the comet has a rotation about an axis.
 Quote: "The number of satellites orbiting around a planet is directly related to the mass of a planet and its rotation around its axis.
Small Pluto has a radius of 2,300 km, 0,002 of the Earth's mass; It has several satellites, one of which is really big, compared to Pluto. Pluto makes a single rotation around its axis and 6.4 days!
Mercury has a radius of 4,880 km, 0,055 of the Earth's mass; it has no satellites and neither does Venus, which radius is 12 104 km and the mass is 0.82 (!) of the Earth's mass. What they have in common is the lack of rotation (their rotation around their axes is approximately the same as their rotation around the Sun). "

JeanTate

4.3 / 5 (6)Jun 23, 2015
@wduckss:
Quote: "The number of satellites orbiting around a planet is directly related to the mass of a planet and its rotation around its axis ..."
What is the source of your quote?

wduckss

1 / 5 (3)Jun 24, 2015
@wduckss:
Quote: "The number of satellites orbiting around a planet is directly related to the mass of a planet and its rotation around its axis ..."
What is the source of your quote?

My website: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#10b posted on the forums in the US, HR and Ru.

JeanTate

4 / 5 (4)Jun 24, 2015
@wduckss: Thanks.

Have you written up your idea in the form of a paper? If so, have you published it? Have you submitted it to a relevant, peer-reviewed journal?

   etc.

 

8. Why is "The Evolution of Stars" incorrect?
Updated and expanded

„Stellar evolution starts with the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud .“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution#Protostar

„Protostars with masses less than roughly 0.08 M☉ (1.6×1029 kg) never reach temperatures high enough for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to begin. These are known as brown dwarfs. The International Astronomical Union defines brown dwarfs as stars massive enough to fuse deuterium at some point in their lives (13 Jupiter masses (MJ), 2.5 × 1028 kg, or 0.0125 M☉). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution#Brown_dwarfs_and_sub-stellar_objects

This quotation from Wikipedia may had been acceptable in the past, because readers were unable to check the real situation in data bases of stars and other objects inside the galaxy and beyond. These days, when there is a sufficient number of explored objects, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and other stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, it is not difficult to conclude that the old theories are completely wrong and badly conceived mind constructions.

In the next table I have given some examples of exoplanets that testify beyond any doubt against the old theories. The mass of Jupiter is 1/1047 of the Sun mass.

 

exoplanet Maas of Jupiter Temperature K Semi major axis AU Parent star
spectral  typ 
1. Kepler-70b 0.440 Earth 7.662 0.006 O (sdB)
2. WASP-33b 4,59 Jupiter ~2.900 0.02558 A5
3. WASP-121b 1.183 J 2.358 0.02544 F6V
4. WASP-87b 2.18 2.322 0.02946 F5
5. B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700 M7.25 (M9.25)
6. WASP-12b 1.39 ± 0.04 2.525 0.02293 G0
7. HIP 78530 b 24 2.800 ± 200 710 B9V
8. Kepler-13b 0,485 1.500 0.03423 8.500°K
9. DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330 M0.5V
10. PSR J1719-1438 b 1.2 5.375 0.00442 Pulsar
11. KOI-368.01 2.1 3.060 0.6 F6
12. KOI-55 C 0,0014 6.807 0.0060 B4
13. CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17 2.500 440,0 K7
14. HAT-P-7b 1.741 2.730 (+150; -100) 0.0379 F6
15. OGLE2-TR-L9 4.34 2.154.6 0.0308 F3
16. WASP-48 b 0.98 2.030 0.03444 5.990°K
17. UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.350 670 M7
18. WASP-103 b 1.49 2.508 0.01985 F8V
19. Kepler-10 b 0,010475 2.169 0.01684 G
20. WASP-100b 1.69 2.190 0.0457 F2
21. WASP-72b 1.01 2.210 0.03655  F7
22. WASP-18 b 1,165 (10.43) 2.187,5 0.02047 F6
23 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243.0 M9
24. WASP-78 b 1.16 2.006.7 0.0415 F8
25 KELT-7 b 1.28 2.048 0.04415 6.789°K
26 WASP-111 b 1.83 2.140 0.03914 F5

It can be seen from the table that the planets Hottest Kepler-70b (7 143° K), PSR J1719-1438 b (5 375° K), KOI-55 C (6 319° K) are far beyond the temperatures for the M-type stars.

M typ star 0.08–0.45 ≤ 0.7 2,400–3,700 M 76,45%

from fast-and-slow-combustion Updated

The rest of the planets from the table, in the matter of temperatures, belong to M-type stars.
The temperature maximum of magma „(komatiite) is 1 600°C (Basalt lava flow usually has the temperature of eruption between 1 100 and 1 250°C.) (Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance.)“ Wikipedia.

The planets from the table have the temperatures significantly above the temperature maximums of magma, which, in other words, means that they are either melted liquid (fluidic) objects or stars.

If we follow the idea that the temperature of a planet is related to the small distance from the star that is supposed to be the source of temperature, then there is no explanation for HIP 78530 b (R/B 7.), which is 710 AU far from its main star, Jupiter Semi-major axis 5.20260 AU, Edgeworth–Kuiper belt at 30 AU to approximately 50 AU from the Sun (and like R/B 23; R/B 17; R/B 13; R/B 9; R/B 5). The majority of exoplanets from the table is at the distances from 0.02 do 0.05 AU from their main stars, however, to make a conclusion that the influence of a star's proximity is dominant for the temperature of a planet, without realizing they are at the same distance:

  Brown dwarf (& planets)

Mass of Jupiter

Temperature °K

Planets orbit AU

Wolf 1061b ≥1.36 M⊕ 210 0.035509
TRAPPIST-1d 0.41 ± 0.27 M⊕ 288,15 0,021
Gliese 3634 b, 8,4 (+4,0; -1,5) M⊕ 565,4 0,0287
Kepler-45b 0.5505 774 0,027
HD 63454 b 0,38 926,7 0,036
HD 40307 b 4 (+4,8; -3,3) 804,5 0.0468
HAT-P-20 b 7.246 (± 0.187) 888,3 0.0361
WASP-10 b 3,06 984,3 0,0371
HATS-6 b 0,319 712,8 0.03623
Gliese 436 b 22.2±1.0 M⊕ 712 ±36 0.0291
GJ 160.2 b 0.032 100 0,053
Gliese 1214 b 6.55±0.98 M⊕ 393–555 0.01488
Etc.

could easily be wrong.

If we put into the formula the spectral class of a planet's main star:
Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU  

WASP-11b/HAT-P-10(b) 0.460 ± 0.028 800 0,0439 K3V
HD 63454 b 0.380 926,7 0,036 K4V
HD 330075 b 0,620 1.023 0,043 G5
HD 219134 (b) 0.0149±0.0006 1.015 0.0388 K3V
HD 102195 (b) 0,450 963 0,049 K0V
HD 40307( b) 0,0120±0,0009 804,5 0,0468 K2,5V
OGLE-TR-111(b) 0,540 940 0,0470 G
WASP-10(b) 3,16 946,8 (1.119 +26; -28) 0,371 K5
HD 215497 (b) 0,020 984,3 0,047 K3V
Gliese 3470 (b) 0,043 604±98 0,031 M1,5
HAT-P-11b 0,081 750 0,053 K4
HIP 14810 b 3,88 690 0,0692 G5V
HAT-P-18b 0,196 841±15 0,0559 K
Kepler-102b 0,0013 792,0 0,055 K3
Kepler-114d 0,022 549 0,052 K5
WASP-69b 0,260 963±18 0,0452 K5

 

We can add here PSR J1719-1438 b, which rotates around a pulsar (the temperature of which is unmeasurable to our instruments) at the distance of 0.004 AU and has a temperature of 5 348°K, and Hottest Kepler-70b, which rotates around its main star at the distance of 0.006 AU and has the temperature of 27 730°K. Based on these two planets, it is obvious that the temperature of a main star has no dominant influence over the temperature of a planet.

Conclusion

"Growth doesn’t stop with atoms; on the contrary, joining goes on. Through joining, chemical reactions and combined, gas, dust, sand, the rocks named asteroids and comets, … Then, when planets grow to the 10% of Sun’s mass, they become stars, which can be really gigantic (super-giants). Millions of craters scattered around the objects of our Solar system are the evidence of objects’ growth. Constant impacts of asteroids into our atmosphere and soil are the evidence of these processes being uninterrupted today, just the same as it used to be in any earlier period of the past. It is estimated that 4 000 – 100 000 tons of extraterrestrial material falls yearly to Earth."
from „Universe and rotation/Processes in universe

"It is enough to observe the mass of an object, its relation to other objects, the rotation of an object as well as the rotation of a central object, the composition of an object and the orbital distance to make a valid estimate for every object, without the need for nuclear fusions, fissions and matter combustion."
From „Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe“ and „The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color"
31.03.2017. g.

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

mass up to 15 Mass of Jupiter
WISE 1828 + 2650  3 – 6 or 0,5 - 20  250 - 400  
WISE 0855−0714 ~3-10 225-260  
CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
WD 0806-661  6-9  300-345 2.500
HD 106906 b 11±2 1.800 120
1RXS 1609 b  8 (14)  1.800 330
DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5  695±60 1.168
Cha 110913-773444 8 (+7; -3) 1.300 -1.400  
OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
GQ Lupi b 1 - 36 2650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9  1.950 ± 100 157
HD 44627 13 - 14  1.600 -2400 275
VHS 1256-1257 b 11,2 (+9,7; -1,8 880 102±9
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 5 - 20 560 - 600  
2M1207b 4 (+6; -1) 1.600±100 40
2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
HR 8799 b 5 (+2; -1) 870 (+30; -70) ~68
HR 8799 c  7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~38
HR 8799 d 7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~24
HIP 65426

 

9,0 ±3,0

 

1450.0 (± 150.0)

 

92

 

mass above 15 Mass of Jupiter
B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
CFBDS J005910.90-011401.3 15 - 30 620  
 ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 _31 500 -550  
ULAS J003402.77−005206.7 5 _ 20 550 - 600  
UGPS 0722-05 10.7 ± 0.2—25.8 ± 0.9 502 ±10 – 539 ±12  
GJ 229B 21 – 52,4 950 0,97 (+0,12; -0,10)
54 Piscium B 50 810±50  
WD 0137-349 0.053 ± 0.006 M⊙ 1.300 - 1400 0.65 R☉ (Binary orbit)
G 196-3B 25 (+15; -10) 1870 ± 100 285–640
Oph 11 B 21 2.487 243,0
SCR 1845-6357 40 - 50 2.600 - 2700  
Zeta Delphini B 55 ± 10 1.550 (+250; -100) 910
15 Sagittae B 65 1.647,34 14
Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500
Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
DEN 0255-4700 25 - 60 ~1.300  
Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150

 

TVLM 513-46546 90 2.500  
DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) Mass above 15 MJ
Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

ROXs 42Bb 9  1.950 ± 100 157
54 Piscium B 50 810±50  

DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 _31 500 -550  

OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)

2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500
Etc.

Mass vs Mass
2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5  695±60 1.168

Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150  
Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)

B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  
Etc.

Answer, why there are these differences in article: "Reassessment of the old but still employed theories of Universe through database checking",  The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color & Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system?
2018.y.

 

9. Reassessment of the old but still employed theories of Universe through database checking
Updated

The goal of the article is to reassess, exclusively with the evidence from the available databases, old but nowadays dominant theories of star evolution, thermonuclear combustion (fusion) of matter needed for the heat of stars, the effect of the gas cloud collapse speed to the temperature and age of stars.
-The starting basics are that mass directly defines the temperature of a star.
Big stars / small bodies

Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K Mass Sun

S Cassiopeiae 930 1.800 loss at 3.5 x 10-6 MSun per year
CW Leonis 700 2.200 0,7 – 0,9
R Leporis 400±90 2.290 2,5 – 5
R Doradus 370±50 2.740±190 1,2
La Superba 307-390 2.600-3.200 3
RSGC1-F04 1.553 2.858 19

To the opposite

Star Mass M Sun Temperature °K

2M1207 ~0,025 2550 ± 150
Teide 1 0,052 2600 ± 150
VHS 1256-1257 0,07-0,015 2.620 ± 140
Van Biesbroeck's star 0,075 2.600
DENIS 1048-1039 0,075 2.200
Teegarden's Star 0,08 2.637
DX Cancri 0,09 2.840
TVLM 513-46546 0,09 2.500
Wolf 359 0,09 2,800 ± 100

All stars from  List of the largest stars with their radius over 700 R of Sun are having the temperatures between 1.800 and 5.100°K and are cold stars, mostly of M class.
-(big stars)/to the opposite, there is a star and brown dwarfs that are distant from their main star (100 -740 AU) and that rules out the influence of the star on the temperature of the planet or brown dwarf. (Planets shine by reflected light; stars shine by producing their own light)

Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Distance AU

GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243
HIP 78530 b 24 2.700 740

These are flagrant examples that show that an object's mass is not the one that causes different temperatures of stars or other objects and that mass is not directly related to the great differences in the objects' temperatures.
-If we look at the stars with the similar masses  (0,5 do 0,7 M Sun …)

Star Mass Sun 1 Temperature °K

HD 149382 0,29-0,53 35.500±500
PG0112+104 0,5 30.000
40 Eridani B 0,5 16.500
Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3.626
L 97-12 0,59 5.700 ±90
Zeta Cygni B 0,6 12.000
Procion B 0,6 7.740
Van Maanen 2 0,68 6.220
HD 4628 0,7 5.829
G29-38 0,7 11.820

 

Sun 1 5.772
Sirius B 0,98 25.200
Gamma Piscium 1,03 4.885
Arcturus 1,08 4.286

 

VX Sagittarii 12 2.400 – 3.300
Antares 12,4 3.400
15 Canis Majoris 12,8 26,100 ± 1,200

 

μ Columbae 16 33.000
WR 2 16 141.000
VY Canis Majoris 17 3.490
Α Crucis α1 17,8 24.000

 

WR 102 19 210.000
WR 134 19 63.100
Deneb 19 8.525
η Canis Majores 19,19 15.000
Mu Cephei 19,2 3.750
HD 21389 19,3 9.730

 

WR 46 25 112.000
S Monocerotis  29,1 38.500

 

MU Normea 33,3 28.000
QU Normae 43 17.000
NML Cygni 50 3.834

Several examples of binary systems

Star Mass Sun 1 Temperature °K

Sirius A 2,02 9.940
Sirius B 0,978 25.200

 

Alpha Crucis α1 17,8+6,05 24.000
Alpha Crucis α2 15,52 28.000

 

Epsilon Aurigae A 2,2-15 7.750
Epsilon Aurigae B 6-14 15.000

 

Procyon A 1,499 6.350
Procyon B 0,602 7.740

 

Castor A 2,76 10.286
Castor B 2,98 8.842
Castor C 0,5992 3.820

When checking a database, it is found that the objects of the same mass can have completely different temperatures, ranging from stellar spectral class M to O (- WR 2, type WN4-s, 16 M Sun, temperature 141.000 K; -μ Columbae, type O, mass 16 M of Sun, temperature 33.000 K; –  VY Canis Majoris, type M, mass 17 M of Sun, temperature 3.490 K). 
Based on these examples of the same masses and different temperatures, it can be ruled out that thermonuclear reaction inside a star is the cause of its temperature level. Same or similar levels of mass and identical chemical composition of stars should produce the same amount of thermonuclear fusion of matter and consequently the same or similar level of temperature. These examples prove the opposite, i.e., that this is not the case.
It can be determined in the same way that the age of stars is not related to the level of temperature. Similar mass inside the gas cloud of the similar chemical composition like that of stars should abide by the same principles, mass, stellar system, identical chemical composition of the planets around that star, etc.; the examples show the failure to abide by these (or any other) rules.
  
-The following examples connect mass, radius and temperature.

Star Mass Sun 1 Raius Sun 1 Temperature °K

Bellatrix 8,6 5,75 22.000
Alnitak Ab 14 ± 3 7,3 ± 1,0 29.000
Alnitak B 16 7,2 29.000
Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20,0 ± 3,2 29.500 ± 1000 
EZ Canis Majoris  19 2,65 89.100
AB7 WR 23 3,4 105.000
MU Normea 40 25 28.500
AB7 O 44 14 36.000
Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300
R136a1 315 28.8-35.4 53.000 ± 3000

 

 

UY Scuti 7-10 1.708 ±192 3.365
Betelgeuse 11,6 887 ±203  3.590
VX Sagittarii 12 1.350–1.940 2.400-3.300
Antares 12,4 883 3.400
VY Canis Majoris 17 1.420 ±120 3.490
V602 Carinae 17,7 1.050 3.432
VV Cephei A 18,2 1.050 3.826
Mu Cephei 19,2 1.260 3.750
WOH G64 <25 1.540 3.200
NML Cygni 50 1.183 3.834

If in a relation of mass/radius (Sun = 1), mass exceeds a radius, then the temperatures will be higher, and on the opposite: if a radius exceeds mass, the temperatures are lower.  
-When the rotation around the axis is introduced into the analysis
„The international team found the so-called blue hook stars throw off their cool outer layers late in life because they are rotating so rapidly, making them more luminous than usual.“
The sample of the analyzed blue stars in this article consists of more than  3.700 units.

Star Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1 Temperature K Rotation speed km/s

Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4 
R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
Betelgeuse 11,6 887 ±203  3.590 5

 

WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200
R136a1 315 28,8-35,4 53.000±3.000 -

A star’s rotation around the axis is related to its radius. The faster the rotation is, the smaller is the radius, i.e., the diameter of a star gets smaller with the increase of the rotation speed.   
The higher speed of the rotation around its axis and smaller stellar radius are related to the higher temperatures (and higher surface gravity), and the opposite: the lower speeds of rotation enable bigger stellar diameters, lesser amounts of friction and the pressure to the surface and they also create lower temperatures. 

Higher or lower stelar density is a product of the relation mass/stellar radius. There are higher and lower limits of density. Matter constantly tends to be less dense ( Sun 1,408 g/cm3); from the total amount of stars in Milky Way, 96,15% are the stars of the classes M, K and G with low temperatures, up to ~ 6.000 K. Very small, even insignificant part of them are extremely hot, hot and warm stars, 3,85% (class O making only ~0,00003%) and with the white dwarfs probably following this percentage. 
It should not be recommended to reduce the analysis of the influence of factors to the stars on mass, radius, temperature and the rotation of object around the axis in this reassessment of the old theories, because an inexact impression of the statistical analysis of the other objects may occur. This article should be used only as a quick approximate tool of star positioning, as a kind of control when determining a measurement and, if there are deviations, the cause of deviations must be determined or the measurement should be repeated.
Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars. 
If we check the data of the objects' masses, we can see that independent objects with a bigger mass have a higher temperature, but the level of temperature is limited (S Cassiopeiae 3,5-10 M Sun,  Radius 930   R Sun, Temperature 1.800 K) and it is more notable in smaller objects, which are in the phase of melting and changing into a star. ..   
Databases used here: Wikipedia, Wikiwand, exoplanet.eu, openexoplanetcatalogue and other sources used by these encyclopedias etc.

27.04.2017. g.

 

10. Is there "fast and slow combustion" of stars?
Updated

The analysis of this topic is a continuation of 
„The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color“ https://www.academia.edu/18485381/The_causal_relation_between_a_star_and_its_temperature_gravity_radius_and_color  and „Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system? “ https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system .

The goal of the analysis is to point at the existence of real evidence that there is no matter combustion process through the radioactive disintegration of complex atoms.

The key points of this study are the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy (100-400 billion (2.5×1011 ±1.5×1011), the assessment of  the star ratio in the Milky Way, the red-colored stars (type M) that make more than 76,45%, the orange-colored stars (type K) 12,1%, the yellow-colored stars (type G) 7,6%, which altogether make 96,15% of the total quantity of stars in the galaxy of Milky Way) and other stars 3,85% (Harvard spectral classification), by observing the stars inside and outside the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

The analysis is to begin with the table 1, in which masses and temperatures of some stars are given; it is showed with a few examples that stars with a similar mass do not have a similar temperature and can be one or more spectral classes far from each other, often even at the opposite ends (- WR 2, type WN4-s, 16 M Sun, temperature 141.000 K; -μ Columbae, type O, mass 16 M of Sun, temperature 33 000 K –  VY Canis Majoris, type M, mass 17 M of Sun, temperature 3 490 K).

The stars are composed of 71% of hydrogen, 27% of helium and the rest are the other elements; therefore, it seems realistic and objective to analyze stars of the same or similar masses, because the chemical compositions are similar. However, there is no indication from the mass of an object that the combustion under the same conditions provides the same or similar temperatures. With taking into consideration the fact that some smaller value as a corrective factor needs to exist, due to different layout and masses of the objects, orbiting around a star, it is all the same impossible to balance the relation, because the differences in temperature are too big. It can be ruled out with a total certainty that a bigger mass of a star at the same time means the higher temperature of the same star.

The relations of mass and temperature in the table 1 present that fact beyond any doubt.

Table 1.

Таблица 1.

 

Star Mass (M Sun) Temperature K

1 39 Leonis 0,98 6.118± 49 (3.740)
2 Sirius B 1.018 ± 0.011 25.200
3 Luyten  726-8 A 1,02 2.670
3a Luyten  726-8 B 0,010 2.650
4 BPM 37093 1,1 11.730±350
5 84 Ceti  1,168  6.356±46
6 Theta Sculptoris 1,25 6.395

7 Gamma Crucis 1,5 3.626
8 Zeta Leporis 1,46 9.772
9 Aldebaran 1,5 3.910
10 Hamal 1.5 4.480
11 Γ Doradus 1,57 7.200
12 Fomalhaut 1,92 8.590
13 Castor α Gem Aa 2,76 10.286
14 Castor A Gem Ba 2,98 8.842

15 Antares A 12±20% 3.570
16 Ε Canis Majoris 12,6 22.900
17 Α Crucis α1 17,8 24.000
18 Α Crucis Α2 15,52 28.000
19 HR 5984 (β Sco Ab) 10,4 27.000
20 Spica 10,25 22.400

21 Deneb 19±4 8.525
22 Η Canis Majoris 19,19 15.000

23 QU Normae  43 17.000
24 μ Normae   33,3 (40) 28.500

The observation of type M and K stars is presented in the following table, because these stars make up to 88,55% of the total quantity of stars in the Milky Way galaxy. When 7,6% of type G (yellow) stars are included in the previous quantity, there is more than 96,15% of Milky Way stars with a relatively low temperatures, ranging from 2 400 to 6 000° K. They all automatically represent those stars that could by no means combust matter fast and have a short period of existence. The rest of 3,85% cannot represent a relevant quantity of stars, upon which the hypotheses of fast matter combustion and short existence period were created. If there is a low surface temperature on a star (Betelgeuse and other type M, K and G giants), it cannot be classified in the same group as the stars with high temperatures. It is unrealistic to claim that there is the same combustion value with high and low temperatures. When masses and temperatures in those 96,15% of the total quantity of stars are related, a conclusion can be drawn that there is no mass-based combustion and neither the results, related to the combustion of stars.
If the rest of 3,85% of stars of type O, B and A (table 3) are included into the analysis, the indicators are the same as with the type M, K and G. A bigger mass does not mean the higher temperature.

Table 2

 

Star(zvijezde.) Mass (M Sun) Radius (R Sun) Temperature K Spectral type

1 M typ star 0.08–0.45 ≤ 0.7 2,400–3,700 76,45%
2 Mira 1,18 44.2±0.9 2918–3192 K
3 Aldebaran 1.5±0.3 44.2±0.9 3.910 M
4 Alpha Herculis A 2,175-3,250 264-303 3.155-3.365 M
5 UY Scuti 7-10 1,708 ± 192 3.365 M
6 VX Sagittarii 12 1,350–1,940 2,400–3,300 K
7 VY Canis Majoris 17 ± 8 1,420 ± 120 ~3,490 M
8 VV Cephei A 18,2 1,050 3.826 K
9 S Persei 20 780 - 1,230 3,000–3,600 K
10 NML Cygni 50 1,183 3,834 K
11 WOH G64 25 1,540 - 1,730 3,200 – 3,400 M

To look and List of largest stars (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_stars#List
and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_brown_dwarfs

Table 3

 

Star

Mass(M Sun)

Radius(R Sun)

Temperature K

Star type

1 HD 149382 0,29-0,53 0,0345 35.500±500 A
2 PG 0112+104 0,5 / 30.000 WD
3 Zeta Cygni B 0,6 / 12.000 A
4 Procyon B 0,602 0,12 7.740 F
5 HD 4628  0,70 0,749 5.829 K
6 LP 145-141 0,75 / 8.500 ± 300 DQ
7 IK Pegasi 1,65/1,15 1,6 7.700 / 35.500 A
8 Zeta Cygni A 3,05 15 4.910 G
9 56 Pegasi 5,4 680 4.416 K
10 HD 160529 13 150-300 8.000 – 12.000 >B
11 Α Crucis α2 15,52 / 28.000 B
12 Α Crucis α1 17,8 / 24.000 B
13 P Cygni 30 76 18.700 B
14 Eta Carinae Car B 30-80 14,3 – 23,6 37.200 O
15 BP Crucis    43 70 18.100 B
16 Eta Carinae Car A ~100 -200 60 – 800 9.430 – 35.200 O

To look and List of the hottest stars https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_hottest_stars
and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_luminous_stars#Data  

Earth and Venus are the ideal examples of proving the matter melting and the processes, related to the beginning of melting an object. There are melted interiors in both of these objects, with the fact that Venus, although having lesser mass than Earth, has higher temperatures of the interior and the atmosphere as well. The presence of more numerous and more significant active volcanoes than on Earth points to that conclusion.

Matter disintegration is related to nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, which cause radioactive radiation as a byproduct. This radiation does not exist (generally or in a significant amount) in lava and magma; if it were, life on Earth would not exist. This is not some small quantity of mass that should produce radioactivity, but at least 1.000 million of cubic kilometers (km3) and this is something that cannot be unnoticed, especially when it is known there is a dislocation of melted matter inside an object.
It is equally important to point out that Jupiter and Neptune emit more heat waves than they receive from Sun, which points out, beyond any doubt, that these two objects also have melted interior parts.

Melting of the interiors of Venus and Earth is conducted by tidal forces (with mass and rotation as the corrective factors), where the object closer to Sun has higher temperatures than the more distant object. On Jupiter, mass and rotation are responsible for melting and which create the forces of pressure that are strong enough to melt matter. Temperatures are the highest and the forces of pressure the strongest in the centers of planets (and stars).

It can be concluded that there is no matter combustion inside stars and other objects; there is no radioactive matter disintegration; there is no hydrogen ignition that leads to the creation of stars; finally, the age of objects cannot be determined based on their rotations, because an object is created by a constant gathering of matter with the assistance of gravitational forces.

There is only the activity of atoms, produced by tidal forces and the forces of pressure. The atom activity creates heat. The higher the temperature, the lower the average density (Mercury 5, 427; Sun 1, 408 g/cm3)...

 

11. Why Mars does not have the atmosphere like Titan or Earth?

This article is a continuation of
Why there is not one and the same atmosphere on the objects of our system?and
What are working temperatures of elements and compounds in the Universe?.

Of course, in this work I will not deal with the question, how the atmosphere of Mars disappeared and where it went. I will leave that question to those smart people, who have been chasing ghosts and fantasies of the past for already 50 years, when people were discussing 400 canals on Mars, the Martians and their beautiful ladies with three breasts, the pyramids and faces on Mars. I will not talk about golden little cages, in which fleas from camels in the deserts of Mars were caught and held. Those who expected such topics will be disappointed, because I will talk only about hard evidence.

The minimal temperature on Mars is -143°C, while the average and maximal one are -63°C and +35°C respectively. The chemical composition of its atmosphere is: carbon-dioxide 95,97%; argon 1,93%; nitrogen 1,89%; oxygen 0,146%; carbon-monoxide 0,0557%, which in total makes 99,9917% of the elements and compounds, present in its atmosphere.

(The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4; Fe3O4 .. Wikipedia)

A lack of hydrogen and hydrogen-based compounds is a very important fact for the atmosphere of Mars, but also for Mars in general. When certain smart people realize that there can be no water without hydrogen, maybe then will they stop writing about water on Mars and stop this massive, yet futile search for the fictional water. It needs to be specially noted here that the melting point of hydrogen is -259,14°C and its boiling point is -252,87°C, which means that if there were hydrogen on Mars, it should be possible to detect it in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and surface. Earlier mentioned data rule out that possibility. If the chemical composition of Mars and its atmosphere gets "corrected", maybe water will even start flowing.

The average atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa, 0.00628 atm or only 0,6% of the Earth's atmospheric pressure (101,3 kPa).

The following evidence is provided in the next image

Mars-stijena

This closeup view from NASA's Curiosity rover shows finely layered rocks, deposited by wind long ago as migrating sand dunes. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

If it is known that the composition of atmosphere mostly (95,97%) consists of CO2 and that CO2 freezes at -56,6°C (CO2 has the melting point of -56,6°C (its triple point at 5,1 atm) and it evaporates at -78,5°C, Wikipedia), that the minimal temperature on Mars is -143°C and having seen the image showing a rock that consists of a sequence of thin leaflike layers, it can be determined, how the processes of CO2 occur on Mars.

During night, in the region outside the polar circle, CO2 from the atmosphere gets frozen and creates a thin crust, which is covered by sand, carried around by the wind, which is constantly blowing, because of the temperature differences. Thin layers are created that way and in time, a very porous rock is created out of them, too. The frozen crust that is uncovered by sand or discovered by wind gets evaporated into atmosphere. Therefore, it can be said there is the thermodynamic cycle of CO2 on Mars. The atmosphere of CO2 on Mars is unable to improve, due to the constant removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, which takes place because of the low temperatures during night and even lower temperatures in the polar regions (-143°C). In the polar regions there is the accumulation of CO2  layers, because the temperatures are lower than the point of sublimation (-78,5°C) and melting point (-56,6°C).

We can only wait for argon (which is now present at 1,93%), nitrogen (now at 1,89%) and oxygen (now at 0,146%) to fill the atmosphere; their melting and boiling points are much below -143°C. It is not difficult to notice that, except for argon (now at 0,930%), the other two elements are the main elements in the atmosphere of Earth.

06.01.2017.y.

12. Observing the Universe through colors

It is generally known that waves (light), when passing through a prism, create a rainbow, a spectrum of colors.
Sunsets are represented as the events of particular beauty, because one can in a short period of time see all of the spectrum colors, with red always at the end. The covering of Earth, or atmosphere, acts like a prism. The colors change due to the curvature of Earth and its atmosphere, too, and because of the length of passing through the prism (also, Sun and Moon appear to be at their full size at sunrise and sunset). The longest wave passing through the atmosphere, which results in the lowest intensity or force of the waves, produces beautiful nuances of red. This occurrence takes place both in the morning and in the evening, therefore the Doppler effect as the only explanation can be ruled out, because in the mornings there is a decrease of distance, which is the situation opposite to the one, occurring in the evenings.

Sunrize-Sunset Sunrise and Sunset in Zadar Croatia; W.Duckss

When observing the Universe and discovering galaxies, at the same time the rise of red spectrum is seen there with the increase of distance of an object. The greatest shift into red belongs to the most distant galaxies. These days, that fact is ascribed to the expansion of Universe, due to the Doppler effect, i.e., the faster the objects are moving away, the waves are longer and the color is red. Also, the greater the speeds of moving away, the greater the spectral shift into red. Instead of expansion, I included the effects of rotation – which absolutely meet the results, obtained by the observations of Universe within the spectrum of red – in my observation of Universe. The closer galaxies show both red and blue spectral shift (the speeds are both positive and negative by 100 and more km/s), but after a certain distance there is only the red shift (the speed of 270 000 km/s is estimated for the most distant galaxies). It is certain that rotation meets to the fullest the results, obtained by the astronomical observations, unlike expansion, in which – besides the official clique – nobody believes any more. Unlike expansion, rotation does not create paradoxes.

However, the problem starts with a rainbow.

All gained data are formed on the base of relating the spectral shift to the speed of galactic movement (expansion) and relating the spectral shift to the distance of an object was not considered. Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered. 72 collisions of clusters of galaxies were registered, even though there is a red shift among all of them. These collisions indicate it is an illusion that the speeds of moving away or rotations only increased, because a collision stands for a blue spectral shift for the colliding objects. The illusion appears only from the observation of galaxies through the increase of speed.
There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies and the Universe is occurring many times slower and it can be seen from the similarities between the more closer and very distant galaxies.

All observations are completely in harmony with the passed distance of the waves towards objects, as well as with the increase of speed; here, red means that the observed galaxies that are colliding into each other have a similar distance from the point of observation and they have the same red shift, even though they approach each other from the opposite directions. These galaxies have a blue shift between themselves and at least one of them should be approaching the observer.
The light, given by galaxies, is moving towards the increase of red shift with the weakening of the intensity of waves (radiation), due to the passed distance and, in lesser degree, due to the increase of speed towards the surface of the clusters of galaxies and the Universe.
January 13th 2017.

 

13. Vacuum in space or undetected matter?

The article is a continuation of:
Are we blind or we don't want to see the dark matter!  and
Why is the Universe cold? from the beginning of 2014.

(„Outer space  has very low density and pressure, and is the closest physical approximation of a perfect vacuum. “ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/  ).
The intensity (or illuminance or irradiance) of light or other linear waves radiating from a point source (energy per unit of area perpendicular to the source) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source; so an object (of the same size) twice as far away, receives only one-quarter the energy (in the same time period).)“ https://en.wikipedia.org/

However, this is wrong.

„The decrease of intensity is not equal to the activity of gravity, which indicates there is a sort of matter involved. The usual anomalies are recorded closer to Sun. The temperature on the dark side of Mercury (0 ° N, 0 ° W ~100°K; 85 ° N, 0 ° W 80° K) is lower than the one on Mars (~130°K) and there is a similar anomaly on Earth, in the sense of thermosphere.“ http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/

If the data about the Moon are checked:

„Surface temp. on the moon:  a minimum on equator 100° K,  and
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured the lowest summer temperatures in craters at the southern pole at 35 K (−238 °C; −397 °F) and just 26 K (−247 °C; −413 °F) close to the winter solstice in north polar Hermite Crater. This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System eve measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto.“ https://en.wikipedia.org/
 

These results (evidence) could by no means be related to the decrease of intensity of radiation with the square distance from the source (Sun). If there are any evidence to support the opposite view, then the inverse-square law does not apply any more.

The examples to support the negation of vacuum can be found in the entire volume of the Universe, there is the particle gathering to form nebulae, etc., instead of abiding the law of equalizing the different particles' pressures inside a volume.   

(„That said, gas in a vacuum system at normal conditions, between atmospheric pressure and somewhere slightly below 1 torr, is dense enough that it will flow towards the lower pressure – the mechanical pump inlet.“) https://vacaero.com/information-resources/vacuum-pump-technology-education-and-training/9364-gas-molecules-and-gas-flow.html  )

When comparing the formations of nebulae in the Universe and clouds on Pluto, on the moon of Titan, or on Earth, one can identify the commonality of the phenomenon, which does not depend on the laws of vacuum. The formation occurs under the same principles when talking about the formation of matter structure, due to the attraction and other forces that are present inside the milieu, known as matter. The fact that matter measuring in the space outside the atmosphere is impossible does not mean we have to shut our eyes before the evidence of its existence.

nebila
1. By Credit: NASA, Jeff Hester, and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University) - http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2003/34/image/a, Public Domain
2. Zadar WDuckss

The existence of matter can be observed here, on Earth, too. A balloon, inflated 2-3 km deep under the water surface, will explode just before the surface or on it, due to the air expansion. The similar thing happens to the balloons, which are sent outside the atmosphere – they explode at the maximum altitude of 40 km above the surface of Earth, due to the equalizing the pressures. There are different kinds of matter and different outcomes, but the final outcome is the same: the pressures get equalized. The balloons are moving in the direction, which is opposite to the activity of gravitation and they exclusively abide the law of equalizing the different pressures. The balloons "know" where is the less dense matter inside a volume.   

Different kinds of matter coexist one by the other and the transition from one into the other is more or less defined. That is impossible between matter and vacuum, because the pressures of matter and vacuum always tend to equalize and that is not what can be seen between the atmosphere and vacuum and with the gas (particle) gathering into nebulae, etc.

Right here, just outside (even inside) the atmosphere, there is the kind of matter, which is known to us, which had been defined and its influence on the visible matter calculated – it only remains to be detected.

February 12th 2017.

 

14. Using "tales" in science to acquire financial resources – is it correct?

A few days ago I watched a documentary on TV, in which NASA employees use nicely constructed tales to sensitize the masses of people with a final goal to acquire financial resources for space missions. It all seemed innocent, nice and very justified. Small tales to secure big money for scientific travels. They went on telling tales in the documentary... the most often they used tales of water supposedly existing on Mars, Europa, Pluto, etc.; the search for life and possible life-supporting conditions; wonderings whether we are alone (in the Universe) or not; habitable zones; etc. People like such tales and those of great "mysteries" of Universe, too (black holes, dead stars, planets traveling from internal to external orbits and vice versa, distant past in a singularity), written with nice scholarly words and phrases... There is nothing wrong about it, except for presenting these tales in renowned magazines (or on TV) as a top scientific work by well-educated and respected scientists of renowned organizations, who insist on the verity of these tales, despite of knowing that they are false.

There is no expiration date for such a tale. These tales are being quoted by scientists from around the world, from the level of school to the level of encyclopedia. Classical scientific thinking, based on the scientific research and logical inference, is not allowed. If you give some real evidence that it is pointless to discuss made-up (delivered by order) tales, because they are not scientifically based, then you face an unimaginable wall of refusal to accept the reality by all of the renowned scientific institutions. Underestimations, ignoring, insulting, censorships, offences and restrictions in approaching the renowned magazines follow, instead of approving. If a certain magazine (which is outside the "renowned" circle) publishes such a scientific paper, it gets discredited and disqualified as a false magazine.

Twenty years have passed since the landing of the rover on the surface of Mars in the search for water, the life on Mars and the runaway atmosphere. After twenty years of searching and wandering around the carefully chosen sites on Mars, not a single drop of water nor a single evidence of its possible existence have been found. For the twenty years now we have been listening and reading the same incoherent tales about water existing on Mars. The explanations get more and more convincing; it is been prophesied from sand, stones, craters, taluses, ditches and channels, frozen surface (CO2) which does not evaporate water (H2O) ... For the twenty years the rovers have been searching for water without a single positive shred of evidence. When will the expiration date for these tales come and when will the presentation of science start?

Slikovni rezultat za žeđ

A whole army of very loud people (the "scientists" bound with them through the same interests) are engaged in supporting these tales; the people who are allowed to say anything, while their supporters and fans are loudly cheering to them.

Does anyone still remember the pyramids, faces and other signs of civilization on Mars? Does anyone still remember the debacle of landing the Cassini-Huygens probe to the surface of Titan into the oceans of hydrocarbons (methane and ethane) to the opposite of a frozen desert, which had been found there? Does anyone still remember the rings around Pluto? The missions without probes to land on the surface are nowadays been sent to Titan, as it is easier to defend the tales based on the blurry photos, which are anyway computer-processed (photoshopped) with fake colors added, than on the unwanted evidence from the very spot.

It can be estimated that we will be listening to this rubbish until the industry will have their interests on Mars and until they will need new financial resources. The "situation" is being warmed up now with the tales of people going to Mars (as if we have not been listening to that for the last 30 years). People and water go hand by hand, we will again have to listen and read of "sensational" tales about water on Mars for the next 20 years (without a shred of evidence, of course). The tales of a runaway atmosphere have been quieted down (not extinguished or discarded, Heaven forbid!), because there are no more ideas how to continue lying without evidence; besides, atmosphere is not as attractive as water and it can not be "found" over the next hill or crater in the wasteland of Mars.

Several links for articles on this topic:
https://science.slashdot.org/story/99/07/30/1224238/sea-of-oil-seen-on-titands1-asteriod-fly-by   „Sea of oil seen on Titan / DS1 Asteriod fly-by“
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v374/n6519/abs/374238a0.html
https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/1-4020-4520-4_410
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027311779090097Jhttp://sen.com/blogs/morgan-rehnberg/what-might-a-pluto-ring-look-like
http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/The_Rings_of_Pluto_999.html
https://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/why.html  Mars, Water and Life

27.6.2017.y.

 

15. The formation of particles in the Universe

To have the law of universal gravitation is hardly enough to explain the formation of particles. The formation of particles takes place in the Universe, under very dynamic circumstances. Objects rotate, circle around other objects; they melt and collide; all objects put together move in the same direction (the orbit around a larger object; inside a local group of objects; inside clusters and superclusters of galaxies; inside the Universe, multiverse and probably inside two or (at the most) three even larger groups of multiverses.1 Space is filled with radiation (waves) of different kinds and very different intensities (force). This image of space is to be kept constantly in one's mind during the discussion about the formation of particles, because there are no static or "frozen" images or events.

In the experiment, which I conducted in 2005., the results showed the gathering of a part of glass and quartz fragments on the surface of water (in the experiment, the gathered group was 5-6 cm in diameter large). The goal of the experiment was to see the behavior of matter after it had passed through a filter, which simulated the friction of matter. The filter was a transparent pressure hose, a few meters long, filled with quartz sand (and the other with grained glass). To make more intensive friction force, I used a compressor and a pressurized water machine. In the exit part of the equipment I used water (as a filter of outgoing matter particles) in an open container.

The conclusion was that matter, under pressure, tends to gather and segregates itself on the water surface – even though it should, generally, sink (with a mild rotation, which is not going to be discussed now).
There is only one force in space, which is able to create the friction of particles – and it is radiation (waves). Since the muon discovery (µ), which science fails to acknowledge even to this day, it has been known that in the collision of waves and particles (matter) a disintegration2 of proton can occur, which is later confirmed in accelerators or in particle collisions.3

Waves are at the same time a very weak force when we discuss the formation of particles (here, the particles of hydrogen, helium, etc., are discussed).  A chemical composition of the visible matter in the Universe can testify for it – on average, different sources claim there is about 89% of hydrogen (H) and 11% of helium (He) and all other elements. Chemical compositions of nebulae and clouds have the same ratio. A more significant ratio of complex particles is seen for the first time in smaller objects that rotate around stars. Comets that approach a star, discharge their volatile elements and turn into asteroids.4 The influence of waves, tidal forces and object rotation create a more complex chemical structure.5

A higher quantity of  high-energy particles is closer to a star, which points out that the force (intensity) of waves has a crucial role in creating high-energy particles. 
A more significant growth of complex atoms occurs with the increase in the force of pressure inside objects (planets), due to which a melted core is created. Temperature and influx of hot matter from the interiority of an object, in co-operation with the crust of an object, create a real, natural laboratory of disintegration of different chemical elements and compounds.6 The forces of pressure also exist with even smaller objects that collide with other objects. Tidal forces (the effects of a binary system) create effects that are similar to those, made by temperature and pressure. A constant gravitational activity that influences the objects in an orbit causes the movement of some parts of matter, due to the different chemical composition of an object. The distinguishing examples are Venus, Io, Enceladus..7

Very high temperatures that go beyond the boiling point of elements create a natural disintegration of complex elements towards the atom of hydrogen. A reliable and tested evidence of this are the chemical compositions of stars. A chemical composition of Sun is in the total disparity to the one of Earth. That difference is not so obvious when related to other internal objects, including the asteroids from the asteroid belt, too.8

There are deviations inside the system of a star, which are very similar to those in the termosphere of Earth. A dark side of Mars (130°K, Phobos and Deimos  Ø 233°K) has a significantly higher temperatures than Mercury (85° K) and Moon (100°K; some research results claim that there are the temperatures, which are among the lowest ones in the system); Vesta has the same minimal temperature as Mercury (85°K), while Churyumov–Gerasimenko has 180°K, etc. These evidence clearly negate the drop of the radiation intensity with the square distance. The objects closer to the source are colder on their dark side than the objects that are more than three a.u. further away (Mercury 0,3871 a.u.; 85 K – 67P Churyumov–Gerasimenko 3,4630 a.u.; 180°K ). 9

The objects that move in the orbits outside the thermal sphere have a deficient chemical structure. The masses of gaseous planets point that in that sphere there was a lot of gas in the past. The similar thing is observed with the stars that rotate very fast; they generally form a gas disk at a relatively similar distances. During time, gravitational forces in matter inside these spheres (gas disks) form gaseous planets.10
In the 2002./2003., in the paper "Bipolar fluid world or the Zadar theory", this is written on the page 60: " ... a formation of particles takes place due to the high pressure of the mass of the Universe when energy starts to leak within it. A fine structure of the Universe's mass is unable to create rough structures, but only particles that are given bipolarity and started their fast waltz." 

The next part of the text is created upon my own personal observations, which have never been followed by any published evidence, as such observations are unacceptable to the official science. I am alone and I do all my texts regardless of the scientific mainstream, which is plagiarizing my texts and is trying to make them "legal" afterwards by "important" scientific magazines (Nature, NASA, Astrobio.net, ..).11, 11a, 11b It will take much more time for them to plagiarize the formation of particles.
I have studied the formation of protons from the research of subatomic physicists of the 1980s, who had observed the protons jumping out of the field (which is something that only a part of them would manage, while the others would return to the field).

The forces of pressure in the Universe are the precondition of formation of the first particle, neutrino.12 In these days such ideas should be updated, as there should be an additional factor to relate formation to the real Universe. Formation is not uniformed. Some parts of the Universe have abudance of matter, while the others don't. The increease of the Universe is the evidence of matter being formed from the (dark) energy. The majority of matter is located near stars and smaller objects. According to the texts of W. Duckss, this can be explained like this: matter experiences gravitation; a larger object possesses stronger gravitational forces (than the lesser one); the formation of matter occurs more frequently near larger and high-speed rotating objects. The mutual force which helps in formation of particles, except the force of pressure, is a spectrum of different waves and their different forces. The understanding of this can be seen similarly as the formation of Tesla's ball lightning. 
A particle is created in the contact of waves of different forces, where the stronger wave (or more of them) forms one pole and the weaker waves form the other one. Although the difference between the + and – poles is barely 5 to 10% (a weak hydrogen bond), this is a basic starter of the matter attraction. Hydrogen, H2, proves that. A proton is looking for another proton, because lesser particles are unable to fill such a difference (it takes more than 90 electrons to do it).

The age of an object and system is determined through the time needed for a certain mass to be collected and formed as an object in given conditions, as well as for that object to get attracted into a system. An initial value should be a small asteroid, which is estimated to be 4,5 billion of years old, the time which should roughly be enough for the gas particles to join into dust and form an object of ½ kg of weight. Age is not to be measured by measuring distance. The quantity of13,7(8) billion of light-years, which is the distance to the most distant object in the Universe, is the length by which a circumference of the Universe is determined, with the correction of movement of the most distant objects, which is 270.000 km/sec13 . The Universe makes a single circle (rotation) in ~94,5 billion of years. Its disk-like appearance and enormous outer speed point out at the vast number of circles made to this day. Rotation gives the Universe a direction or trajectory.14
Juny 08.2018.y.


__________________________________________________________

1. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed  
Rotation of objects  (smaller objects, stars, galaxies,...) is analysed through the effects of rotation 1 in the formation of objects and in processes that follow, due to: the rotation around the axis; the effects on the other orbiting objects or on binary objects; the effect of rotation on the displacement of an incoming object into the orbit; the influence of the speed of rotation on the quantity and mass of particles and objects orbiting around a main object 2; its influence on the radius, temperature, and accordingly on the color and surface gravity of a star 3.

2. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#6b 
Even before the construction of an accelerator, the scientists found out that a disintegration of matter occurs, because they were regularly recording a muon landing from the universe to a laboratory (a muon is a part of a particle, i.e., of a proton, which has a negative charge within a generally positive particle). When colliders appeared, we saw and we can still see how and to what particles matter disintegrates, i.e., how protons, neutrons and electrons disintegrate. There is no doubt whatsoever that a matter disintegrates during the collisions at very high speeds. At that time, the visible matter turns into an invisible one. With a few short delays, which are called the particles, it turns into an elementary matter.
A problem occurs when we don’t want to integrate this knowledge into the already-existing weak theories, which are more inclined to look for the answers in the fairy tales outside the frame of physics. We know very well which percussive forces are created when any star explodes, and yet, we don’t want to consider the results obtained by the colliders as a correct interpretation of the event, just as if it were two different worlds involved. There is an endless quantity of high-value collisions within an explosion, similar or even the same as they occur in the supercollider, and yet again, we continue to interpret the loss of matter and mass outside the frame of physics, rather than through the disintegration of matter. It is clear now why did those stories of the mini black holes appearing in the CERN institute come out; if it was not possible to create mini black holes in these unimaginably strong collisions, how can then exist their larger counterparts – and the conditions for their appearance are almost the same as in the so-called Big Bang.
The period before the colliders’ technology and thus obtained knowledge have appeared can be understood and justified, but by no means can it be done the same way after the knowledge of the possibility for a mass to disappear. ..
The loss of matter should be replaced the way Fred Hoyle suggested the particles are created, which has, by the way, been confirmed by the sub-atomic research. The formation itself should be related to the quantity of disintegrated matter (he suggested one, and only on Earth billions and billions disappear daily, which has been confirmed by the muon landings from the universe, due to the charge opposition between Earth and muons). The disintegration is the end and the formation of matter is the beginning of the process of the fundamental matter circulation in the universe.

3. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#12b 
It is not to be forgotten that a smaller part of matter is also been disintegrated in the collisions of waves and particles. In order for the muons to be registered at all in the laboratories, a countless number of particle disintegrations needs to occur. It is an everlasting occurrence on the objects orbiting around a star from the beginning of time till these days and until a star becomes a nova. A good portion of matter is being disintegrated in the collisions of objects and galaxies. Therefore, the colossal dimensions are not related only to the creation of matter, but also to the growth of all objects within stellar systems, galaxies and the Universe. Millions of craters are only a reminder of that process being contiguous and ongoing. Due to the energy friction, the neutrinos are created. Then, they start joining into the electrons and are further combined into the protons and into ever larger atoms. The atoms join into the molecules and create gas, then dust, rocks … the objects that become the planets around a star … and ultimately the most of matter is being disintegrated through explosions and returned again into the elementary matter (energy and dark matter).

4. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#differences-in%20-structure 
The objects that are closer to the central object possess a higher density (due to the higher tidal force effects), as well as the objects with bigger masses and higher temperatures of space (Ariel/Umbriel; Titania/Oberon; Proteus/Triton; Rhea/Iapetus; Galileo's satellites; Phobos/Deimos; internal/external planets; etc). Of course, it does not mean that all objects belong to this group. The very division of asteroids into S, M and V type suggests a dramatical deviation. One part of objects becomes more dense in the beginning of their approach to the Sun (because volatile matter disappears and higher temperatures help the creation of the more complex elements). The other part of objects was created during the disintegration of objects (the internal – the higher density, and the external – the lower density), due to the collisions. In both cases a continuation of growth must be taken into consideration, as the lesser objects keep arriving to their surfaces. A certain portion of satellites also does not abide the strict law (density, mass, space temperature and distance to the central object), which implies the different past of these objects before they got captured by the central object. A part of it definitely belongs to the different composition of objects that constantly bombard satellites and other objects. It is unlikely that more dense asteroids from the asteroid belt would hit the outer objects, unlike the interior ones, because the gravitational force of Sun is dominant.

5. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#What-is-happening-to-oxygen-and-hydrogen  
In its beginning, every (historic) object is a comet. When an object has made enough number of orbits near a star, it has lost the most of its volatile elements. The objects with a minimum of volatile elements are called asteroids or solid (rocky) objects. Those objects that have not been approaching closer to a star possess the elements' structure of the lower order, which is typical for a cold or colder space. These elements are directly related to the temperature  (operating temperature) which exists in the space around and on such objects. Therefore, there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces. These objects, which possess a melted interior (Jupiter, Neptune, Earth, Venus), create their broad chemical structure and their heat on their own. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The photo above shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3, etc.)).

6. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Why-Atmospheres-of-Stars-Lack-Metals

  Melting point °C   Boiling point °C % crust of the Earth
% mantle of the Earth
Zemlje
  Melting point °C  Boiling point °C % crust of the Earth % mantle of the Earth
SiO2    1.713    2.950 60,2 46 Si 1.410 2.355 27,7 21,5
Al2O3    2.072    2.977 15,2 4,2 Al 660,35 2.467 8,1 2,2
CaO    2.613    2.850 5,5 3,2 Ca 839 1484 3,6 2,3
MgO    2.825    3.600 3,1 37,8 Mg 648,85 1.090 1,5 22,8
FeO    1.377    3.414 3,8 7,5 Fe 1.535 2750 5,0 5,8
Na2O    1.132    1.950 3 0,4 Na 97,81 882,95 2,8 0,3
K2O      740       - 2.8 0,04 K 63,65 774 2,6 0,03
Fe2O3  1.539 -  1.565 Not Available 2.5   Fe 1.535 2750    
H2O    0   100 1,4  (1,1)   H -259,14 -252,87    
CO2    -56 Sublimation -78,5 1,2   O -218,35 -182,96 46,6 44,8
TiO2    1.843    2.972 0,7   Ti 1.660 3.287    
P2O5 sublimes    360 0,2   P 44,15 280 P4    
Sunce  He 24,85 % , H 73,46% , O 0,77% , C 0,29% , other 0,53%   He -272,20 -268,934    


Sun photospheric composition (by mass)

Melting point °C

Boiling point °C
Hydrogen 73.46% -259,14 -252,87
Helium 24.85% -272,20 -268,934
Oxygen 0.77% -218,35 -182,96
Carbon 0.29% 3.547,00 4.827,00
Iron 0.16% 1.535,00 2.750,00
Neon 0.12% -248,67 -246,05
Nitrogen 0.09% -209,86 -195,75
Silicon 0.07% 1.410,00 2.355,00
Magnesium 0.05% 648,85 1.090,00
Sulfur 0.04% 112,85 444,674

Average density of Sun 1,408 g/cm3
Temperature photosphere : 5.772 K

7. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Heated-objects-(stars) 
The mass which creates pressure and the effects of the gravitational forces of Sun are responsible for the melted core. That is the reason why Venus is more warm than Earth and has more active volcanoes, although it is smaller than Earth..
Now, the ever-improving technology is providing more and more new evidence to change that mass level. That mass level has become even more blurred through the discovery of exoplanets and more detailed observation of brown dwarfs, because the mass level was unable to provide the needed answers7. By observing two adjacent objects (so-called binary objects), like Sun-Venus, Earth-Moon, etc, the existence of a strong activity of gravitational forces, combined with the movement of objects in an orbit and rotation of one or both objects  were discovered. (So-called binary system is a rarity; it rarely happens so that there are only two objects in a relation, so this term will be used instead of two concrete objects, like Pluto and Charon, although Pluto has four more satellites.) The speed of rotation of a central object also influences the reduction of mass, for an object to start shining. If there are two stars with the same mass and different speeds of rotation, the star that rotates faster is warmer. These effects are automatically transferred to the orbiting object. It goes the same for such an orbiting object. The faster rotation creates more matter friction inside the object, which results in a higher temperature and stronger magnetic field (if the object has an independent rotation).

8. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Processes 
Inside this process there is a process of growth and disintegration of elements, which is related to temperature and rotation. The atoms of the lower order are generally present on smaller objects: asteroids, comets and the majority of satellites and smaller planets. When an object’s mass is sufficiently increased, given other forces, too, it becomes geologically active. Its temperature grows inside and outside its crust, due to the formation of heated core. The atoms of the higher order are created under these conditions. The more active and warm a planet is, the higher is the presence of the higher order elements. However, at certain point temperature begins to destroy (disintegrate) higher elements.
As temperature gets higher, a variety of elements gets poorer; the heated stars generally consist only of hydrogen and helium, with other elements below 1%. Both of these processes can be traced on Earth; the other one is visible through the composition of magma. Magma consists of the lower order atoms, which is confirmed by its cooled rocks. Neither gold nor silver or any other higher order element, exist in magma; for them to be created, more conditions need to be met.
The temperature of stars is directly related to the speed of its rotation. Those with slower rotation are red, while with the increase of the rotation speed, also increases the glow and temperature of a star. As a consequence, it turns white and blue. If we consult the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it is obvious that both very small and super giant stars can have the same glow; they can be white, red or blue. The mass and quantity of so-called fuel that they supposedly burn is obviously an unacceptable answer – there are stars of the same mass, or sizes, but with a completely different glow. If we were to try to explain that by the presence of different elements, it would make no sense. Diversity of elements depends exactly on the temperature heights: the higher the temperature, the lower the diversity and order of elements.

9. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#causal-relation 
The sun light must have obviously been changing its nature on its way from the Sun to our planet. It is visible on Sun and on Earth, but not between these two objects. There is no visible light immediately outside the atmosphere. The decrease of light visibility is in a direct relation to the density of the atmosphere: the more sparse is the atmosphere, the less of light and the more of darkness is there.
Correlating this fact with other objects of our system we can see that the behavior of the objects with atmosphere is identical, while the objects with an unsignificant or no atmosphere at all have only a surface that is lighted, followed by a field without light.
When observing the comets, we can see they create a visible tail when approaching  a star. That is a clear example of observing the transition of an object without the atmosphere towards the objects with the atmosphere. In the slow transformation of a comet we can follow the process which indicates that light is not appearing by itself but with the occurrence of the visible matter. On this level of observation, the behavior of space, when colliding with radiation, is the opposite one from the behavior of the visible matter. Space is dark and (visible) matter is visible. When traveling away from the source (a star), radiation does not create a relation to space which would result in the appearance of light; on the other side, when radiation collides with the visible matter, a phenomenon of light is being created. The observations within the whole Universe support this idea: light is created when the visible matter is influenced by the radiation of a star, while the rest of space, without the visible matter, is dark and it is directly adjacent to the space with the visible matter.

10. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Why-there 
The objects with a ring but without their own rotation have never been dicovered yet. That conclusion is drawn from the irregular galaxies, which do not have their own rotation and a formed center (An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy. Wikipedia). It is clear that they do not have a recognizable disk-shaped form, as the galaxies with a formed center and a rotation around their axis do. Regular galaxies, those with a rotation around their axis, consist of a galactic center, the diameter of which can be up to 30.0009  light-years, and a formed ring (with the spiral galaxies) or disk (with the elliptic galaxies), the diameter of which can be over 100 00010 light-years. All satellites of the Solar system, together with Mercury and Venus, could also be included here, with the important remark that very low temperatures and irregular shape of the distant satellites in the Kuiper belt around planets can also have their own rotation, as well as the objects around that satellite.
A vast majority of stars, which have been identified up to now as having a disk, an asteroid belt or a ring, are very fast rotating stars11 with a smaller radius (a relation of mass/radius, related to the Sun) and a stronger surface gravity. Gaseous giant planets of the Solar system have at the same time higher speeds of rotation and lower temperatures of the surrounding area. However, there are different results, too. The rings exist around the objects with the red nuances, which temperatures are below 5 or 4.000°K (Beta Pictoris b…). It means that these objects have a slower rotation and some of them have a relative radius bigger than the relative mass (for example, an object, with a mass of the 1,7 Sun mass, has a radius of the 2,3 Sun radius) and a weaker surface gravity. It proves beyond any doubt that if there is a rotation of an object, there is also a possibility of forming a ring and other smaller objects in the orbit around it.
Bigger objects (such as stars and galactic centers) and faster rotation produce bigger rings and a very fast speed of rotation produces a disk (elliptic galaxies and so-called protostars6).

11. https://www.astrobio.net/mars/rare-metals-mars-earth-implicate-colossal-impacts/ etc.
Slavko Sedić
28. svibnja u 22:17 · 
Magazine sponsors NASA. This is a solid reason for free plagiarism.
From article: 
"Planets form as small dust grains stick together and agglomerate with other grains, leading to bigger bodies termed “planetesimals.” These planetesimals continue to collide with each other and are either ejected from the Solar System, gobbled up by the Sun, or form a planet. This is not the end of the story, as planets continue to accrete material well after they have formed. This process is known as late accretion, and it occurs as leftover fragments of planet formation rain down on the young planets."
From: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html etc.
„Growth doesn’t stop with atoms; on the contrary, joining goes on. Through joining, chemical reactions and combined, gas, dust, sand, the rocks named asteroids and comets, etc., are all created. Even further, planets are created the same way. Then, when planets grow to the 10% of Sun’s mass, they become stars, which can be really gigantic (super-giants).
Millions of craters scattered around the objects of our Solar system are the evidence of objects’ growth. Constant impacts of asteroids into our atmosphere and soil are the evidence of these processes being uninterrupted today, just the same as it used to be in any earlier period of the past. It is estimated that 4 000 – 100 000 tons of extraterrestrial material falls yearly to Earth. We had seen the impacts of objects with Jupiter, Moon, etc. It is completely impossible to talk about a primeval formation, even less about a simultaneous one. There is a particular history, age and mass in each and every object; they are not the same with any other object. Generally, a bigger object should also mean an older object, but there are also some corrective factors, because of the conditions in which the objects exist.“

11a. Nature

Deer Sir / Madam,
Article:
"Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri" Marco Tail, Francesca D'Antona, Enrico Vesper, Marcello Di Criscienzo, Paolo Ventura et al.
Nature (22 June 2015) | doi: 10.1038 / nature14516
It contains parts of my work as part of the basic ideas
which are located at: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#Processes.
Please check the authenticity of origin and whether it is plagiarism wrapped in fine, cellophane or unintentional copyright infringement.
As temperature gets higher, a variety of elements gets poorer; the heated stars generally consist only of hydrogen and helium, with other elements below 1%. Both of these processes can be traced on Earth; the other one is visible through the composition of magma. Magma consists of the lower order atoms, which is confirmed by its cooled rocks. Neither gold nor silver or any other higher order element, exist in magma; for them to be created, more conditions need to be met.
The temperature of stars is directly related to the speed of its rotation. Those with slower rotation are red, while with the increase of the rotation speed, also increases the glow and temperature of a star. As a consequence, it turns white and blue. If we consult the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it is obvious that both very small and super giant stars can have the same glow; they can be white, red or blue. The mass and quantity of so-called fuel that they supposedly burn is obviously an unacceptable answer – there are stars of the same mass, or sizes, but with a completely different glow. If we were to try to explain that by the presence of different elements, it would make no sense. Diversity of elements depends exactly on the temperature heights: the higher the temperature, the lower the diversity and order of elements.


Sincerely.
Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedić)
Zadar Croatia
Dear Dr Sedić,

Thank you for your email. We would advise you to submit a presubmission enquiry to our editors via our manuscript system here - http://mts-nature.nature.com/cgi-bin/main.plex  
If you experience any problems with this system please do not hesitate to contact us. 

For more details on how to submit please view our guidelines at http://www.nature.com/nature/authors/submissions/presubs/

Best wishes,

Nature Administration 

From: Slavko Sedić [mailto:slavko.sedic@zd.t-com.hr
Sent: 02 July 2015 07:13
To: Nature@nature.com
Cc: wduckss@gmail.com
Subject: The authentication of the article, search the

In the article "Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri"   "authors" "scientists" use "Rapidly rotating (stars)" without introductions, tables or any explanation. (out of the blue sky, like the already accepted knowledge) although this is a complete novelty (except in my texts). A complete novelty without citation is plagiarism.

11b. Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  
Provided by: Southwest Research Institute

Can you provide more information about the alleged plagiarism? I was not able to access the following links:

http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#1growth

http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#1b

Is the plagiarized text in the Phys.org article? 

Sincerely, Etta Kavanagh Editorial Manager PNAS

From: Slavko Sedić [mailto:slavko.sedic@zd.t-com.hr
Sent: Monday, February 22, 2016 1:37 AM
To: PNAS
Subject: plagiat 

Deer sir / madam, 

In http://phys.org/news/2015-10-scientists-rocky-planets-pebbles.html

published an article "Scientists predict that rocky planets formed from 'pebbles'" October 26, 2015, which refers to you, "He is the first author of a new paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition. " 

Text is plgijat. 

Comment on the article in phys.org: not rated yet just added

Nothing new. Bad plagiarism. Quote from:

http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#1growth

Growth does not stop with atoms; on the contrary, joining goes on. Through joining, chemical reactions and combined, gas, dust, sand, the rocks named asteroids and comets, etc., are all created. Even further, the planets are created the same way. Then, when the planets grow to the 10% of the sun's mass, they become stars, which can be really gigantic (super-giants).
Millions of craters scattered around the objects of our solar system are the records of objects' growth. 

See also:

http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#1b

Please remove the article.

Best regards.

Weitter Duckss

From 2004 to 2016, "authors" are published Colapse clouds and similar nonsense. Now is the time for "Permanent Growth of Matter" (http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Theory-of-Zadar.html 2004.y.). Authors simply adopt, other people's paper, and have their "new theory". Magazines publish plagiarism even though the same (original) author's (me) paper has rejected and burned heavily.
Etc, etc,etc ..

12. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Theory-of-Zadar.html 
Constant process
Presser powers with pressure bring to passing of energy through energy and as a result we have polarized particles of the whole seriesof volume.
Depending on wolume of paritcles they erise with essantial disturbed balance to the benefit of positiv or negativ charge.14 Disturbed charge inside of fluid particle initiates the automatical proces of saturation. Because of a great number of volumes and difference of disturbed charge we have a great dynamics of connection and it develops on more levels at the same time.
For us separating proceses are of greatness of quark, electrons and neutrin.
One clearly read off that the whole (dark) mater has no stressed charge and it is for us neutral or without charge.15 As it all develops inside of that matter of particle at forming of more and more complicated system they use this matter too.

13. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#spectrum-of-colors 
All gained data are formed on the base of relating the spectral shift to the speed of galactic movement (expansion) and relating the spectral shift to the distance of an object was not considered. Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered. 72 collisions of clusters of galaxies were registered, even though there is a red shift among all of them. These collisions indicate it is an illusion that the speeds of moving away or rotations only increased, because a collision stands for a blue spectral shift for the colliding objects. The illusion appears only from the observation of galaxies through the increase of speed.
There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies and the Universe is occurring many times slower and it can be seen from the similarities between the more closer and very distant galaxies.
All observations are completely in harmony with the passed distance of the waves towards objects, as well as with the increase of speed; here, red means that the observed galaxies that are colliding into each other have a similar distance from the point of observation and they have the same red shift, even though they approach each other from the opposite directions. These galaxies have a blue shift between themselves and at least one of them should be approaching the observer.
The light, given by galaxies, is moving towards the increase of red shift with the weakening of the intensity of waves (radiation), due to the passed distance and, in lesser degree, due to the increase of speed towards the surface of the clusters of galaxies and the Universe“

14. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#growth1 
The age of Earth itself is very difficult to determine approximately. The calculation needs to start with the age of a small asteroid, the age of which had been estimated to 4.5 billion of years. It was tried to set that same value as the age of the Earth’s crust, even though there was not a single evidence or any similarity link between these separated worlds. Earth constantly renews its crust, just as a snake does with its skin; it happens through the plate tectonics, volcano activity and constant approach of the new, extraterrestrial matter, which is estimated to be 4 000 – 100 000 tons per year.

This data are the next fact by which the age could be determined. Its shortcoming is that its value decreases with the size of an object or increases if the object increases. The intensity of approaching or enlargement is similar in very long period of time. There are data for Earth that its mass, with the help of the Sun’s gravitational effects, created a melted core; in fact, only the crust is solid, but its relative thickness is measured in parts per thousand. The melted Earth is in terms of age significantly further than the solid objects as Mercury, Mars, Moon, etc. – their age, compared to the age of Earth, is measured below one part per thousand.

When I speak of a quadrillion of years in my estimates of the Earth’s age, that is only the estimate of the lower limit of age, gained from the age of the asteroid – which is, by the way, questionable – and from its annual growth, calculated from the facts of 4 000 – 100 000 tons of the incoming extraterrestrial material per year. At the moment, that quantity is enough to break the illusion of 4.5 – 4.8 billion of years of the Earth’s age. That quantity had been calculated for the crust and very carelessly applied to the whole Earth.

Generally: the larger the object, the older it is. When it grows up to 10% of the Sun’s mass, it loses its crust and becomes a solar object, a star. However, it shouldn’t be forgotten that this questionable limit had been established long ago; the recent researches, conducted with the use of more advanced instruments, have significantly lowered that limit. There also exist objects, which become solar objects, even though their mass can be compared to the mass of Jupiter or even less; the cause of that are the forces of attraction and the rotation of the central object.

The age of universe can be estimated only from its disc form. We can assume that it takes a high outer speed, a long period of time and large number of rotations to achieve this form. If we determine the distance of the furthest galaxies from us, which is estimated to be 13.8 (13.7) billion of light-years, to be the radius of universe from the approximate center – where we are situated – to the outer parts, and by calculating the circumference with the formula 2rπ, with taking the speed of the outer region in the calculation (270 000 km/sec. / 0.9 of the speed of light), there is the result: the universe makes a single turn in approximately 94.5 billion of years.
This result should be multiplied with a large number of rotations, needed to create a disc form. It is clear now that the age of universe is not really important, because it is an enormous number, which, due to its enormity, has no theoretical or practical value to us.   


Juny 08.2018.y.

 

2016

1. Gravitational waves – a great discovery or a great scandal (a plagiarism)?

It is probably very difficult to find a single person, who has not been informed of the great, globally important discovery of gravitational waves and that is the reason why it is unnecessary to give any additional links here.
Gravitational waves are registered out there, somewhere far away (at the distance of 1,3 billion of light-years).

„The gravitational force is a force by which Earth, Moon or any other massive object attracts another object towards itself. By definition, it is the weight of an object, Fgrav = m * g
https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/gravity

The assertion of the authors to have seen a collision of two hypothetical, scientifically unproven objects (the collision of two „black holes“) indicates that „something is rotten in the state of Denmark.“ Why? A great discovery does not need such presentations that automatically cause suspicion and start large-scale discussions. The only possible reason could be that they are throwing dust in our eyes and covering the truth about what they have really discovered.

A new article suddenly appeared on February 25th, http://phys.org/news/2016-02-pulsar-web-low-frequency-gravitational.html and all of a sudden, a new change of the already new paradigm occurred again. Gravitational waves could be created by pulsars that have a fast rotation!
This utter „shift“ seems to be at the core of the discovery, as well as the confirmation that these are not the gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein himself (he did not create nor did he accept the term „black hole“), but the waves emitted by every object that rotates around its axis; the faster the rotation – the more important the waves, and vice versa.

This is no Einstein anymore, this is Weitter Duckss and his texts, made in the last 12 years.
The Theory of Zadar was published in 2004. and there it is stated:

„The rotation of particles within a system, as well as the parts of a system inside the particular structures, is the weight, and is also a gravity, which unites the force of attraction, caused by the magnetic force, and the force of repulsion, which, due to the rotation, emits the waves in the direction away from the object. This is expressed the best on the astronomical objects that possess rotation (the objects without their own rotation do not emit waves); due to the atoms movement direction, synchrotron radiation appears and creates the waves of repulsion, which are influencing the neutral energy.“
http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Theory-of-Zadar.html

„A quote of a part of the text from the year of 2008: „... Celestial objects rotate around their axes; the rotation creates waves, which travel away from an object and in that way create repulsion forces, which prevent the objects, captured in the orbits around them, from falling onto them. Electromagnetic forces constantly direct smaller objects towards the greater, dominant object, which, due to its rotation, constantly repulses and deflects the incoming object until it gets captured in the orbit of the dominant object. That is why objects oscillate on their trajectories; electromagnetic forces of repulsion and attraction simultaneously affect them… “ “. http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#5b

A question could be asked here: how is it possible that gravity, as a force of attraction, creates the reverse force at the same time? These waves should be moving towards the center of gravity and not away from it; therefore, there should be nothing to be measured.

It seems that this is only a too much of a hussle (even the president Obama praised the discovery) and only an attempt to disguise the next American plagiarism by creating such a great machination.


2. Natural Satellites and Rotation

Pluto moon Styx is located just 42.656±78 km etc. Sidereal rotation period of Styx is 3.24 ± 0.07 d.

I have earlier published the possibility that distant satellites of an object can have their own satellites. This statement is based on the reduced gravitational influence of a star, a irregular form and low temperatures, which facilitate the appearance of an independent rotation. The independent rotation is a basic precondition of the orbit existence. I will state here only the statistics of the known facts for the satellites inside our Solar system.
The temperature of the space where Mercury is situated is  ~80-100° K (measured on the shadow side of the object) and ~4°K in the Oort cloud.

Unlike Earth, Mars, etc., Mercury and Venus do not have an independent rotation or satellites. Earth and Mars have satellites with a synchronous rotation. The other planets have satellites, which are closer to planets and are synchronous (internal satellites), but they also have external satellites, which have their own rotations, i.e., they are not synchronous with the rotation of a planet  (113 satellites with an eccentric and retrograde rotation have been discovered around 4 giant planets).

It is very important to state that satellites with the irregular form (for examle, 148 x 85 x 62 km) can both be internal and with a synchronous rotation and can be external, with an independent rotation (usually a chaotic one, due to an irregular form). The same goes for the satellites that have a regular, round shape. It clearly points out that an object's form is not essential for the synchronous and independent rotation to exist. A distance from a satellite to a planet or an object of a star has much more to do with it.

The irregular satellites of Jupiter (so-called irregular natural satellites) begin with Themisto, Leda, Himalia, Lysithea,... and the last known are Megaclite and S/2003 J 2. Themisto is some 7.391.650 km away (0.04941 AU), while S/2003 J 2 some 30.290.846 km. 1

The natural external satellites of Saturn with the rotation begin with Kiviuq, some 11.294.800 km away and the last known is Fornjot, 24.504.879 km away. 2

The natural satellites of Uranus with the rotation begin with Francisco, some 4.276.000 km away, and ends with Ferdinand, which is 20.900.000 km away. 3

The natural satellites of Neptune with the rotation begin with Nereid, which is 5.513.818 km away, and ends with Neso,  which is 49.285.000 km away. 4

There are only five known satellites of Pluton, out of which only Charon is synchronous, while the others have their own rotations. 5

The data, related to the rest of the more distant objects in the Kuiper belt, are still undiscovered.

To sum up the statistics for the satellites, it can be concluded that there is a solid rule that the satelites that are closer to a planet or a star do not have an independent rotation like the external satellites, t.e., they are trapped. Also, there is a tendency for a share of objects having an independent rotation to increase with the lowering of the temperature of the space, in which the observed objects are situated.

It is also clear that rotation is a characteristic of the both regular and irregular formed objects. Also, synchronous satellites of the regular and irregular form are those that are closer to a planet. There is also a tendency that smaller objects are more irregular than larger objects; irregularity disappears with dwarf planets, while with planets there is only a regular, round form.

Since there is a significant number of satellites with an independent rotation, it should be stressed that there is a great probability for some of them to have their own satellites. Attention should be given to that, during the following astronomical observations of these objects.


3. Why there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?

In these times, rings are seen mostly just as a decoration of a celestial object and are related exclusively to the collision of an object with another object that possesses a ring. It is the same with the Moon-like satellites: there is the opinion that it is a product of collision between a Mars-sized object (Theia) and Earth (but why there is no ring around Earth, then?). There are disks of gas and dust around some stars, which are named protostars6. Their name should signify that they are still being formed out of the disk matter, but the fact is being overlooked that there is a star in the center and the disk being a product of the relation between matter and the object in the center.

The data, collected on Wikipedia, are no longer scant; it is sufficient – only by examining them – to determine what are these rings, how are they created and what are the causes of their existence.
There are 4 gaseous giant planets and 2 lesser, asteroid-like objects7 with the rings inside the Solar system. There is also an asteroid belt around the Sun.

Around 900 stars with asteroid belts or disks around them have been discovered until this time; some of the most famous are Beta Pictoris8, 51 Ophiuchi, Tau Ceti, Fomalhaut, Epsilon Eridani, Zeta Leporis, Vega,  the Sun, …). The data from our system make the basis of the knowledge, but if the existing data for 900  stars and the majority of galaxies are included, these facts become clear:

1. The rings occur only around the objects, which have their own independent rotation around their axis;
2. The size of a ring is directly correlated with mass, the speed of rotation, the temperature and the quantity of matter around an object;
3. The existence of a ring is not related with the mass of an object and its speed of rotation.

The objects with a ring but without their own rotation have never been dicovered yet. That conclusion is drawn from the irregular galaxies, which do not have their own rotation and a formed center (An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy. Wikipedia). It is clear that they do not have a recognizable disk-shaped form, as the galaxies with a formed center and a rotation around their axis do. Regular galaxies, those with a rotation around their axis, consist of a galactic center, the diameter of which can be up to 30.0009  light-years, and a formed ring (with the spiral galaxies) or disk (with the elliptic galaxies), the diameter of which can be over 100 00010 light-years. All satellites of the Solar system, together with Mercury and Venus, could also be included here, with the important remark that very low temperatures and irregular shape of the distant satellites in the Kuiper belt around planets can also have their own rotation, as well as the objects around that satellite.

A vast majority of stars, which have been identified up to now as having a disk, an asteroid belt or a ring, are very fast rotating stars11 with a smaller radius (a relation of mass/radius, related to the Sun) and a stronger surface gravity. Gaseous giant planets of the Solar system have at the same time higher speeds of rotation and lower temperatures of the surrounding area. However, there are different results, too. The rings exist around the objects with the red nuances, which temperatures are below 5 or 4.000°K (Beta Pictoris b …). It means that these objects have a slower rotation and some of them have a relative radius bigger than the relative mass (for example, an object, with a mass of the 1,7 Sun mass, has a radius of the 2,3 Sun radius) and a weaker surface gravity. It proves beyond any doubt that if there is a rotation of an object, there is also a possibility of forming a ring and other smaller objects in the orbit around it.

Bigger objects (such as stars and galactic centers) and faster rotation produce bigger rings and a very fast speed of rotation produces a disk (elliptic galaxies and so-called protostars6).

The rings, asteroid belts and disks have their own orbits and an orbital speed that is no different to the other objects' orbits. The faster rotation of an object and an orbital speed, measured closer to the object, is higher and it decreases with the distance from the main object. It needs to be pointed out here that this rule is not applied when an orbit is in the area where the temperature is below 4,21°K (the low temperatures law); the objects there have a higher speed than the one that would have been given to them by the gravity of a main object (the Oort cloud, the edges of galaxies,...).

4. The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color

Since the dawn of time people have been observing stars, their glow and color. The modern science has taken viewpoint that everything related to stars has to do with the combustion of the complex particles and their change into helium and hydrogen12.

The intention of this paper is to examine this matter from the more realistic perspective by using the widely-accepted and available evidence on Wikipedia. My framework is always the same Universe-and-rotation

  Zvijezda    Star Temperatura K Rotacija Rotation Masa/S Mass Radijus/S Povr.gravit. cgs

1 R Doradus 2.740±190 340 days 1,2 370±50   /
2 Betelgeuse 3.140-3641 5 km/sek 7,7-20 950-1200 0,5
3 Aldebaran 3.910 643 days 1,5±0,3 44,2±0,9 1,59
4 Arkturus 4.286±30 2,4±1,0 d 1.08±0,06 25,4±0,2   /
5 Pollux 4.666±95 558 d 2.04±0,3 8.8±0,1 2,685
6 Fomalhaut b 4.711 2,93 km/s 0,725 0,629   /
7 Sunce 5.778 25,38-34,4 d 1 1 28,02g
8 Polaris 6.015 119 d 4,5 46±3 2.2
9 Procyon 6530±50 23 d 1,499 2,048 3,96
10 Canopus 7.350 8,0 km/sek 9,0-10,6 71,4±4,0 2,1
11 Beta Pictoris 8.052 130 km/sek 1,75 1,8 4,15
12 Denebola 8.500 128     1,78 1.728 4,0
13 Fomalhaut 8.590 93 km/sec 1,92 1,842 4,21
14 Vega 9.692±180 12,5 h (sati) 2,135 2,36x2,81 4,1
15 Sirijus a 9.940 225-250km/s 2.02 1,711 4,33
16 Castor  α Gem Aa 10.286 18 km/sek 2,76 2,4 4,2
17 Pleione 28 Tau 12.000 329 km/sek 3,4 3,2   /
18 Regulus 12.460±200 347 km/sek 3,8 3,092 3,54
19 Albireo B 13.200±600 0,6 days 3,7 2,7 4,00
20 Achernar ~15.000 250 km/sek 6,7 7,3x11,4 3,5
21 Antares 18.500 250 km/sek 7,2 5,2 3,9
22 Sirijus b 25.200   / 0,978 0,0084 8,57
23 Mintaka 29.500±500 130±10km/s 24 16,5 3,37

 

Temperature / a star's speed of rotation

As a rule, if a star possesses a lower temperature, there is also a slower rotation and its color has the nuances of red. As the temperature grows, the speed of the star's rotation around its axis also grows and its color changes from red through yellow into white and blue10. Although stars possess significantly different masses, they all strictly abide this law, with only a very small number of exceptions to it.

Mass / radius

The radius of a star (mass/radius relation) acts similarly; if the temperature is lower, the radius is bigger, and with the increase of temperature and the speed of rotation there is a decrease of the radius.

Rotation and temperature / surface gravity

Lower temperatures and slower rotation also mean weaker surface gravity. On the other hand, higher temperatures and faster rotation mean stronger surface gravity. There are typical representatives of these laws, but there are also less typical stars, which abide that law. It is absolutely impossible for a star from the first third to have even a slightly similar values as the stars from the last third.

The list of stars could be extended to the rest of them all, but it would follow the parameters from a table that is randomly chosen by leaving out stars which do not have the needed values published.
The table contains comparable data; the mass range is small, although even a very large mass range would not change the law (Lacaille 8760 13  T = 3.800 K, the speed of rotation of 3,3 km/s, mass of 0,6, radius of 0,51, surface gravity of 4,78(?). These data are related to the agreement that small stars are dwarf stars, which, though small, possess an extreme gravitational force and a high value of surface gravity that is assigned to them without a valid reason. The other data are in accordance with the law. As we can see, the mass is a small one (0,6) and therefore gravity should be in accordance with the mass and the rotation speed of 3,3 km/s, or approximately 15 days; that value should be below 2 CGS).

If there are no less than two of these parameters, it is possible to determine the rest of the parameters with a high percentage of precision (if a relative value of mass (compared to Sun) and radius are known; also, relative mass and surface gravity; relative mass and rotation; etc.).


5. The causal relation of space and the absence of light in Universe

The goals of the research, which has been conducted from 2003. till 2015., were to find out why the space between the objects in Universe is dark; furthermore, to find evidence that space is not empty and to determine its characteristics; to answer the question, is there an interaction between radiation and space; and finally, to determine the reasons of differences in temperatures in Universe.

The sun light must have obviously been changing its nature on its way from the Sun to our planet. It is visible on Sun and on Earth, but not between these two objects. There is no visible light immediately outside the atmosphere. The decrease of light visibility is in a direct relation to the density of the atmosphere: the more sparse is the atmosphere, the less of light and the more of darkness is there.

Correlating this fact with other objects of our system we can see that the behavior of the objects with atmosphere is identical, while the objects with an unsignificant or no atmosphere at all have only a surface that is lighted, followed by a field without light.
When observing the comets, we can see they create a visible tail when approaching  a star. That is a clear example of observing the transition of an object without the atmosphere towards the objects with the atmosphere. In the slow transformation of a comet we can follow the process which indicates that light is not appearing by itself but with the occurrence of the visible matter. On this level of observation, the behavior of space, when colliding with radiation, is the opposite one from the behavior of the visible matter. Space is dark and (visible) matter is visible. When traveling away from the source (a star), radiation does not create a relation to space which would result in the appearance of light; on the other side, when radiation collides with the visible matter, a phenomenon of light is being created. The observations within the whole Universe support this idea: light is created when the visible matter is influenced by the radiation of a star, while the rest of space, without the visible matter, is dark and it is directly adjacent to the space with the visible matter.

In the further research of space the focus of attention is on the possible interaction of radiation and space, which would rule out the idea of empty space. Empty space does not interact with radiation, it is void.

The radiation of Sun changes through space – its intensity (force) is weakening as the distance from the source is increasing. The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19 14 on Jupiter. 

The average intensity of the solar radiation, in W/ m², is as follows: 9 116.4 on Mercury; 1 366.1 on Earth; 50.5 on Jupiter; 0.878 15 on Pluto.
The interaction of space and radiation directly influences the temperature of an object. On the following objects' surfaces it is as follows: 440°K on Mercury; 288°K on Earth; 152...16 on Jupiter. The space around the objects has the same decreasing curve starting from the Sun towards the end of the system. The same goes for the dark side of the objects. The lowest temperature on Mercury is 100°K, on Uranus 49°K, on Pluto 28°K, in the Oort cloud 4°K. During observation, a compensation for the atmospheric influence and the interior temperature of an object needs to be taken into consideration, as these are the factors of interference when comparative data are being acquired. However, even without doing that, it is completely obvious that a curve of the radiation decreasing effect is in accordance with the distance from the source of radiation.

Space is interacting with radiation. The temperature is the highest on the places where the radiation is the strongest. The more the distance increases, the more the radiation gets weaker, all the way towards the absolute zero. The influence of radiation is manifested with the same decreasing curve on the opposite side of an object, where the temperature can not be causally related to the solar wind or highly energetic particles.

Through checking the behavior of some forms of visible matter (water, etc.), we can see that the temperature of some form of visible matter is the highest on its surface, because it is the place of collision of radiation and matter and the closest place to the source of radiation. As distance increases, radiation gets weaker (the temperature is 0-3°C on the bottom of the ocean) 17. Having in mind the factors of interference (density, etc.), we can conclude that there is a comparative and obvious similarity in fields of invisible and some forms of visible matter. It points out that space, in which there is visible matter, is filled with it, with some of its characteristics having been measured for already a long time. (14 15 16)

The low temperatures are responsible for some strange physical laws in the Universe. The objects that are close to the central object (a star or the center of a galaxy)  are rotating around the central object faster than the more distant objects, due to the stronger gravitational influence. However, this law can not be applied on the edge of a stellar system or a galaxy – it gets ruled out by the low temperature. When the temperature decreases below the critical point of 4.21°K, it makes possible for the objects to rotate faster in their orbits from the objects with higher temperatures, provided the gravity is weak enough. Except for the edge of a galaxy, it can also be indirectly seen inside our Solar system by observing the objects, incoming from the Oort cloud towards the center of the system. Their speeds are higher than the one of Pluto or those objects in the Kuiper belt. Some of these are the fastest objects in our system  18: the speed of the comet Hale-Bopp is 52.5 km/sec; the comet Halley, 66 km/sec; the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit the surface of Jupiter at the approximate speed of ~58 km/sek.  19.
The critical temperature point, which causes the increase of the gravitational influence, is the boiling point of helium, 4.21°K.  20.

 

6. What is background radiation telling us?

We have been trying for already a few decades to improve our instruments in order to "see Big Bang". During that time the instruments have been improved by many times and have become more precise, but the advancement is still minimal. The bravest among the scientists claim to have lowered the limit of 400 000 light-years from the beginning of Big Bang to 300 000 light-years. Even if that was true, it is only a minimal result, compared to the efforts that have been put into improving the precision of the instruments.

The first discussions of background radiation started in 1948. and then in 1964. Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson discovered and thereby proved its real existence.
I had been writing (among other things) about illogical claims about the meaning of background radiation in the article: Why telescopes lie?
"It goes similar with the devices for measuring background radiation, which estimate the distance from the source to the device, i.e. Earth.

Let’s assume it originates from the Big Bang. If a background radiation from 13 billion of years ago travels at the speed of light, while matter at its best travels 10% slower, with taking the same starting place into account – how is it possible for them to meet now? What is the calculation that explains it?"

The temperature interval of background radiation from 2,4 to 2,7° K is the key to help us discover their origins. When we look upon the night sky with our bare eyes or with some instruments, we can see there is a different intensity in radiation incoming from the stars. We immediately relate that fact with the idea of stars having different sizes, radiances and distances. It goes the same with background radiation, which reflects different distances, radiances and sizes of radiating objects that are located outside our Universe. At the same time, we can conclude from the fact that background radiation approaches from all directions that the whole volume around our Universe is covered with these objects and the temperature interval describes their structure in the depth of the volume.

By discovering background radiation, we have found out that our Universe is not the only one, but only a part of a greater whole, which is been named Multiverse for already some time and out of different reasons. The rotations of star systems, star clusters, galaxies and clusters of galaxies prove there is a recognizable pattern of reconstructing the greater volume that is surrounding our Universe. With the evidence of temperature decreasing with the increase of distance from the source of radiation (a star), we can reconstruct the dynamics and the manner of objects inside this new volume. The more distant the objects are, the temperature is lower and tends towards the absolute zero. At the same time, the objects increase their speed, which is why the objects inside the new volume are faster with the increase of distance.

The stated reasons explain why there are adequate instead of needed results, in spite of the highly improved instruments.

 

7. They have seen a black hole in action! ...?

„Black Hole's Rejected Snack Becomes Science Goldmine
At the time, it was assumed G2 was composed of a nebulous collection of stellar gases. It was also assumed that, while undergoing extreme tidal warping, the cloud would be stretched out like a long noodle, with tendrils being sucked into the black hole’s accretion disk. ..“
http://www.space.com/31524-black-holes-rejected-snack-becomes-science-goldmine.html

But… nothing happened.

When we read articles, we try to understand their message and news they bring to the readers. Only a few of us check these information through the available data.

This is the official viewpoint: the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole#Physical_properties ) . The central diameter of our galaxy in the equatorial area is 40 000 light-years and from one galaxy pole to the other one, 30 000 light-years (http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html).
To make a comparison, a ligh-year is a distance of  9,461 × 10 ^ 12 km, while the astronomical unit (AU) is ~150 million km. Except for the Sun, the star that is the closest to Earth is Proxima Centauri, which is 4,3 light-years away.

Even if there was a maximal super-massive black hole in the center of our galaxy, it would be at least 15 000 light-years away from the surface area of the galaxy in its polar regions and 20 000 light-years in the equatorial area. Such a black hole would be covered with a layer of matter, 15 000 – 20 000 light-years thick. 
Now, when all the evidence are here on the same place, we can rightfully ask, whatever do they write about, what kind of nonsense is that? Does anyone check their texts and where are the reviews?

We are used to (because we are taught to) listen to the scientists and trust them because they have the authority and therefore their statements are not to be questioned. The reality is completely different. The credibility of scientific articles is very questionable and you can not read scientific texts the way laws are read, but with a high level of scepticism.

The information of the first observation of the "black hole" devouring a star is of the same level of (in)credibility. The last contact to a star can be made from a distance of a few tens of thousands light-years from the position of a black hole, marked by the scientists. How can they then claim that a star has a contact with an imaginary object at this distance? It can not be possible – not even in the wild imagination – for the teleportation of this time to carry objects – especially of that size – to these distances.

If the observed event was that a star disappears at the top of the galaxy pole, then there has to be a realistic reason for it, the one that is in accordance to the existing evidence and the laws of physics. The rotation of the galactic center cretaes cyclones at the poles, like those at the poles of gas giants and the Sun. Only the cyclones could be responsible for the events that are ascribed to the imaginary black hole and non-existing teleportation.

 

8. The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars

It is generally accepted today that cyclones are related to the rotation of celestial objects. Studies have confirmed the existence of cyclones at the poles of gas giants and Sun. Observations also point out beyond any doubt that the cyclones exist at the galactic centers, at the so-called pulsars and at the neutron stars. Rotation around their own axis is a characteristic of every star (without exceptions), cluster of stars, most of the galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Rotation around their own axis is omnipresent in Universe.

When an object rotates, its gravitational force also rotates with it. Its range is unlimited, but it decreases with the square of the distance, i.e., the influence of gravitational force decreases with the increase of distance. Although the influence of gravitational force becomes minimal already after a distance of a light-year, its role in shaping the system is very important. Everything should be observed in a vast period of time. The longer the period, the more organized the system is.

cikloni-na-polovima

Every object has many layers, due to different forces of pressure in the depths of the object. Where the forces of pressure are the strongest, there the matter is the most solid. It is so at the centers of objects. It is not about having iron or other metals of high density here; the same matter is more solid at the center than in the surface area. The cyclones appear as the consequence of the liquid (or gaseous) object's rotation.
For the majority of stars, the cyclones are relatively shallow and do not go deep into the object, because the majority of stars in our galaxy – which should probably be some kind of an average value for the whole Universe – are slowly-rotating red stars (70% of all stars in our galaxy are small, slowly-rotating red stars, with other red and yellow stars included here).

As time passes by, the cyclones start having more and more important role in shaping the objects, due to absorption of the warmer matter at the bottom of the cyclone and the colder one at its top. The cyclone's velocity is higher than the velocity of the surrounding matter, which steadily accelerates, influenced by the cyclone. As time passes by, it can be seen as a difference in velocities of the matter on the poles and the matter in the equatorial area. At the same time this is the dominating process on the stars, but not the only one.

The action of a cyclone influences deeper layers, too. The cyclone there absorbs warm matter with its rotation, with which it also influences the inner layer. The inner layer accelerates, too; at first, the acceleration is slower, but in time or due to the outer influence (the absorption of larger objects) it gets faster and the cyclones become more important. This is at the same time the reason why fast-rotating stars explode much more frequently than slowly-rotating ones, i.e., red stars. A larger cyclone goes deeper into the body of a star. When it absorbs a larger object, it explodes in the layers deep under the surface, which may cause the whole star to explode. When that occurs, a shock wave movement through the poles of a star can be clearly seen and it relates this event to a cyclone.

Applying this to galactic centers produces very similar results. For example, there is a very small number of elliptic or fast-rotating galaxies. The essential difference, however, is that there exists not a single object, which size could activate the explosion of a galactic center.

If nuclear fusion, fission and matter combustion existed in reality, the centers of galaxies would have become extra-large supernovas a long time ago. But, it does not happen in the Universe, not even when galaxies collide.

 

9. Why iron did not sink when Earth was hot?

Even though it is being steadily abandoned, the theory of the creation of Earth, stating that Earth was hot at the beginning and have been steadily cooling down since, is still the dominant one. In that theory (of course, the wrong one) there is an explanation of iron sinking towards the center of Earth, which has been regarded as "clear evidence" that the nucleus of Earth consists of melted iron, as the nucleus is more dense than the rest of Earth.
("The pressure in the center is more than 3-4 million bar, and the temperature is 3 000 – 4 000 K. It is believed that the nucleus consists of iron and nickel and the mantle of silicate minerals. " Wikipedia)

It is absolutely unnecessary to relate the density of nucleus to the heavy and dense element of iron when it is generally accepted that, due to pressure, there is always a more dense layer of matter at the bottom then at the top. It is obvious from the table on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth#Internal_structure and it would be very interesting to sort the layers according to the density of particular atoms.

The ground upon which people walk, or Earth's crust, posesses the greatest variety of natural elements, which decreases towards the lower layers. If the composition of magma or basaltic rocks is analyzed, it becomes obvious that many elements, existing in crust, are absent from the layers of upper mantle and mantle. Iron is present in all of these three upper layers; it did not sink, after all, probably because it had not been introduced to the idea of sinking.

In the composition of stars, measured by spectroscopy, only hydrogen and helium are present there, with more complex atoms being present only in traces. If we add this to the earlier mentioned facts, we can conclude that, with the increase of temperature (above the melting point of the elements included), the complexity of atoms is reduced and in the end there are permanently only hydrogen and helium (in a smaller share).

This image can be expanded onto the geology of our own planet. It shows that ice ages on Earth keep shortening steadily and there is a constant increase in temperature. 70-140 tons of space matter is falling daily on Earth and it adds up to the small but steady increase of pressure inside the planet.

If data regarding brown dwarfs are also included
("WISE 1828+2650 Its temperature has since been revised and newer estimates put it in the range of 250 to 400 K (−23–127 °C, −10–260 °F).
In April 2014, WISE 0855−0714 was announced with a temperature profile estimated around 225 to 260 K and a mass of 3 to 10 MJ.
It was also unusual in that its observed parallax meant a distance close to 7.2±0.7 light years from the Solar System." Wikipedia
) we can conclude that nowadays Earth, together with Venus, belongs to brown dwarfs. The research data show that on brown dwarfs there is an atmosphere with nitrogen and ammonia, with a possibility for water to exist.

The origin of Earth (and other objects) can only be related to growth and gathering matter together in Universe. The sequence of gathering matter can be seen through the existence of gas, dust, lesser and larger asteroids and comets, small planets, planet-size objects, small and large stars and centers of galaxies at the same place (in the same part of Universe). When their mass is insufficient, the objects are cold. Matter gets warmed up with the increase of pressure and other forces: gravity, the interrelation of two or more objects, fast rotation. After a critical point (the sum of forces) they become hot objects that emit radiation (which we interpret as light).


10. Why there is not one and the same atmosphere on the objects of our system?

The position of an object (i.e. its location) determins which geological processes will be there. Volcanoes exist on the internal objects of the system, while the ejection of cold matter is present on the objects in the outer layer, which is significantly colder than the internal one. It is important to mention that the observation is related to the currently existing situation in the system. The current arrangement of objects, regarding their mass, location, atmosphere, etc., by no means need not have been set as it is now; the arrangement in general is a consequence of many events, occurr ing in a system during a period of time. A clear evidence to that fact have been noticed in other systems with planets (exoplanets) or where a star rotates around the other one (Sirius A and B).

The occurrence of atmosphere is directly related to different geological processes: volcanoes; ejection of cold matter; attraction of new particles of matter; activity of intensive radiation; activity of gravitational forces among two or more objects on each other; rotation of objects (when different temperatures of day and night occur); constant bombardment of other, lesser or larger objects; inclination and form of an object; the change of calendar seasons; etc. The age of an object deserves to be particularly singled out here, although it will not be discussed now.

When a formation of atmosphere on the internal objects takes place, aside from a quantity of geological processes, the following needs to be taken into consideration: "Nitrogen does not burn nor it supports combustion. It is a bit easier than air and poorly soluble in water, chemically unreactive. ... 99,8% of all carbon on Earth is found combined in minerals, mainly carbonates... Only 0,01% of carbon exists in living beings. ... After hydrogen, carbon creates more compounds than all the other elements put together" (Wikipedia)

Although CO2 is mutual for all of the three planets with atmosphere, the differences among them occur due to the distance from Sun, rotation, mass; they caused different geological processes. The proximity of Sun and the lack of rotation – notwithstanding the similar masses – created the atmosphere of Venus: CO2 96,5% and nitrogen 3,5%. The rotation of Earth, the change of calendar seasons, binary relations between Earth and Moon and colder environment (related to that of Venus) are suitable for the creation of water, which in the form of rain removes CO2 from the atmosphere in the favor of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The insufficient mass of Mars (manifesting itself in the lack of geological processes of the atmosphere formation) causes the beginning of the atmosphere formation: CO2 95,97%, nitrogen 1,81%, argon 1,93%,...  67/P Churyumov – Gerasimenko comet is a transitive object, partially belonging to the internal region and partially to the outer region (perihelion: 1.2432 AU, aphelion: 5,6829 AU). Its mass is small, but it possesses rotation and different distances from Sun. There are also free particles of oxygen and nitrogen. Its composition consists mainly of carbonates and of some water, etc.

The objects in the colder, outer region are divided into gas giants and other objects.

titan
Some of the elements and compounds related to Titan and Pluto

The atmosphere of Titan consists of: Stratosphere: 98.4% nitrogen (N2) 1.4% methane (CH4),  0.2% hydrogen (H2);  Lower troposphere:  95.0% N2, 4.9% CH4 (Wikipedia). The similar, only much thinner atmosphere, exists on Pluto, too. Significant presence of methane reveals there is no water in hydrological cycle to reduce such a high level of methane in its atmosphere. The common thing for Titan and Pluto is a distinguished binary system, which accelerates geological processes. Mass and structure of an object also have an important role in increased geological processes. A larger mass is less compact and easily subject to changes, which is generally sufficient for a particular chemical element or compound to change its state of matter and produce the cold ejection of matter (ice volcano or ice geyser). The cold ejection of matter exists on Pluto, where the temperature maximum is -210°C; at this temperature nitrogen turns liquid.

On the colder places there are elements and compounds of the lower melting point (N2, CH4,…), while warmer objects, such as Venus, Mars, Earth (at certain time in the past, the atmosphere of Earth also consisted mostly of CO2), create the atmosphere from the carbon cycle (CO2, CO, carbonates, ... ). ("It lead to 'another atmosphere' being created; at the beginning it consisted of carbon-dioxide and nitrogen, with some water vapor, but practically without oxygen." Wikipedia). The common thing for all but two objects are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon, but their particular presence is different, due to the earlier stated reasons. ("The composition of Saturn's atmosphere: ≈ 96% hydrogen (H2), ≈ 3% helium (He), ≈ 0,4% methane (CH4), ≈ 0,01% ammonia (NH3), ≈ 0,01% deuterium (DH). Ice: ammonia (NH3), water vapor (H2O), ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH). " Wikipedia).

The active elements (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and carbon) create an atmosphere according to the local conditions.


11. Supernovae are not our creators

We have been listening for too long that supernovae (or just, novae) are responsible for our existence. They brought heavy, essential elements to our planet. Iron, uranium and other complex elements are said to have come from the universe to form our Earth.

Slikovni rezultat za Crab Nebula SN 1054 remnant (Crab Nebula).

To make the absurdity even bigger, there are not so many (only a few dozen) remains, made by the star explosions. According to Wikipedia, the amount of these supernova remains inside our galaxy ranges from 25 (or 40, if planetary nebulae are included) to 100, if all other nebulae and particle clouds are included (a molecular cloud, Bok globules, interstellar cloud, etc.). For the sake of the example: if we identify every nebula or cloud to be an exploded star – which is highly incorrect – and compare them to the total quantity of stars in the galaxy (100 – 400 billion of stars), it can be concluded that it is a completely neglectable quantity, in terms of the observations of the processes inside the galaxy and beyond.

How is it possible to draw the conclusion that a phenomenon of a neglectable significance is able to deliver complex elements to a few hundred billion of stellar systems and also create a vast number of new stars, just as the hypothetical black holes and neutron stars?

That disbalance, although catches the eye terribly, keeps getting away with it and becomes a fundamental science and a constant source of creating the unlimited number of continuous fabrications (which could by no means be identified with science or even science fiction).

  “The Sun is composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium; they account for 74.9% and 23.8% of the mass of the Sun in the photosphere, respectively. All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2% of the mass, with oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%) being the most abundant.“

The density of a star is very low, less than 1,5 g/cm3 (Sun: 1,408), which clearly indicates the complete absence of complex elements. A bit higher density of gases that create a star appears due to the forces of pressure, which make the gases more compact inside that space or a star.

Where does it even come from, the claim that the explosion of an object, composed of hydrogen and helium, delivers its non-existing complex elements? If the stars before the explosion were composed only of the complex elements, then again, their small quantity presents only a neglectable significance, which can not be related to the complex particles of 100 – 400 billion of stellar systems. Besides, there is the disintegration of particles at work, due to the enormous explosion (the estimates are that only a small part of the stellar matter remains as a nebula).

The nebulae are generally composed of hydrogen and some helium, and other elements existing in insignificant quantities. It has never been discovered that there are silver, gold, uranium or generally any other complex element present on the stars or nebulae (at least, not in the quantities that are needed to establish such a hypothesis).

It also needs to be pointed out that the general information on Wikipedia also distinguish nebulae and clouds from the stellar explosions: there are 25 examples mentioned under the section of supernovae remains and 40 examples under the section of planetary nebulae (which also include the remains of supernovae).

The explosion of the star that later became known as the Crab Nebula, had taken place in 1054. and during this period of 1000 years it has moved less than 6 light-years away from the center (its diameter is some 11 light-years). The intensity of radiation and waves decreases with the square distance; matter spreads out much slower, therefore, there are no nebulae with the diameter longer than 200-600 light-years (a