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Small, fast-spinning hot stars are not White Dwarfs new
Croatian        Pусский 
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Summary
In order to determine the density of white dwarfs and other stars I used a database and created several relations, such as mass/volume of different star types, to create comparable dana, the values of rotation, the percentage of the objects orbiting around a central object and the explanation how different speeds of rotation, if unused, influence the irregular derivation of the gravitational results. Some other factors, essential in creating real values in astrophysics, are also analyzed here.  The results acquired in such a way reveal a real image, which is impossible to perceive if analysing only a small or limited quantity of stars and other objects. It doesn't work without a larger sequence of relations of different parameters.
The research represents the interweaving of data for stars when indicators start displaying comparable results.  The rotation speed value is closely related to star types, as presented in the tables 4, 5, 6 and 7. At the same time it defines the temperature level of an object, but only faintly affects its density. Density mildly decreases with the increase of the rotation speed, but magnetic field value increases strongly. 

Keywords: White Dwarfs; hot stars; rotation speed  

1. Introduction
The article analyses several parameters, included in several relations, based on which real data representing white dwarfs could be created, in the terms of their real density and some other factors that ascribe white dwarfs into that type of the celestial objects.
Star types are related to the speed of rotation around an object, in the relation with temperature. The influence of rotation is on the magnetic field value, on the percentage of objects in the orbit and on the orbital speeds. Tables 3, 5, 6 and 7 show that objects with the same mass can be classified into groups of many star types. If the effects of the star rotation are ruled out, then a proper answer for such an outcome is not possible to find, because a similar quantity of mass has to produce similar values.
There are more than 170 links in 12 tables, leading towards the database, in which a reader can check the source of information (reference). The goal of this is not to dispute or to support the mainstream points of view, but to introduce real data checking, which is available these days in the form of the official scientific measuring. The topic on matter is not limited to white dwarfs, but it rather analyzes all star types and the centers of galaxies.

2. Determining the density of white dwarfs and " normal " hot stars
I use the existing databases in providing evidence to support or dispute the existence of extreme densities of stars and other objects. All evidence are related to the source of information through one or several steps. [1]
The method to acquire reliable data is to create a sequence of relations from the official measuring results, carried out and obtained on the same place and without the possibility to manipulate the results. The selection of evidence to be analyzed is as it is, because generally there are no cumulative data (temperature, mass, radius, luminosity, etc.) for a large number of objects which are used  for relation sequences, in order to analyze matter from all angles.
A part of the evidence are here on purpose, to be relevant and comparable inside the relations. The data from the relations are intended to cover the whole diapason of values: mass, radius, temperature, etc. A single object of a certain type is never an object of analysis, not even in a single case. If based on particular cases, the conclusions tend to be opposite to the real situation.

Table 1. The observation of the parallel indicators of mass, radius, temperature and surface gravity

Star Volume Mass, Sun=1 Radius, Sun=1 Mass/volume Type of star
White subdwarf star
V391 Pegasi 0,02865 0,5±0,05 0,23±0,03 17,45 blue-white subdwarf star
HD_49798   7,1795 1,5 1,45 0,2089282 sdO6p
NSVS 14256825 0,016153 0,528 0,19 32,687 sdOB / M V
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,026 / 0,0093 0,48 / 0,120 0,223 / 0,158 18,46 / 12,9 sdBV/M
HVS 7 150,72 3,7 4,0 0,02455 sdB
Kepler-70 0,0197 0,496 0,203 25,178 sdB
PG 1047+003 0,07948 0,5 0,15 62,91 sdBe
Groombridge 1830 0,744 0,661 0,681 0,8884 class G8 subdwarf
Kapteyn's Star 0,058 0,274 0,291 4,7241 sdM1
HD 134439 0,4431 ~0,78 0,573 1,76 sd:K1Fe-1
HD 134440 0,3596 ~0,73 0,5345 2,03 sdK2.5

Sun (M=1, R=1) 2,355 1 1 0,4246.. G2V

WR 102 0,33113184 16,7 0,52 50,433 WR- WO2
WR 93b 0,20061 8,1 0,44 40,377 WR_ WO3
WR 142 1,2058 28,6 0,8 23,72 WR- WO2
WR 7 4,711 13 1,26 2,76 WR-WN4-s
WR 46 5,924  14 1,36 2,2633 WR- WN3p-w
WR 3 35,921 15 2,48 0,4176 WR-WN3-hw
WR 21a 4069,44 103,6 12 0,02546 WR-WN5ha
WR 31a 62231,76 17 29,8 0,0002732 WR-WN11h

Lambda Cephei  17.462,0 51 18-21 0,00292 O6.5If(n)p
NML Cygni 3.898927.371,9 50 1.183,0 0,000000013 M4.5-M7.9Ia-III
Ros 47 0,01157 0,35 0,17 30,1724 M4.0Vn
Kepler-42 0,01157 0,13 0,17 11,236 M5V
YZ Canis Minoris 0,0801 0,308 0,324 3,845 M5V
LHS 1140 0,015154 0,146 0,186 9,63442 M4.5V
SU Ursae Majoris 0,01097 0,105 0,167 9,572 dwarf nova
OTS 44 0,129 0,011 0,23-0,57 0,08527 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
TVLM 513-46546 0,0031345 0,09 0,11 28,7127 Red/Brown Dwarf-M9
DEN 0255−4700   0,001716795  0,025-0,065 0,08-0,1 26,212 Brown Dwarf-L8/L9
OGLE-TR-123 0,00517395 0,085 0,13 16,4285 Brown Dwarf-M

Mass and radius of Jupiter (Jup = 1), density: Sun=1,408 g/cm3; Jupiter 1,326 g / cm3

Star Volume Mass Jup Radius Jup Mass/volume Type of star
Teide 1 127,1939 57 ± 15 3,78 0,445 Brown Dwarf-M8
Cha 110913-773444 13,73436 8 (+7, -3), (17) 1,8 0,5825 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
PSO J318.5-22 12 8,4346 6,5 1,53 0,771 rogue planet
2MASS J0523−1403 2,42636 67,54 1,01 27,84 Brown Dwarf-L2.5V
EBLM J0555-57 1,396 85,2  (~0,081 Sun) 0,84  61,03 Brown Dwarf
2MASS 0939−2448 0,0120576 0,035    0,08    29,0273 Brown Dwarf-T8
15 Sagittae 2,350 68,7      1          29,172 Brown Dwarf-L4
LHS 6343 c 1,13051 62,1      0,783  54,931 Brown Dwarf-T

Star Distance AU Mass Jup Radius Jup Temperature K Type planet

Srars generate their own energy. Planet reflected radiation, do not create their own energy.

2MASS J2126-8140 6.900,0 13,3 / 1.800,0 Planet
ROXs 42B b 140 9 0,9-3 1.800,0-2.600,0 Planet
HIP 65426 b 92 9 1,5 1.450,0 Planet
HR 8799 d 24 7 1,2 1.090,0 Planet
HR 8799 c 38 7 1,3 1.090,0 Planet
DH Tau B 330 11 2,7 2.750,0 Planet
UScoCTIO 108 b 670 14 0,9078 2.600,0 Planet
11 Oph b 472,9 21 0,9078 2.375,0 Planet
Table 1. Relationshift: Mass/volume, type of stars

The analysis of the objects' density in Table 1 (in the relation of mass/volume – star type) points out that there is no consistency that would be related to star types. Inside a same star type there are densities, which are lower, higher or the same as the one of Sun. The old concept's contours are clearly visible in the statements that smaller stars have higher densities and big red stars are inflated objects. [2] However, that concept also lacks consistency. It is particularly important to point out that the mass and radius estimates of the objects that are smaller than the mass and radius of Sun are generally only hypothesized (using the old hypotheses). [3]  If a star has the same mass or radius as Sun, the estimate of its density may follow several different hypotheses. For example, if an object is classified into a type of  "planets", it is less dense than a type known as a brown dwarf. Brown Dwarfs masses are 0,035 and 68,7 (2MASS 0939−2448 and 15 Sagittae) and it makes mass/volume ratio of 29,0273 and 29,1720 respectively. At the same time, planets with the distances of  38-6.900,0 AU have mass/volume ratio around 1 (ROXs 42B b ø 0,6036; HIP 65426 b 1,7395). In a particular type of stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, there are stars with mass/volume ratio of 0,0002732 (WR 31a) to 50,4330 (WR 102). M type stars with large quantities of mass suggest their densities are low, because the effects of their slow rotation don't provide the same results with the objects they are interacted with, to the contrary of faster and fast rotating stars.  Generally, the decrease of density is ascribed to the stars with the increase of mass above 1 M Sun (Lambda Cephei   M 51 MSun, M/V 0,00292; NML Cygni M 51 MSun, M/V 0,000000013). 

Table 2. Density/temperature

Depth km Earth Component layer Density g/cm3 Temperature K
0–35 Crust 2,2–2,9 -86 to 200 (400)
35–2.890 Mantle 3,4–5,6 200-4.000
5.100–6.378 Inner core 12,8–13,1 5.400-5.700 (6.000)
>520.000,0 Sun Sun core 150 15,7 million
Table 2. Density/temperature

The temperature and density increases with depth. White dwarf temperatures do not follow this basic law. Their recommended density of 31.000,0 to above 460.000,0 (1.000.000-1.500.000) g/cm3 would generate temperatures above 100 billion K. Temperatures white dwarfs are from under 10.000 (4.270 ± 70 Gliese 223.2G 240-72 5.590,0± 90°K) to 200.000°K; (H1504 + 65, 200.000°K; 310.000 °K PSR B0943 + 10) [6]  like normal hot stars.

Table 3. Small stars/ temperature and type of star

Small star Mass Sun=1 Temper. K Type
Beta Pictoris b 0,0086-0,012 1.724 exoplanet
ROXs 42Bb 0,0086 1.800-2.600 exoplanet
CW Leonis 0,7-0,9 2.000,0 C9,5e
Kelu-1  0,060 2.020 brown dwarfs L2
DH Tauri b 0,0115 2.750 exoplanet
Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3,692 M0.5V
Castor C 0.5992 3.820 BY Draconis dwarf stars
HIP 12961 0,63 3.838,0 red dwarf  M0V
LP 658-2 0,45 (0,80) 4.270 (5.180) white dwarf  DZ11.8
HR 9038 Ab 0,67 4.620,0 red dwarf  K3V
Groombridge 1830 0,661 4.759 G8 subdwarf
HD 134439 ~0,78 5.136,5 sd:K1Fe-1
AC Herculis 0,6 5.225 F2pIb
Mu Cassiopeiae 0,74 5.341 G5Vb
L 97-12 0,59 5.700,0 white dwarf DC8.8
GD 356 0,67 7.510 white dwarf  DC7
Zeta Cygni B 0,6 12.000 white dwarf  DA4.2
40 Eridani B 0,573 16.500 white dwarf  DA4
V391 Pegasi 0,5 29.300,0 subdwarf   star
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,48 29.564 sdBV/M
PG 0112+104 0.52 ± 0.05 >30,000 white dwarf 
HD 149382 0.29−0.53 35.000,0 B5 VI
NSVS 14256825 0,528 42.000,0 sdOB  / M V
Table 3. Small stars (except 3 exoplanets) in relation to temperature and type of stars

We see here that part of the white dwarfs is not separated from other star types in terms of temperature. The same mass of small stars does not give the same temperature. White dwarfs have low (4.270 (5.180) HIP 12961) and high temperatures (PG 0112+104 >30,000). The height of these temperatures covers the spectral type stars from K to O.

2.1. White Dwarfs vs. other types of stars with an emphasis on the speed of rotation
Now, let's determine which basic forces give stars different values of temperature,  luminosity, the relation of mass/radius and the value of surface gravity.

Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

Star Speed rotation Maas Sun=1 Radius Sun=1 Temperature K Type
White Dwarf 
GD 356 115 minutes 0,67 / 7.510,0 white dwarf 
EX Hydrae 67 minutes 0,55 ± 0.15 / / white dwarf 
AR Scorpii A 1,95 minutes 0,81 – 1,29 / / white dwarf pulsar
V455 Andromedae 67,62 second 0,6 / / white dwarf 
RX J0648.0-4418 13 second 1,3 / / white dwarf 
Pulsar
PSR J0348+0432 39,123 m. second 2,01 ± 0,04 13 ± 2 km / pulsar
Vela X-1 283 second 1,88 ~11,2 31.500 X-ray pulsar, B-type
Cen X-3 4,84 second 20,5 ± 0,7 12 39.000 X-ray pulsar
PSR B0943 + 10 1,1 second 0,02 2,6 km 310.000 pulsar
PSR 1257 + 12 6,22 m. second 1,4 10 km 28.856 pulzar
Wolf–Rayet stars
HD 5980 B <400  km/s 66 22 45.000 WN4
WR 2 500 km/s 16 0,89 141.000 WN2-w
WR 142 1.000 km/s 28,6 0,80 200.000 WO2
R136a2 200 km/s 195 23,4 53.000 WN5h
Normal hot stars
VFTS 102 600±100 km/s ~25 / 36.000 ± 5.000 O9:Vnnne
Gamma Cassiopeiae 432 km/s 14,5 8,8 25.000 B0.5IVe
LQ Andromedae 300 km/s 8,0 3,4 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 220 km/s 22,5 – 56,6 14 - 26 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 250 km/s 28 8,1 45.000 O5V
Melnick 42 240 km/s 189 21,1 47.300 O2If
BI 253 200 km/s 84 10,7 50.100 O2V-III(n)((f*))
Red Dwarf
Gliese 876 96,6 days 0,37 0,3761±0,0059 3.129 ± 19 M4V
Kepler-42 2,9±0.4 km/s 0,13±0,05 0,17±0,04 3.068±174 M5V
Kapteyn's star 9,15  km/s 0,274 0,291±0,025 3.550±50 sdM1
Wolf 359 <3,0 km/s 0,09 0,16 2.800 ± 100 M6.5 Ve
Normal cool stars
HD 220074 3,0 km/s 1,2 ± 0,3 49,7 ± 9,5 3.935 ± 110 M2III
V Hydrae 11 - 14 km/s 1,0 420 - 430 2.650 C6,3e
β Pegasi 9,7 km/s 2,1 95 3.689 M2.5II–IIIe
Betelgeuse km/s 11,6 887 ±203 3.590 M1–M2 Ia–ab
F Type Star
Beta Virginis 4,3 km/s 1,25 1,681 ± 0,008 6.132 ± 26 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  17 km/s 1,236 1,323 6.516 ± 19 F6 V
4 Equulei 6,2±1,0 km/s 1,39 ~1,2 6.213±63 F8 V
6 Andromedae 18 km/s 1,30 1,50 6.425±218 F5 V
Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

A column "Speed rotation" points to very fast rotations of white dwarfs [4], [5], pulsars, Wolf–Rayet stars and O, B type stars.
Small hot stars [6] make a rotation in a very short period (from miliseconds to a few minutes). Large hot stars rotate at the speed of above 400 km/s (Gamma Cassiopeiae). White dwarfs with a diameter of ~80 km makes a rotation generally in a few seconds (RX J0648.0-4418 13 seconds).
Wolf–Rayet stars are very fast-rotating stars, the speeds of which can be up to 1.000 km/s, which is generally accompanied by very high temperatures (WR 142 200.000°K, 1.000 km/s).
With the decrease of the rotational speed there is also the decrease of a star's temperature. Here it needs to be mentioned that
Quote: Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth [16]), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars. [7] end quote
Large (medium and small) red stars have the rotation from +0 to above 10 km/s and temperatures of 1.800 to above 4.000°K (S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Hya 2.160; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095;  etc.). [8]
A smaller star needs higher speed to achieve temperatures similar to those of large stars and the reason for it is that a larger object has more matter, which by friction and different speeds of rotation of different layers, creates higher temperatures.

2.2. Similar mass of stars it's situated in different classes (type) and different temperatures
Table 2. can be presented in such a way to create a relation: approximately the same mass/temperature and relate it to a star type. The relation has to show the same results for the same quantity of mass. It is unacceptable to claim that a single quantity of mass abides by several laws of nature or has several states, which would provide different results. The conditions should be almost identical or we are to explain, why a single quantity of mass has different laws of manifestation. The same goes for the claims that stars realize nuclear fission and fusion on the different levels, because there is one and the same quantity of mass on the same place.

Tabele 5. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1 EZ Canis Majoris WN3-hv 19 89.100
2 Centaurus X-3 O 20,5 ± 0,7 39.000
3 η Canis Majores B 19,19 15.000
4 HD 21389 A 19,3 9.730
5 Kappa Pavonis F 19 - 25 5.250 - 6.350
6 V382 Carinae G 20 5.866
7  S Persei M 20 3.000-3.600
8 DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
9 HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
Table 5. Stars, similar mass (except No 8, 9, ), different classes (type) and temperatures [7]

It is obvious from the table that the relation of the same mass, different temperatures and the other star type can be met only by the evidence from the table 2. The decrease of the rotational speed (with other incoming factors taken into consideration).
This is no exception, but rather a rule, that a majority of the diapason of the star mass, from the smallest to the largest, the stars belong to different types for any quantity of mass.

Table 6.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834
Table 6.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature [10]

Table 7.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

Star Type Mass (Sun = 1) Temperature K Radius (Sun=1)
Alpha Herculis A M5 Ib-II 2,175-3,250 3.155-3.365 264-303
R Leporis C7,6e(N6e) 2,5 – 5 2.245-2.290 400±90
Rho Orionis  K0 III 2,67 4.533 25
29_Orionis G8IIIFe-0.5 2,33 4.852 10,36
BX_Andromedae F2V 2,148 6.650 2,01
Mu_Orionis Aa 2,28 8.300 2,85
3_Centauri B8V 2,47 9.638 2,8
Vela X-1 B0.5Ib pulsar 1,88 31.500 ~11,2
HD_49798 sdO5.5 1,50 47.500 1,45
PSR J0348+0432 pulsar 2,01 / 13±2 km
14 Aurigae white dwarf 1,64 7.498 /
GQ Lupi b planet 1-36 MJup. 2.650 ± 100 Distance 100 AU
Table 7.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

The result of the two Sun masses is taken to exclude the discussions of the existence of different types of combustion that are created due to different star formations. This is particularly expressed by the planet display, with temperatures of 2650 ± 100, which is a star with an independent process of creating warmth and radiation. This is stressed in the table 4, with planets which temperatures are ~2.700°K and their mass being from 12-24 masses of Jupiter, and the star NML Cygni with its mass of 50 MSun and the temperature of 3.834°K.

2.3. Bodies in distant orbits can be stars – planets

Table 8. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance

Planet and Brown dwarf Mass of Jup. Temperature°K Distance AU

HD 106906 b 11±2 1.800 120
1RXS 1609 b 8 (14) 1.800 330
Cha 110913-773444 8 (+7; -3) 1.300 -1.400  
OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
GQ Lupi b 1 - 36 2.650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
HD 44627 13 - 14 1.600 -2.400 275
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
2M1207b 4 (+6; -1) 1.600±100 40
2M 044144 9,8±1,8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
HR 8799 c  7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~38
HR 8799 d 7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~24
HIP 65426 9,0 ±3,0 1.450.0 (± 150,0) 9
Table 8. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance

Table 6. eliminates the claims that objects below 13 masses of Jupiter can't have an independent production of high temperatures, which is measured also on stars S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Cyg 1.875; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940°K. [8]

2.4. Observing the density of bodies in our system

Table 9. Rotation/density

Body Rotation   Mean density g/cm3 Mass Jupiter=1 Magnetic field G Type
Sun 25,38 day 1,408 1047 1-2 (10–100 sunspots) G2V
Jupiter 9,925 hours 1,326 1 4,2 (10–14 poles) planets
Saturn 10,64 hours 0,687 0,299 0,2 planets
Uranus (−)0,718 33 day 1,27 0,046 0,1 planets
Neptune 0,6713 day 1,638 0,054 0,14 planets
PSR J1745-2900 3,76 second  / 1-3 (mass Sun) 1014 pulsar
Sirius A 16 km/s 2,063±0,023 weak A0mA1 Va
Table 9. Rotation/density

Here I will give an additional explanation for a claim that "A small star with a high mass will have a high density, because all of its mass is getting squeezed into a small space…hence, it’s very dense. A larger star of the same mass will have a lower density due to its stuff not getting squeezed so much."[11] through the rotation of an object around its axis.
Jupiter has the fastest rotation in our system, but it doesn't affect the density of the planet – it is lower than the one of Sun, Neptune and Pluto. Saturn is particularly interesting  with its lowest density ( Pan 0,42 g/cm3, Atlas 0,46 g/cm3, Pandora 0,48 g/cm3, Prometheus 0,48±0,09 g/cm³ 67P/Ch-G  0,533 g/cm3, Amalthea 0,857±0,099 g/cm3) in the table 7. This states that density doesn't change with the increase of mass, temperature and the speed of rotation. The speed of rotation in our system is significant with the objects that are inside the area, rich with matter, i.e., the area, where disks of gas and asteroid belts are created. The higher the frequency of matter incoming onto an object generally means that the discussed object will have a faster rotation and higher temperature. Fast-rotating hot stars are generally situated in those parts of the space, which is rich with matter (nebulae).

Table 10. ~ % Mass of satellites, Satellites /Central body

Body ~ % Mass of satellites
Satellites /Central body
Mean density kg/m3

Pluto

12,2

1750

Earth

1,23

5515

Neptune

0,385

1638

Sun

0,14

1408

Saturn

0,024

  687

Jupiter

0,021

1326

Uranus

0,00677

1270

Table 10. ~ % Mass of satellites Satellites /Central body

If only the influence of gravity on the objects in an orbit or in the correlation of two stars is exclusively measured, that would be a wrong thing to do and it is presented in table 8. Pluto is the smallest object and it has the biggest percentage of its satellites' mass in the relation an object's mass/its satellites' mass in the orbit. The stars with a fast rotation create impressive systems, independently of their mass or radius, to the opposite of the stars with a slow rotation.

a fast rotating star
Figure 1. a fast rotating object

2.5. The band of matter concentration and the influence of rotational speed on bodies in orbits and centers of galaxies
In the formula for determining the behavior of planets, must be included temperatures of space and proximity to the central body, with special observation of the belt that is richer in matter.
Confirmation of this correctness it's easy to see that the satellites of Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune .. are in the zone where matter is concentrated. Their mass is significantly larger than other satellites.
It is obligatory to observe here reducing the distance of that belt, with shrinking temperatures of space as the planets move away from the central body, independent of the mass of the central body and the speed of rotation, though mass and the speed of rotation is and here very important.

Table 11. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1

Exoplanets Mass Jup. orbital periods days Distance AU BD + 20 2457 c =1 orbital periods days
BD + 20 2457 c 12,47 621,99 2,01 1
HD 213240 b 4,5 951 2,03 +329,01
OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb 0,73 1.788,5 2,3 +1.166,51
Gliese 317 b 2,5 692 1,5 +70,01
HD 95089 b 1,2 507 1,51 -114,99
HD 183263 b 3,67 626,5 1,51 +4,5
HD 143361 b 3,48 1.046,2 1,98 +424,21
HD 5319 b 1,76 641 1,6697 +19,01
V391 Pegasi b 3,2 1.170 1,7 +548,01
Table 11. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1

Table 9. shows that similar or identical distance of planets from their central object doesn't result with the same orbital period. This data is seriously undermining the idea of the uniformed reduction of the gravitational influence on the objects in our system and it shows that the speed of the objects in the orbit depends on mass as well as on the rotational speed of the central object and the mass of the objects in the orbit.
All these principles mentioned above are the same for the galactical centers, which are the largest objects in the Universe.

Table 12. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  galaxies type galaxies Speed of galaxies

Fast-rotating galaxies

1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation

4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 12. (7) galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies. From [10]

3. Conclusion
When there is an increase of data quantity in the database, the preconditions are created to discuss the white dwarfs within realistic values as small, fast-rotating stars with the density, which is similar to other, both medium and large, hot stars. Small fast-rotating stars (white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, proto stars) have gas disks or significant asteroid belts, because they are formed inside the space, rich with matter. [7]   
Very fast rotation of the central body creates fast orbits of gas, small and large objects.
With the constant increase of matter [9], a star gathers it from the orbits (including the process of migration of hydrogen and helium from the smaller objects towards a star [12]) and, because of growth, disks and asteroid belts are growing smaller, accordingly to the relation of: a star's mass/the mass of matter in its orbit.
Due to high temperatures of the fast-rotating stars, matter disintegrates into hydrogen (some helium is the product of the process of constant joining of particles). The traces of complex elements on hot objects are detected because there is a constant daily influx of matter, within which there are complex elements and compounds.
The speed of rotation with the increase of an object's mass affects more the level of temperature, because more quantity of mass gives an object a more complex structure, higher values of matter mixture and the creation of higher forces of pressure and friction. A higher value of particle work and a higher quantity of work, due to rotation, binary effects,... make the difference between cold and hot stars. When binary effects, made by the activity of gravity (the attraction force of matter), are ruled out, the rotation speed of an object determines  the speeds of gas orbits and objects, with the remark that every object has an area in which matter is concentrated. Masses of the objects in that area are larger than masses of the objects in the orbit and therefore gas, dust and asteroids (disks and asteroid areas) are concentrated in such areas. [13], [14], [15], [16]
________________________________________________________________

Reference:
[1]. 172 linnks type RX J1131-1231HD 183263 bJupiter; GQ Lupi b; dist. 330 AU; BI 253 etc. in one to multiple steps leads to the source
[2]. https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/13644/how-do-star-densities-work How do star densities work?
[3]. https://sciencing.com/calculate-stellar-radii-7496312.html How to Calculate Stellar Radii
[4]   https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/dwarfs2.html „White Dwarf Stars“  Last Modified: December 2010
[5]. http://cds.cern.ch/record/435428/files/0004317.pdf  "The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars" Shmuel Balberg and Stuart L. Shapiro∗ Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801
[6]. https://www.universetoday.com/24681/white-dwarf-stars/  February 4, 2009 by fraser cain, „White Dwarf Stars“
[7]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars, W.Duckss
[8]. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.07017.pdf  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[9]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
[10]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13
2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation W.D.
[11]. https://scienceatyourdoorstep.com/2018/06/13/star-mass-and-density/  Star Mass and Density june 13, 2018 / Emma
[12]. http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W.D.
[13]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Jupiter#List Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
[14]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Saturn#List Rea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus
[15]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Neptune#List Proteus, Triton, Nereid
[16]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Uranus#List Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon

 

2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life new

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 july 2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia
07/09/2019

Abstract
In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.

2. A constant growth causes optimal temperatures for the appearance of life
A constant growth is a sum of the different quantities of growth of the objects in a star system. The differences are present in the respective masses of the objects, their chemical compositions, the existence of atmosphere and its composition, the speed of rotation around the axis. [1] In our system there are inner small planets and objects, then large objects with impressive atmospheres (these are located in the area rich with matter) and smaller objects outside that area.
Matter in an orbit around a star or smaller objects gets concentrated in the asteroid belt (when the rotation of a star around its axis is relatively slow) or in the disk of gas, dust, smaller and larger objects, when a star rotates faster around its axis. Generally, the objects in this area rotate faster than inner and outer objects of a star system. It needs to be mentioned here that the objects, captured in an orbit, may have different masses, no matter how far the orbit may be from a central object. Inside a star system and due to a constant object growth, smaller stars with high temperatures make orbits around a central star (due to fast rotations around their axes and the mass of an object).

Table 1. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperature

  Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
5 HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
6 1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
7 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
8 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243

Table 1. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass. [2]

Only very distant stars or planets that achieve their temperatures on their own, without a central object, are included in this table. They are shown as the examples here to avoid the discussions that would state that objects that are close to a star achieve their temperatures exclusively through the extreme radiation of the central object. High temperatures are registered in data bases at all distances.
Sirius B is distant 20 AU (Uranus' orbit), T 25.200° K (Sirius A 9.940° K); Procion B 15 AU, T 7.740° K (Procion A 6.350°K), 40 Eriidani B (C) 400 AU (B i C 15 AU between themselves) T 16.500°K (B) / 3.100 (C) / 5.300 (A); Acrux B 1 AU, T 28.000° K (Acrux A T 24.000); Epsilon Aurigae B 18 AU, T 15.000 (A 7.750° K)..
The stars (and planets) with a small radius and mass have temperatures higher or similar as a part of large central stars.

Table 2. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  / 2.200
2 CW Leonis 700 2.200
3 IK Tauri 451-507 2.100
4 W Aquilae 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
5 T Cephei 329 +70 -50 2.400
6 S Pegasi  459-574 2.107
7 Chi Cygni 348-480 2.441-2.742
8 R Leporis 400±90 2.245-2.290
9 R Leonis Minoris  569±146 2.648
10 S Cassiopeiae 930 1.800

Table 2. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470° K; V Hya 2.160° K; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; R Lep 2.290; W Ori 2.625; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095; RV Cyg 2.675° K.. [2]
These indicators point to a different perspective on the so-called zones suitable for the appearance of life. Just before the creation of these stars in the orbit, as a result of insufficient mass and possibly a slower rotation, these objects had a crust and atmosphere, i.e., they were objects with a melted interiority and very active geological processes.

3. The speed of rotation around the axis of an object accelerates the rise of temperature and creates a global magnetic field
A speed of rotation around an axis, with the binary effects and mass included, determines the level of temperature of an object. At the same time it enables the appearance of geological processes, because of the temperature amplitudes between a day and a night. A rotation creates a global magnetic field on the objects with a melted interiority and on stars.

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

1 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
2 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

3 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
4 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Table 3. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship:mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [2]

The objects from the table 3 have very distant orbits, where the influence of a central object is marginal. At the same time it is seen that the mass of an object is not responsible for the level of temperature. It should be particularly pointed out that a smaller quantity of mass is enough for an object to independently produce temperatures that are required for the appearance of life.

   Brown dwarf & planets Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

  Mass up to 13 Mass of Jupiter
1 CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
2 PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
3 2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
4 GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
5 WD 0806-661  6-9  300-345 2.500
6 Venus 0,002 56 737 0,723
7 Earth 0,003 15 184 - 330 1,00

Table 4. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C. [2]

The objects from 1-5 achieve high temperatures independently. Venus makes it possible due to the tidal forces of Sun and Earth does it independently and with the binary effects, too. The objects can achieve the optimal temperatures for the appearance and progress of life at all distances from a central object. Those objects that have an independent rotation and are closer to the central object make the optimal temperature conditions with the quantity of mass, which is lesser than the one of Earth and the distance a bit shorter than 1 AU. (depending on the speed of rotation and mass of the central object). With the increase of distance and the reduction of the tidal force effects, the objects need to gain mass and/or increase the speed of rotation to achieve the temperatures that are optimal for the appearance of life. The object 2MASS J2126-8140 is a star (T 1.800° K) with its mass of 13,3 (± 1,7) masses of Jupiter, at the distance of 6.900 AU, OTS 44 is a central object, which mass is 11,5 MJ (1.700 - 2.300° K), ROXs 42Bb  9 MJ, T 1.950 ± 100° K, distance  157 AU..

  Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s Radius Sun 1

1 8_Andromeda 3.616±22 5±1  30
2 β Pegasi 3.689 9,7 95
3 Aldebaran 3.910 634 day 44,2
4 HD 5980 B 45.000 400 22
5 BI 253 50.100 200 10,7
6 HD 269810 52.500 173 18
7 WR 142 200.000 1.000 0,40

Table 5. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-3 cold stars, 4-7 hot stars.[2]

Table 5 exhibits a primary influence of rotation to the level of temperature. Without rotation, the objects with completely or partially melted interiority can have no global magnetic field, which is an effective protector of an environment, in which simple and complex living organisms are created and existing.

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km

Table 6. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and radius. [1] 

The lack of global magnetic field is registered on Venus, Mars and other objects without a melted interiority (Uranus 0,1 Gauss, Neptune 0,14 G, Saturn 0,2 G, Jupiter 4,2 G, Pluto has no global magnetic field ..).

4. Working temperatures of elements and compounds and chemical composition
The quantity of elements (mass fraction (ppm)) in our galaxy: Hydrogen 739.000, Helium 240.000, Oxygen 10.400, Carbon 4.600, Neon 1.340, Iron 1,090, Nitrogen 960 ..
This is, roughly, similar to the chemical composition of gaseous planets and Sun - that quantity is almost all of the matter in our system.
Opposite to these objects, Earth has chemical composition of the crust: chemical composition of the crust: Silica SiO2 60.2%; Alumina Al2O3 15.2%; Lime CaO 5.5%; Magnesia MgO 3.1%; iron(II) oxide FeO 3.8%; sodium oxide Na2O 3.0%; potassium oxide K2O 2.8%; iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 2.5%; water H2O 1.4%; carbon dioxide CO2 1.2%; titanium dioxide TiO2 0.7% (Total ~100%).
Inner objects cannot hold H2 and He, which migrate towards Sun. This is the reason why an object that lacks independent rotation or insufficient mass has no significant quantities of water (Venus, Mars, Ceres, Vesta,...). The objects in the external orbits produce very low (minor) quantities of O2 and they also cannot produce significant quantities of water.
This is, of course, valid with the existing mass of the object in the orbit and their rotation speeds. With the increase of mass ( ~1,5 of the mass of Earth, depending on rotation) Mars will be able to hold a part of its hydrogen in the compounds of CH4, H2O, NH3 etc. although hydrogen will continue to migrate towards Sun.
In the area rich with matter, due to "fast" growth, the objects have a shorter period that is suitable to the appearance of life. The period becomes unsuitable when an object's mass reaches a point, after which hydrogen and helium remain on the object.
The objects outside the area rich with matter are in a significantly better position. These objects achieve a melted interiority when their mass equals a few masses of Earth.
Nowadays, on these distances, the objects that are below the mass of Jupiter are registered and their temperatures are significantly high (at these distances it is impossible to detect an object, unless it has a significantly high temperature (the radiation emission):(OGLE-2011-BLG-0173L b 0,19 MJup, dist. 10 AU; HD 163296 b 0,3 MJ, dist. 105 AU; HD 163296 c 0,3 MJ, dist 160 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-028L b 0,094 MJ, dist. 7,14 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-274 b 0,8 MJ, dist. 40 AU ..).
High temperatures are estimated at the objects, which mass is only a few times larger than the one of Jupiter: (Planet HD 95086 b  2.6 (± 0.4) MJ, distance 61.7 (-8.4 +20.7) AU, T 1.050° K; 2M1207b 4 (+6−1) MJ, dist. 24–231 AU, T 1600 ± 100 K; HR 8799 b 5 (+2, -1) MJ, ~68 AU, T 870 (+30, -70) K; GJ 504 b 4 MJ, dist. 43,5 AU,  544±10 ° K...).
The independent objects with high temperatures (brown dwarfs) are nowadays detected with the mass of 5 and more masses of Jupiter: (ULAS J0034-00 0,005 M Sun, T 550 – 600°K; WISE 1828+2650  3 – 6 M Jup, T 250 – 400° K; WISE 0855−0714  ~3 – 10 MJ, T 225- 260° K; CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7 MJ, T ~700° K; PSO J318.5-22 6,5 MJ, T 1160; ..).

A chemical composition of the objects in an orbit depends also on:
Quote: „ there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces.. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The comet shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3 i td).“ [2] end quote.

The temperature of space and an object determines, which elements create its atmosphere and enter the processes of the object's chemical structure construction.
The working temperature of water is from 0 to +100°C; oxygen from -218,35 to -188,14°C; nitrogen from -209,86 to -195,75°C; methane from -182,5 to -161,49; hydrogen from -259,14 to -252,87°C; helium from -272,20 to -268,934°C; sulphur dioxide from -72 do -10°C , etc.
Temperature and distance of the body in our system: Mercury distance 0.387 098 AU, temperature 80 – 700° K; Venus 0.723332 AU; 750 K; Earth 1 AU, 144-330 K; Mars 1.523679 AU, 130-308 K; Jupiter 5.2044 AU, 112-165 K; Saturn 9.5826 AU, 85-134° K; Titan 9.5826 AU, 93,7 K; Uranus 19.2184 AU, 47-76 K; Neptune 30,11 AU, 55-72 K; Pluto 39,48 AU, 33-55 K..
In the elements' and compounds' working temperature / the temperature of the object ratio, it can be determined, which elements and compounds will create the atmosphere and the structure of the object. If the temperature is above the boiling point of oxygen, which is 90,188 K (on Jupiter, it is 112-165 K), such an object needs to have almost all of its oxygen in the atmosphere; when all the compounds containing oxygen and oxygen itself are taken into account, there are only traces of water (0.0004%±0.0004%) on Jupiter.
There are some species on Earth that can use a kind of antifreeze and successfully progress in cold types of climate. Microorganisms on Earth can endure the temperatures from -20° C (Synechococcus lividus) do 121° C (Pyrolobus fumariiPyrococcus furiosus ). [3]  
antifreeze is a complex sugar called xylomannan). The spores of the bacterial species of Bacillus have endured having been heated to the temperature of 420 ° C . [4]
However, we discuss here the environment that is suitable for the appearance of (more complex forms of) life, because only when life appears and progresses to a certain level, there is a possibility to discuss the conditions, in which life can survive and adapt. Such an environment does not include extreme temperatures, in which survive such organisms that were created somewhere else and have evolved to survive in the extreme conditions. The appearance of life needs an optimal and balanced temperature in a long period of time. Besides such an atmosphere, these objects must have significant quantities of compounds that are a base to create life. The problem of our (star system's) planets is they have no liquids that would stay in the same place in the liquid form for a long period of time.

5. Conclusion
In reality, the appearance and progress of life are to be expected on all objects, but only during a particular period of time and under the conditions, needed for such an object to progress. Finally, these conditions come down to the achievement of the melted interiority and an independent rotation – which should not be extremely slow. Under these conditions, geological processes become very active. In the process of interaction of the melted interiority with crust, atmosphere and liquids in or on the crust, a complex atoms and compounds are created. Inside our system, nowadays only Earth meets these conditions. __________________________________________________________________

Reference
[1].https://www.academia.edu/37363821/A_Constant_Growth_Rotation_And_Its_Effects_Cyclones_Light_And_Redshift_With_Images  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophile#Characteristics
[4]. https://asknature.org/strategy/unique-antifreeze-protects-from-extreme-cold/ „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“

 

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The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems

Published in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13
Author, Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Abstract
The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

2. The effects of rotation around an axis (objects) and a center (systems)
2.1. The formation of a system by rotation
The observation of the rotational effects can be done through the orbits of objects around a central object. All orbits (of an object) are placed around the equatorial region or cut through it if they are inclined, i.e., if there is an inclination from the equatorial plane. The speed of an object that approaches a central object has nothing to do with the appearance of the orbit, because if it did, we would have had orbits around the poles [7]. The objects that lack an independent rotation (i.e., the objects that are tidally locked) or have an extremely slow rotation have no possibility to take and hold other objects in their own orbits (for example, Venus, Mercury, internal satellites (tidally locked). 
Quote: These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits (new evidence, confirmation [8],  [9]), nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is. end quote
The objects on their poles have no rotation related to the vertically incoming objects, therefore their collisions are almost the only option.
Quote: One object becomes a nova and a large number (millions) of others with the same parameters just go on the same way. It is necessary to consider some very rare factors, like, for example, the impacts of large objects into planets, but even more rare – those that hit only a small part of the objects (one event in more than ten million of objects - stars).
Within the growth of an object, some smaller object is starting a reaction when colliding with a star. If that should remain a rare event, it needs to be a specific event under the specific conditions. The only possible specificity is for that object (the errant objects, incoming from outside the Solar system) to arrive vertically onto one of the poles and to hit the opening of a cyclone that exists on the poles of stars. That way, it would get an opportunity to break into the interior of an object.
When discussing the vertical trajectories, it is necessary to point out that only the forces of attraction exist there, because an object creates the forces of repulsion in the horizontal direction only. end quote [10]  
A part of an object goes through a central object, due to a constant movement of a central object (Sun 220 km/s) and goes irreversibly further into space.

2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation
A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [11]   
A radius, related to mass (Sun =1) is negative, when stars with a fast rotation are the subject matter, while it is completely opposite with cold, red, slowly-rotating stars. [12]
A bit of a remark: the author of this article disagrees with the current estimates of the stars' mass, as he claims they are the product of old hypotheses which lacked enough evidence to support them. The author suggests that a radius be equal to a mass when discussing slowly-rotating stars and that the mass decrease up to 100% with fast-rotating stars. For example, Melnick 42, 21,1 R of Sun, its mass should be around 30 M of Sun (currently, 189 M of Sun).
That would give the option to avoid these illogicalities:

Table 1. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K

1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834

Table 1. Stars, similar mass (except No 5, 6, 7), different classes (type) and temperatures.

A same or similar mass should produce the same or similar outcome, given other conditions are the same. These days, scientific community totally undervalues the rotation of objects and its effects.

Table 2. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity, mass/radius.  

  Star Mass, Sun 1 Radius, Sun 1 Temperature °K Rotation speed  km/s

  Stars with slow rotation
1. Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4
2. R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
3. HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
4. Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
5. Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
6. Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
7. Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
8. Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
9. Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
10. Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
11. Betelgeuse

Fast-rotating stars

11,6 887 ±203 3.590 5
12. IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
13. Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
14. η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
15. Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
16. Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
17. Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
18. Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
19. WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
20. Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
21. S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
22. Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
23. Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
24. HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
25. HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
26. HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
27. HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
28. VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
29. Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
30. R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200

Table 2. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-12 cold stars, 13-29 hot stars.

The influence of rotation is more significant with stars that possess larger mass, because warming up and pressure are the result of friction, occurring between layers of a star. These stars that rotate faster will have higher temperatures than small stars, with the same or slower rotation (binary effects excluded).
Slowly-rotating stars have less significant surface gravity than the fast-rotating stars. [12]

Table3. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Rotation km/s or day Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1 Surface gravity cgs

1. Betelgeuse 3.140-3641 5 7,7-20 950-1200 0,5
2. Aldebaran 3.910 643 d 1,5±0,3 44,2±0,9 1,59
3. Pollux 4.666±95 558 d 2.04±0,3 8.8±0,1 2,685
4. Polaris 6.015 119 d 4,5 46±3 2.2
5. Canopus 7.350 8,0 9,0-10,6 71,4±4,0 2,1
6. Beta Pictoris 8.052 (9.790) 130 1,75 1,8 4,15
7. Denebola 8.500 128 1,78 1.728 4,0
8. Fomalhaut 8.590 93 1,92 1,842 4,21
9. Vega 9.692±180 12,5 h 2,135 2,36x2,81 4,1
10. Sirijus a 9.940 225-250 2.02 1,711 4,33
11. Albireo B 13.200±600 0,6 days 3,7 2,7 4,00
12. Sirijus b 25.200   / 0,978 0,0084 8,57

Table 3. Stars, No 1-7 low temperatures, small rotation speed, small surface gravity, in relation: radius>mass; No 8-16 high temperature, high Surface gravity, in relationship: radius<mass (Sun=1).

2.3. Gravitationally Bound Objects
Gravity and rotation  create systems. Super clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally-bound objects known today. The rotation of a cluster is different from zero. [13]

Table 4. Galaxy, distance /speed

  Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

1. NGC 4450 ~50 1954 ± 4
2. NGC 4262 50,0 1359 ± 4
3. NGC 4550 50.0 381 ± 9
4. Messier 89 50 ± 3  290 ± 5
5. NGC 4435 52 0.002638(z)
6. Messier 86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
7. Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
8. Messier 91 63 ± 16  486 ± 4
9. NGC 4388 65.10 ± 18.43 2.524

Table 4. Galaxy, relationship: distance 50-65.10± 18.43 Mly/speed of movement.

Table 5. Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy, redsfift/distance

  Supercluster (galaxy) Redsfift (z) Distance M ly

1 The Laniakea Supercluster +0,0708 250
2 Horologium Supercluster 0,063 700
3 Abell 754 0,0542 760
4 Abell 133 0,0566 763
5 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
6 CID-42  0,359 3.900 (3,9 Gly)
7 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4.000
8 Einstein Cross 1,695 8.000
9 Twin Quasar 1,413 8.700
10 Lynx Supercluster 1,26 & 1,27 12.900

Table 5. The Universe, Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy: redsfift (z)/distance M ly(G ly).

Table 6. Galaxies, redsfift/distance/speed

  Galaxies Redsfift (z) Distance billion ly Speed km/s  

1 EQ J100054+023435 4.547 12,2 280.919
2 Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
3 Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
4 GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917

Table 6. The Universe, relationship: redsfift (z)/distance G ly/speed km/s.

Besides rotation, there is also the law of (matter) attraction, which causes collisions, larger and smaller fusions of galactical clusters and Supercluster. [14]  One should make a distinction between collisions, in which the orbits of objects or systems are different, and fusions, in which objects share the same orbit and gravity causes a soft fusion of objects (for example, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
The accumulation is a constant growing process from the formation of particles, the accumulation of particles  into nebulae, ... , joining into (chemical) compounds, the formation of smaller and larger objects. Stars, star systems, binary stars which are the initial stage of the formation of star clusters, galaxies, galactical clusters and finally Universe are all created with the increase in mass and in the force of pressure (which depends on the speed of rotation). A part of matter gets disintegrated by the explosions of stars. These explosions cause even or more significant results than those, made by the collisions in LHC in Switzerland. [15]
Quote: Despite destruction (the disintegration of matter), the observations show that the Universe is not losing its mass. On the contrary, it increases. It means that the Universe is efficiently replacing all of the lost matter, the minimum of which is 20 quadrillion of the Sun’s masses, and even “some” more.
It is not to be forgotten that a smaller part of matter is also been disintegrated in the collisions of waves and particles. In order for the muons to be registered at all in the laboratories, a countless number of particle disintegrations needs to occur. It is an everlasting occurrence on the objects orbiting around a star from the beginning of time till these days and until a star becomes a nova. A good portion of matter is being disintegrated in the collisions of objects and galaxies. Therefore, the colossal dimensions are not related only to the creation of matter, but also to the growth of all objects within stellar systems, galaxies and the Universe. Millions of craters are only a reminder of that process being contiguous and ongoing. end quote [16]
The author of the article discusses the following two or at the most three wholes (Multiverse,...), based on the decrease of temperature and radiation intensity with the increase of distance from the source, on the constant growth of gravitationally related systems, on systems behaving as a single object in attracting matter, inside the space in which the temperature is 0°K and the processes are still or extremely slow. [17]
An object in an orbit can approach or distance itself from a central object. It depends on the influx of matter to the object. If an object in an orbit has a relatively low influx of matter from a central object, it starts falling slowly to the central object (Mars/ Phobos) and the process is opposite when the influx of matter is more significant on the object in the orbit – it starts moving away (Earth/ Moon) (similar to the relation of a pendulum and a weight). The same situation is with the systems, with a remark that a faster rotation accelerates the processes.
The law of low temperatures is manifested in star systems and galaxies; the objects have higher orbital speeds with lesser gravitational effects. The temperature, which is below the melting point of helium, 4,216°K, is responsible for it. The stars that are on the edges of galaxies, just as the objects on the edges of star systems, have higher speeds with lesser gravitational effects than their neighboring objects that are closer to the center. [18]

2.4. The formation of galaxies
Matter attraction gathers objects into systems and rotation regulates these systems. When a large number of stars rotate around the common center in a relatively small volume (i.e., in the centers of galaxies), they act as a single object and create systems similar to star systems. A galactical disk is created on the same principles as the orbits of objects around stars and asteroid belts or gas disks; rotation, the speed of rotation, the force of attraction. [19]  In a large majority of situations, central objects represent almost the whole mass of a system (Sun 99,86 %).
There are different galactical centers inside the general process of growth. Slow rotations create centers made of stars and other matter that look like the spherical groups of stars (there is a big difference in the speed of rotation) and they do not create a familiar-looking center inside the galactical center. [20]  Cyclones, that break down a large part of stars and create a completely new and the largest object in Universe, are formed by fast rotation on the poles of the galactical centers. [21] 
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars. The same applies to cold stars and those stars, which temperatures are somewhere in between.

Table 7. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  galaxies type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies
1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation
4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)

Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies.

The speed of rotation affects the form of a galaxy and more dynamic processes inside such galaxies.

Table 8. Galaxies, type/ size

  galaxies type of galaxies speed of galaxies

  Large galaxies (fast-rotating)
1 APM 08279+5255 elliptical galaxy giant elliptical galaxy [25]
2 Q0906 + 6930 blazar the most distant known blazar
3 OJ 287 BL Lacertae object the largest known objects
4 S5 0014 + 81 blazar giant elliptical galaxy
5 H1821 + 643 quasar the most massive black hole

Contrary to: Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating)
6 Messier 110 elliptical galaxy dwarf elliptical galaxy 
7 Messier 32 "early-type" dwarf "early-type" galaxy
8 NGC 147 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
9 NGC 185 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Table 8. galaxies, relationship: type of galaxies/ size of galaxies; No. 1-5 Large galaxies (fast-rotating), No. 6-9 Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating).

2.5. Changing the Structure of Galaxy, the Increase of Radiation Intensity With the Increase of the Speed of Rotation
With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy.
If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, the nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc (3,000-16,000 ly [26]  or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly (according to some other sources [27] ) from a pole to the other one. It's diameter: the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU [28]   – there is a disparity between a central point (a black hole should be there) and a pole of the central structure of a galaxy (different occurrences and the beginning of different radiation emissions are measured there). The distance from the horizons (poles) and the center is 1.500 to 15.000 ly and more, when giant galaxies with a very fast rotation are discussed.
The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are 3.000 to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars [29]). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). Their existence have been confirmed on the poles of Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate.

2.6. Cyclones, Acceleration of Galaxies, the Increase of the Intensity of Radiation, due to the increase in rotation
Cyclones are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars [10]).
The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy; related to stars, objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere and photosphere of a star [29] ). It is known that hot and fast-rotating stars are mostly found in nebulae or other matter-enriched space.  Recent appearances of the objects from the outside of our system, A / 2017 U1 [30]  (1I / 2017 U1) [31]  (inclination 122.69°) and C/2012 S1 [32]  (inclination 62,4°) confirm that such events are no rarity even in the space, which is less matter-enriched.
The size of a galaxy (as well as stars) depends on the quantity of matter in the space around it (free stars, the clusters of stars, smaller and larger galaxies with or without a central structure, nebulae, etc.). Galaxies with a faster rotation experience stronger attraction forces and also the possibility to grow faster. That fact alligns them with the galaxies that are younger than those with a slower rotation – if there are similar masses or sizes and similar quantities of matter in their space. The same goes for the stars; the stars with a faster rotation grow faster – if other factors are similar. These similarities are present in our system, too, and are related to the planets with a faster rotation.
The formation of objects and galaxies occurs in a very cold space (the temperatures of 2-3°K ), it supports superconductivity (radiation expands at the speed of ~300.000 km/s), in space, waves and radiation lose their intensity with the growing distanceThe temperatures below 4,216°K (below the boiling point of helium) make it possible for the objects in that zone to move faster – if other conditions are similar – unlike the objects which temperatures are above 4,216°K. At galaxies and stars, these things happen on the edges of these systems, where the results of measuring the speed of objects indicate faster movement than of those objects, which are closer to the center of a system (The proof is accelerating Voyagers).

3.  Dark matter in space and Light
3.1. Dark matter
I give evidence for the connection of dark matter existence by the processes that are visible and measurable inside our system. If a part of space is (almost) empty, without the presence of matter (dark matter), there should exist the following: an even spreading of Sun radiation and independence of the temperature increase  due to radiation. The temperature of space can be observed indirectly. The easiest way to gain the result is to observe the temperature on the dark side of an object (the minimal temperatures).

Table 9. Sun system, temperature deviation, temperatures/ distance

  The body in orbit around the Sun Minimum temperatures °K Distance from the Sun AU

1 Mercury 80 (100 equator) 0,39
2 Moon 100 1
3 Mars 143 1.52
4 Vesta 85 2,36
5. Ceres 168 2,77
6 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 180 3,46
7 Ganymede 70 5,20
8 Callisto 80±5 5.20
9 Triton 38 30,11
10 Pluto 33 39,48

Table 19. Sun system, temperature deviation, relationship: minimum temperatures °K/distance from the Sun AU.

These measurements of minimal temperatures show deviations from the accepted claims that the intensity of ("termal") radiation decreases with the square distance. Except Mars and Pluto, not all objects have enough quantity of atmosphere, which could cause doubt about the correct way of selecting objects in the example. If a factor of measurement imprecision is also taken into consideration, the deviations are still impossible to be removed as they show that the objects from the examples  1 – 5,20 AU have the same or higher minimal temperatures than Mercury and they are also of the lesser or similar mass. Mercury and Ceres are in a group of objects, which are explored equally well and in details; however, it is shown that the minimal temperature on Ceres is two times higher, even though it should be decreasing, according to the law of radiation intensity decrease with the increase of square distance.
If deviation is excluded and minimal temperatures are observed very roughly, it is obvious that there is a temperature decrease with the increase in distance: Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878. [33] 
At the end of our system, the temperature is estimated at less than 4 ° K.
The decrease of radiation intensity is (visually) the most notable when measuring the radiation of stars. The further the objects, the lower the intensity (with regards and correction of mass and temperature of a star). An example of deviation can also be found in the termosphere of our planet (although that example is (partially) solved in the way that a certain quantity of radiation, allocated to a lesser quantity of particles, results with easier temperature rise to higher temperatures). The examples from the table eliminate the claims that radiation dissipate with the increase of space  (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is more than 3 AU further from Mercury and its minimal temperature is by 100°K  higher).
Quote: The existence of matter can be observed here, on Earth, too. A balloon, inflated 2-3 km deep under the water surface, will explode just before the surface or on it, due to the air expansion. The similar thing happens to the balloons, which are sent outside the atmosphere – they explode at the maximum altitude of 40 (104) km above the surface of Earth, due to the equalizing the pressures. There are different kinds of matter and different outcomes, but the final outcome is the same: the pressures get equalized. The balloons are moving in the direction, which is opposite to the activity of gravitation and they exclusively abide the law of equalizing the different pressures. The balloons "know" where is the less dense matter inside a volume. end quote [34] 
The termal deviation and the decrease of temperature from a source to the edges of a system indicate that there is a similarity between some processes in space and in the atmosphere (of Earth).  Due to the interaction of radiation with particles of atmosphere and object itself, matter warms up. Space also warms up, due to the activity of the same radiation and without visible matter being present. As radiation waves distance themselves from a source, the intensity of radiation decreases, as well as temperature (both minimal and maximal) of space and visible matter (an object). A similar example can be found on Earth. Water is the warmest on its surface. The lowest temperatures are in the deepest waters, if geological warmings are excluded (hot spots). Energy, different kinds of radiation and visible matter (which does not create its own warmth by geological processes) are very cold. The temperature of visible matter, when sources of radiation are not there at all or when they are too far, tends to be absolute zero (0°K).
Space is the purest vacuum, but only if related to visible matter. According to evidence and definition, vacuum does not create friction which could reduce the intensity of radiation waves. A smaller part of particles in space, when collided by waves of radiation, turn into high-energy particles.
Quote: Different kinds of matter coexist one by the other and the transition from one into the other is more or less defined. That is impossible between matter and vacuum, because the pressures of matter and vacuum always tend to equalize and that is not what can be seen between the atmosphere and vacuum and with the gas (particle) gathering into nebulae, etc.
Right here, just outside (even inside) the atmosphere, there is the kind of matter, which is known to us, which had been defined and its influence on the visible matter calculated – it only remains to be detected. end quote [34] 
If we push water out of a bowl, which is placed under water, it starts moving towards space with a lower pressure. The same thing happens to a balloon filled with helium.

3.2. Light
Light appears on the place of collision between radiation waves and particles. If there is no radiation, or if it is minimal, matter is very cold. If there is no visible matter, space warms up  (80 to 180°K), just as visible matter. An important difference is that space does not produce light in collisions with radiation, no matter the intensity or sort of radiation.
Warmth and light are produced only by visible matter. The light of Sun disappears immediately after leaving the atmosphere of Sun or with the disappearance of visible matter. Temperature drastically falls after leaving the atmosphere, but it does not disappear immediately (80 to 100°K) – it gradually diminishes with the increase of distance through space. It does not matter, whether to name a space between a source and an object as invisible matter or just space. The important fact is that invisible space actively supports the processes that can be recognized in the visible mattter, too.
Space equals complete dark. Light appears only on objects (nebulae,  planets,  etc ). If there is no visible matter, there is no light. Stars (Sun - on the image) do not emit light, stars emit radiation. Light appearance and temperature growth occur in the collision of radiation and visible matter. There is no light immediately outside the atmosphere of Sun. [35] 

4. Conclusion
Rotation and attracting matter create systems. Gravity without the effect of rotation, does not create systems.
The force of attraction (gravity) and the rotation of objects are basic preconditions to create dual or more complex systems (spherical and other groups of stars, galaxies and groups of galaxies). If gravity was the only existing or even dominating force, there would be no universe at all. Without the main creator of all systems – the rotation of objects, which places the falling objects into their orbits – the objects would fall vertically one upon the other. Rotation should not be observed only in the frame of a rotating object, but as a whole of an object and the space, with the attraction forces in it. Not only an object rotates, but the forces within its space rotate with it, too. [36]
 The rotation acts as antigravity. Due to the rotation, the antigravitational forces are changing the course of movement of the incoming objects from straight into round or ellyptic, around the bigger rotating object. In that way, the collapse of the minor part of that mass or these objects, existing in a new way, does not occur.[37]
The rotation creates vortexes and cyclones (at the poles) in the center of galaxies and stars.  Central objects in the centres of the galaxies observe more complex laws that are not based on the physical black holes. Beginning from the stars the size of our Sun, even the low speed rotations cause polar cyclones, which will in time turn into whirlwinds of the galactic size (up to 30 000 light-years). They are able to hold together such a massive objects; the rotation of matter around a whirlwind holds the whole galaxy together. [38]
  Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered, or the blue shift between the objects in collision . There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies (speeds of movement by orbits) and the Universe (the rotation) is occurring many times slower. [39] 

Acknowledgments
Madam  Sylvie Wallimann-Crépin's Editorial Committee of EPD Sciences (2004) for the first boost at the beginning of the research.
Professor Zoran Ćoso, University of Zadar, for the translations in English and Russian.
My wife, Ranka Sedić, who funds this independent research.
_________________________________________________________________
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[19] W.Duckss   http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdfWhy there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?“ Article No 3.
[20] W.Duckss   http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed.pdf   [21] W.Duckss   https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#14b  „Observing the quasars through rotation“
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf „The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars“ Article No 2. [22] https://www.universetoday.com/110031/supermassive-black-holes-dizzying-spin-is-half-the-speed-of-light/ „Supermassive Black Hole’s Dizzying Spin is Half the Speed of Light“ Article written: 5 Mar , 2014Updated: 23 Dec , 2015 by Elizabeth Howell [23] https://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/march/chandra-and-xmm-newton-provide-direct-measurement-of-distant-black-holes-spin/#.W4eeGugzaUl March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"
[24]   https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.05130 „CALIFA reveals Prolate Rotation in Massive Early-type Galaxies: A Polar Galaxy Merger Origin?“ Athanasia Tsatsi, Mariya Lyubenova, Glenn van de Ven, Jiang Chang, J. Alfonso L. Aguerri, Jesús Falcón-Barroso, Andrea V. Macciò (Submitted on 17 Jul 2017)      [25]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APM_08279%2B5255 APM 08279+5255 etc [26]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way#Galactic_Center
[27]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole#Physical_properties  
[28]  http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html „The Milky Way Galaxy“  
[29] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf „Functioning of the Universe“ [30] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/small-asteroid-or-comet-visits-from-beyond-the-solar-system Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[31]  https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitor-dazzles-scientists Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_ISON#Orbit the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] https://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/properties-of-sunlight/solar-radiation-in-space „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/37363821/Processes_in_Universe_in_Pictures
[36] W.Duckss  Https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
[37] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/29645047/Universe-2010.doc „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.

Keywords:
Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;

 

Demoliranje Hubble's law, Big Bang, osnova "moderne" i crkvene kozmologije

English  Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology
Pусский Снос закон Хаббла, Big Bang, основа “современной” и церковную космология
Hrvatski

„Ako su dva predmeta predstavljani kugličnim ležajevima i prostornim vremenom istezanjem gumenog lima, učinak Dopplera uzrokovan je valjanjem kuglica preko listova kako bi se stvorio neobičan pokret.  Kozmološki crveni pomak događa se kada su kuglični ležajevi zaglavljeni na listi i list je rastegnut.“ Wikipedia
Dobro, provjerimo to na našoj lokalnoj skupini galaksija (tablica iz moga članka „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

...
Hubble constant "Za većinu druge polovice 20. stoljeća vrijednost procijenjeno je između 50 i 90 (km / s) / Mpc . (danas postoji nekoliko konstanti, sve su oko 70 km/s)."
Opet ne valja nešto sa zakonom i konstantom!  M90 je udaljena 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly i gle čuda, ima plavi pomak od −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
Galaksije na udaljenosti 32,6 Mly prema, tko zna čijoj konstanti, trebaju imati oko 700 km/s, na dvostrukoj udaljenosti od 65,2 Mly trebaju imati brzinu udaljavanja oko 1.400 km/s, itd.
Zanimljivo je da

NGC 1.600 je udaljena 149,3 Kly i ima brzinu 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c
je udaljena 35 Mly ima brzinu (red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010
je udaljena 140 Mly i ima brzinu od 2.975 ± 27!
NGC 280 je udaljena 464 Mly i ima brzinu od 3.878! ...

Ovi dečki i cure koji vrše mjerenja su nešto promašili ili je neupotrebljiv Hubble´s zakon i konstanta (bilo čija vrijednost konstante).

Na udaljenosti od 52 ± 3 (M86) imamo plavi pomak (-244 ± 5 km/s) koji imamo i kod galaksije M90  na udaljenosti 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), dok su ostale galaksije na istoj udaljenosti (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99, NGC 4419) sa pozitivnim predznakom (osim NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) i potpuno različitim brzinama.

10.03.2018.g.

 

Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

English Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Pусский Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса

 

U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom ( knjiga- 2008.g.)

Kratka knjiga. Građa knjige je o Svemiru, utkana je u svakodnevnicu i poratna zbivanja, prožeta humorom i zamišljenim razgovorima sa autorima radova o kojima se raspravlja dok nastaje novi rad.

SADRŽAJ:

1 Rasprava sa Hawkingom   2 Fotoni javite se
3 Hubbleova konstanta   4 CERN-ova unaprijed izgubljena bitka ...

 

Članci su objavljeni u:

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf march 2019
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, International Journal of Sciences https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019072115.pdf july 2019.

The Intellectual Archive Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32370/IAJ.2055„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf; April 2019.

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems"
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 november 2018

www.ijser.org
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf  
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?THE-UNIVERSE-IS-ROTATING-AFTER-ALL.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf

http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf 2017 .y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf-3.2017.y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf 5.2017.y.

https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Where-is-the-truth-about-Big-Bang-theory.pdf 30.7.2017.y. https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-formation-of-particles-in-the-Universe.pdf 7/2018

www.globalscientificjournal.com
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/The-influence-of-rotation-of-stars-on-their-radius-temperature.pdf 31.08.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHY-ATMOSPHERES-OF-STARS-LACK-METALS.pdf 13.10.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed.pdf 11.2017.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Where-did-the-blue-spectral-shift-inside-the-universe-come-from.pdf  2018.y.

http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf 2018  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Why-is-The-Evolution-of-Stars-incorrect.pdf  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/DEMOLITION-HUBBLES-LAW-BIG-BANG-THE-BASIS-OF-MODERN-AND-ECCLESIASTICAL-COSMOLOGY.pdf
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/ZADARS-THEORY-OF-THE-UNIVERSE.pdf

www.academia.edu
https://www.academia.edu/32926807/Reassessment_of_the_old_but_still_employed_theories_through_database_checking
https://www.academia.edu/33292773/Where_is_the_truth_about_Big_Bang_theory.doc
https://www.academia.edu/26326626/Weitter_Ducksss_Theory_of_the_Universe
https://www.academia.edu/31452775/There_is_no_ring_around_Pluto

https://www.academia.edu/19025940/Why_there_is_a_ring_an_asteroid_belt_or_a_disk_around_the_celestial_objects   https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system https://www.academia.edu/17760569/The_Oort_cloud._Speed_of_light_is_not_the_limit https://www.academia.edu/18485381/The_causal_relation_between_a_star_and_its_temperature_gravity_radius_and_color

https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
https://www.academia.edu/22690826/Gravitational_waves_a_great_discovery_or_a_great_scandal_a_plagiarism_
https://www.academia.edu/31672354/Why_iron_did_not_sink_when_Earth_was_hot
https://www.academia.edu/30921896/Why_Mars_has_no_atmosphere_like_the_moon_Titan_and_Earth

https://www.academia.edu/23764244/Supernovae_are_not_our_creators
https://www.academia.edu/29185426/What_are_working_temperatures_of_elements_and_compounds_in_the_Universe
https://www.academia.edu/31258374/Observing_the_Universe_through_colors.doc
https://www.academia.edu/31887661/Vacuum_in_space_or_undetected_matter

https://www.academia.edu/(Weitter Duckss profil)
https://www.academia.edu/29645047/Universe-2010.doc
https://www.academia.edu/33846969/Using_tales_in_science_to_acquire_financial_resources_is_it_correct https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system etc.

www.ijoart.org
http://www.ijoart.org/research-paper-publishing_october-2016.shtml Universe and rotation

www.ijoar.org
http://www.ijoar.org/journals/IJOAR/Volume4_Issue11_november2016.html The observation process in the universe

www.unexplained-mysteries.com
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/301520-quicker-burning-and-temperature-of-star/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/295090-what-are-the-lakes-on-titan-made-of/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/299470-weitter-ducksss-theory-of-the-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/298246-differences-in-structure-of-the-body/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/292076-gravitational-waves/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267990-mars-life-creation-in-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268345-why-is-the-universe-dark/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268680-atom-why-did-cern-fail/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267586-the-universe-is-rotating/ etc.

www.newtheory.ru
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/sushchestvuet-li-bistroe-i-medlennoe-sgoranie-zvezd-t4092.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/gde-pravda-o-bolshom-vzrive-t4290.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pereocenka-starih-i-vse-je-upotreblyaemih-teoriy-o-vselennoy-t4267.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pochemu-est-raznici-mejdu-strukturami-obektov-nashey-sistemi-t3919.html

http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/prichinnaya-svyaz-vrashcheniya-zvezdi-i-ee-temperaturi-gravita-t4044.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/chto-takoe-rabochie-temperaturi-elementov-i-soedineniy-t3987.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/teoriya-vselennoy-veittera-dukssa-t3868.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/processi-vo-vselennoy-t3636.html и т.д.

facebook, plus.google
https://www.facebook.com/slavko.sedic (comments on articles  space.com; phys.org; NASA
etc.

 

Memorial center Nikola Tesla Croatia, Smiljan

 

Nikola-Tesla Memorijalni Centar Nikola Tesla, Smiljan, Coratia