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Universe and rotation (+35 articles 2019.+16.-18.y.) hot The universe is rotating, after all (2013/14/15 y.) Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe


Вселенная и вращение (+ 33 статьи) hot Вселенная всё-таки вращается (2013/14/15 г.) Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса


Svemir i vrtnja (+ 35 članaka 2016/17/18/19) hot Objavljeni članci (2013, 14, 15.) Svemir, što je to (2010.) U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom (knjiga 2008.) Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

Zadar's Theory of the Universe 2004, 2018 Zadarska teorija svemira (poveznice 2018.)
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new A Constant Growth, Rotation And Its Effects, Cyclones, Light And Redshift With Images
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

This article is about a constant growth of objects and systems in the Universe, based on: the forces of matter attraction (gravity), rotation and its speed with their effects, too, the creation of whirls and cyclones as a result of the rotation of objects, systems and the Universe. The creation of light is related to the effects and force of waves (radiation) in their collision with visible matter. It is proven here that a redshift is directly related to the weakening intensity of waves to the distant objects. Instead of being over-intellectual, this text, as a form of evidence, also introduces images, created by the direct observation (NASA, ESA, etc.) or based on the observations of the other astronomers and their published findings.

1. Introduction
The main goal of the article is to document a visible matter's constant growth, ranging from the smallest particles to the largest systems. The creation of systems, from small objects, stars and the most complex systems, is analyzed through the forces of attraction, the rotation around their axis and the processes that are a consequence of the rotation and gravity. Some accent is also placed on the whirls and cyclones that occur on the poles of gaseous objects, stars and the centers of regular galaxies, which themselves are a product of their own rotation. Light is documented here as a product of collision between waves and the visible matter and it is also shown why the Universe is dark. A redshift is analyzed through the weakening intensity of waves, which is detected by the astronomers' instruments.
The articles [5], [7], [10] and [11], with this one, too, make the integral part of a constant growth, rotation and its effects, cyclones, light and redshift.

2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe
The processes of matter attraction inside and outside our Universe are based on the evidence and the fundamental principle of matter attraction. The matter attraction takes place on the level of particles , dust, smaller objects and to the galaxies, clusters of galaxies, ... Our Earth daily gets richer with the new quantities of matter, incoming from the Universe and estimated to be 300 tons per day. [1]
Figure 1
Figure 1. An image of a comet hitting into Jupiter and a meteor hitting Earth

The history of a constant matter incoming can be demonstrated by the percussive craters of those objects that did not get burned in the atmosphere. These processes are demonstrated the best with the direct images of Moon and other objects with no atmosphere or with a weak one.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Craters (NASA)

Besides fully covering (the surfaces of) some objects, the percussive craters also prove the ongoing process of the constant influx of new matter from outside an object. It is represented by the new craters, formed inside the older ones, while these older ones are also formed inside even older craters..
Figure 3 
Figure 3. Percussive craters on some objects (NASA)

A constant daily influx of new matter to an object causes a constant growth of the object. That process is never-ending through the whole history and nowadays there are no indications that it will be any different in the future.
Figure 4 
Figure 4. Percussive craters and a constant growth of body

The process of constant growth is not limited to the objects only. The processes of merger, collisions and other interactions are taking place on all levels inside the Macro-Universe, from gas and dust to superclusters, the Universe and the Macro-Universe.
Figure 5
Figure 5. A constant growth starts with the asteroids and all the way to the Multiverse and beyond, to the next two systems that exist in the Absolute Zero

With the help of the forces of attraction and the rotation, omnipresent in the Macro-Universe, the already formed objects create star systems and cause the creation of binary stars, smaller or larger irregular or spherical clusters of stars, create centers of galaxies, which create galaxies with the united forces of attraction of their objects and with the rotation, too. Galaxies are combined into groups and clusters of galaxies, which are further combined into superclusters and they are all combined into the Universe …
Figure 6
Figure 6. A star system, binary stars, a small and a large group of stars, galaxies, a cluster of galaxies, the Universe, Multiverse,...

The processes of systems merger are recognized from the small and large mergers of galaxies, their collisions, the attraction of the other objects and matter from the outside of a galaxy. All systems that are known to this day are gravitationally connected. [2], [3]
Figure 7
Figure 7. Interacting galaxies (Hubble Telescope)

2. The Rotation of Objects And Systems And Its Effects
An object with no rotation around its axis, or with an extremely slow one, can not have objects in the orbits around itself, because there is only the law of matter attraction present there. All of the other objects use rotation to capture particles, dust and other objects, in a lesser quantity, related to the total mass.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Venus, Mercury, Moon and internal natural satellites have no independent rotation and also have no satellites of their own or other matter in the orbits around them

Furthermore, an object can not form orbits around the poles (north – south direction). An object, incoming vertically to the poles, has the same speed as those incoming in the direction of rotation (vertically to the equator).
Figure 9
Figure 9.  "interstellar object" A/2017 U1 NASA/JPL-Caltech [4]

The orbits are created due to the rotation of an incoming object and also the central object
 Figure 10
Figure 10. 65803 Didymos, Rotation period 2.26±0.01 h; satellite orbital period 11.9 hours.

There is only a small percentage of stars with a very fast rotation in Milky Way (O (0,0003%), B and A type (together) 0,73003% [5] White Dwarf ~0,0002%, small number WR stars …) and they are mostly placed in the nebulae or in the part of space that is richer with matter.
Figure 11
Figure 11. NGC 346. HD 5980 is the brightest star on the left, just above centre.  Wikipedia.
HD 5980 B: 24 R Sun; Rotational velocity (v sin i) <400 km/s; T 45.000 °K.

The stars with a slow rotation (M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun; ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45%, all red stars above 0,45 M of Sun are also included here and K and G type starsIt is total 96,15 % [6]).
Figure 12
Figure 12. Size comparison between Aldebaran and the Sun. Wikipedia.
Aldebaran: 44.13±0.84 R Sun; Rotational velocity (v sin i) 3.5±1.5 km/s; T 3,900±50° K.

The increase of speed of an object's rotation causes the increase of the emission of the radiation spectrum from the cyclones on the poles of the object. The speed of rotation of the galactic center is responsible for the type or the shape of a galaxy.
Figure 13.
Figure 13. Quasar (blazar);  spiral galaxy; elliptical galaxy                      

Galaxies Type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies

RX J1131-1231 quasar

„X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  ([22] [23]) [7]
Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy

Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 ([24]) [7]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation


Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies. [7]

Figure 14
Figure 14. Pulsar

Star (pulsar) Temperature K Rotation speed in s; ms Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1

PSR B0943 + 10 310.000 1,1 s 0,02 2,6 km
PSR 1257 + 12 28.856 6,22ms 1,4 10 km
Cen X-3 39.000 4,84 s 20,5 ± 0,7 12
Table 14. Display of fast rotating stars, temperature and relation mass > radius. [5]

A faster rotation creates a larger magnetic field, a more significant asteroid belts, gas disks and a higher radiation emission from a cyclone.
Figure 15
Figure 15. „Protostar“ (a fast rotating object)

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km
Table 1. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and mass/radius. [5]

A central object of a galaxy (bulge) can have a diameter of more than 30.000 ly (Milky Way: 3,000-16,000 ly [8] or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly [9] (according to some other sources). The rotation of a galaxy center (There are around 10 million stars within one parsec of the Galactic Center) works the same way as the rotation of objects and creates a recognizable shape of a galaxy.
Figure 16
Figure 16. the Galactic Center rotate as one body

Rotation is confirmed for galaxies, clusters and galactic superclusters. The rotation of Universe is observed through: the existence of the galactic blueshift; the different galactic speeds, whereby the closer galaxies are faster than the significantly distanced ones; the existence of smaller and larger mergers; the collisions of galaxies and the clusters of galaxies. [Appendix 1]
Figure 17 
Figure 17. rotation of the Universe „The dark flow“

3. Cyclones and whirls
A slow rotation of the objects, stars, galactic centers creates whirls on their poles and their rotation is also slower in these regions than the object's rotation around its axis in the equatorial region. The situation is the opposite with the high speeds of rotation (only a small part of a total), the speed decreases from a cyclone in the middle of an object towards it surface (NGC 6109, Lenticular Galaxy, Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2; PSR B0943 + 10, rotation speed 1,1 in a second). When an object, which orbits around a central object, is in the orbit in the space, where the temperature is below the melting point of helium, it has higher orbital speeds than its neighbors that are closer to the central object, although they have a lower quantity of tidal forces from the central object (Hale-Bopp 52.5, Halley’s comet 66, Shoemaker-Levy hit into Jupiter by the speed of ~58 km/s; the data state the average speed of comets of 10 km/s).
Figure 18
Figure 18.  Tropical ciklon

The rotation around an axis and the structure of an object (gas, liquid,...) cause the appearance of whirls and cyclones on the poles of gaseous objects, stars and galactic centers, which rotate around their own axis. Slower rotations create whirls on the poles and very fast rotations create a cyclone with apertures (the eyes of a cyclone) on the poles of stars and rotating galactic centers.
Figure 19
Figure 19. Tropical ciklon, a blazar, planets and pulsar (

The rotation of a central object affects the rotation of the atmosphere of a tidally-locked object (Venus, Titan).
Figure 20
Figure 20. South Pole of Titan moon (NASA)

When the cyclones on the poles of an object suck matter in, it heats up by passing through the atmosphere (or the objects are stars) and it accelerates the rotation of a cyclone and produces strong emissions of gamma and other radiations. Depending on an object's incoming angle into a cyclone, a rotation may get slower or faster.
Figure 21
Figure 21. Artist’s concept of interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua) as it passed through the solar system after its discovery in October 2017. The aspect ratio of up to 10:1 is unlike that of any object seen in our own solar system.Credits: European Southern Observatory/M. Kornmesser [4].

When a cyclone on a fast-rotating star sucks an object of a sufficient size in, it goes deep into the interiority of the cyclone and the star, where its explosion causes the explosion of the star or a larger or smaller discharge of the higher layers of the star. The rest of the object or a core, depending on whether the object and the explosion went in the direction of rotation or against it, becomes hot and even faster-rotating (a pulsar) or, due to a slow down, it becomes a small, cold and slow-rotating M type star.
Figure 22
Figure 22.  Eta Carnae, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy

4. When Does Light Appear?
A space outside the visible matter is dark. There is no light just outside the atmosphere of Sun. There is no light outside the atmosphere of Earth and off the surface of Moon. Light does not travel through space. There is a total darkness between Sun and Earth, just as between Sun and any other form of visible matter.
Figure 23
Figure 23. the Moon and the Earth Apollo 8; Sun;  Pluto and Charon moon; stars look like from outer space of the Dawn spacecraft; NASA

There is no light just outside the more important part of the atmosphere of Earth. Light appears only on the visible matter.
Figure 24
Figure 24. Moon, comet, ISS; NASA

Sun emits  X-rays,  ultraviolet , visible light , infrared , radio waves and a very low quantity of gamma rays from sun spots. Radiation and waves are not visible and they are not a visible light, because space becomes dark just outside the visible matter of a star. When there is no visible matter, there is no light, there is only dark. Light appears when waves (radiation) collide with the visible matter (an object, an atmosphere, a significant quantity of particles of gas and dust).
Figure 25
Figure 25. Sunce prije i poslije sudara valova sa vidljivom materijom

5. The Correct Interpretation of Red Spectrum
The smaller and larger mergers of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, their collisions and interactions, higher movement speeds of the closer systems in the comparison to the more distant ones, show that the contemporary interpretation of redshift is incorrect. [Appendix 1] Redshift is not solely and exclusively related to the increase of speed of an object's distancing itself.

Space objekt Clusters, superclusters, galaxy Distance Mly Red shift (z)

The Laniakea Supercluster centre 250 0,0708
Abell 754 760 0,0542

CID-42  Quasar 3.900 (3,9 Gly) 0,359
Saraswati Supercluster 4.000 0,28

Einstein Cross 8.000 1,695
TN J0924-2201 galaxy 12.183 5,19
Lynx Supercluster 12.900 1,26 & 1,27

EGS-zs8-1 13.040 7,73
z8 GND 5296 galaxy 13.100 7,51
Table 21. The system, rotation within the Universe, distance 250 M ly- 13,4 G ly  [5]

If two or more systems merge or are in some other form of interaction, the detected redshift in all of these systems should not be interpreted exclusively as a result of distancing the systems. A part of these systems is getting closer to an observer and a blueshift should be detected there, but it is not. With the increase of distance, the intensity of waves is decreased – the consequence of which is the increase in red spectrum, independently of the object being distanced away or getting closer to an observer.
Figure 26
Figure 26. A red color before sunrise and after sunset; to the east (up) and to the west (down) at sunset (Zadar, Croatia)

A red color is directly related to the decrease of wave intensity from the emitting object. On the images, the Sun is behind the horizon. After a certain distance the weakening of radiation intensity overcomes the speed of the system getting closer to the observer and after that distance it gets impossible to detect the blueshift. In the processes of getting closer, merger and collisions of galaxies and clusters of galaxies there is only the blueshift among these systems, although the redshift is detected, because of the low wave intensity. Nowadays, the blueshift is not detected above 70 M Ly. An exact example is the appearance of a red moon. Moon gets red when it is in the shadow of Earth. The waves from Sun do not reach Moon then.

Figure 27. Red Moon, a display of the process

6. Conclusion
Millions of percussive craters scattered on the objects in our entire system, the daily influx of matter to Earth and the other objects, small and large mergers, collisions and other interactions among the objects, galaxies and galactic clusters are the representation of the process of the constant growth of the objects and systems. The existence of orbits, star systems, binary systems and other systems (from galaxies to superclusters, the Universe and the Multiverse) is impossible in the space without the effects of an object's and a system's rotation around their axis. The objects that have no rotation, or have an extremely slow one, do not create orbits around themselves. The objects with an independent rotation do not create orbits around their poles, where there is no effect of the rotation around the axis. The cyclones are the product of rotation. By sucking matter in, they increase or decrease the speed of an object's rotation. Only a very small quantity of the objects has a very high speed of rotation (O type and White Dwarf 0,0005% of the total quantity of stars in Milky Way). Light is the product of the collision between waves (radiation) and the visible matter. Space is very cold and dark where there is no visible matter or the intensity of waves is very low. Beyond the third level above the Universe the temperature of space is at 0° K. All processes at the absolute zero are extremely slow or in the state of rest. A red spectrum is a product of the weakening of the wave intensity, with the increase of the objects' orbital speeds inside clusters, galactic superclusters and the Universe. The decrease of the wave intensity is observed the best in our system from Mercury to the Oort cloud (Solar radiation pressure lbf/mi², 0.1 AU 526; 0.46 AU = Merkur 24.9; … 5.22 AU = Jupiter 0.19).
[1]. Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere 
[2].  Interacting galaxies
[3]. „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in
colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley Laboratoire d’astrophysique, EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland Royal Observatory, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK Institute for Computational Cosm., Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK Mullard Space Science Lab., University College London, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
[4]. page=0&per_page=40&order=id+asc&search=&condition_1=meteor_shower%3Abody_type  Oct. 26, 2017 "Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System" NASA; Nov. 20, 2017
Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists
[5]. DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.3. The Processes That Lead to the Acceleration and Deceleration of an Object's Rotation Around Its Axis
[6].  Harvard spectral classification
[7]. How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? W.D. 2.4. The formation of galaxies
[8]  the Galactic Center of the Milky Way
[10];„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“  W.D.
[11]  „The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe“ W.D.

Appendix 1.
"It means that if 10 Mpc equals 32,6 millions of light-years
then Hubble's law doesn't apply for galaxies and objects, the values of which are more easily determined." Wikipedia
Let's check that on the distances at which Hubble's law should apply:

RMB 56 distance 65,2 Mly… blue shift.. -327 km/s…….(65,2 Mly x Hubble c. = -327 km/s Ha, ha..)
NGC 4419........56 Mly……..........-0,0009 (-342 km/s)…..(56 x H C = -342 km/s ..)
M90...............58.7 ± 2.8 Mly..........−282 ± 4 km/s……….(58,7 x H c = -282 km/s)"
+ "compiled a list of 65 galaxies in Virgo with VLG < 0 (blue shift). Distance 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)"
"Again, there is nothing in accordance with the constant and Hubble's law!" ..(53,8 Mly x Hubbl c. = 0 to -866 km/s ..Ha..)
Who lies? Autor or evidence? In the translations: a person who talks without a background (evidence) or scientific evidence?

If " "Objects observed in space - extragalactic space, 10 (Mpc)" = ~700 km/s
"NGC 7320c distance 35 Mly, speed 5.985 ± 9 km/s…(~10 Mpc x Hubble c. = 5.985 ± 9 km/s.. ha, ha..)
NGC 4178..............43 ± 8...................377 km/s
NGC 4214...............44.........................291 ± 3
M98 ........................44.4 ...............−0.000113 ± 0.000013
Messier 59...............60 ± 5..................410 ± 6
NGC 4414................62,3 ....................790 ± 5
NGC 127................188........................409 etc....

The Laniakea Supercluster.......250 Mly.......+0,0708 (z)
Horologium_Supercluster ........700 Mly..........0,063
Corona Borealis Supercluster ...946 Mly..........0,07 etc...
(The galaxy is distant 250 Mly is faster (has a bigger red shift) than the galaxy at the distance 700 and 946 Mly ..)

Q0906 + 6930 ..................12,3 Gly.....5,47.(z)...speed ....299,792 km/s 
Z8 GND 5296...................13,1 Gly....7,5078±0,0004.......291.622 ± 120 km/s
GN-z11..............................13,4 Gly...11,09.......................295.050 ± 119.917"
Who lies? .....
Object with red shift. 5.47 is faster than objects with red shift 7.05 and 11.09 ha, ha. Authors Hubble constant really need to go back to elementary school and learn math (basic for kids).
(Slavko Sedić commented on an article.28. kolovoza 2018. What Is The Hubble Constant?


2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life new

Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.

2. A constant growth causes optimal temperatures for the appearance of life
A constant growth is a sum of the different quantities of growth of the objects in a star system. The differences are present in the respective masses of the objects, their chemical compositions, the existence of atmosphere and its composition, the speed of rotation around the axis. [1] In our system there are inner small planets and objects, then large objects with impressive atmospheres (these are located in the area rich with matter) and smaller objects outside that area.
Matter in an orbit around a star or smaller objects gets concentrated in the asteroid belt (when the rotation of a star around its axis is relatively slow) or in the disk of gas, dust, smaller and larger objects, when a star rotates faster around its axis. Generally, the objects in this area rotate faster than inner and outer objects of a star system. It needs to be mentioned here that the objects, captured in an orbit, may have different masses, no matter how far the orbit may be from a central object. Inside a star system and due to a constant object growth, smaller stars with high temperatures make orbits around a central star (due to fast rotations around their axes and the mass of an object).

Table 1. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperature

  Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
5 HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
6 1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
7 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
8 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243

Table 1. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass. [2]

Only very distant stars or planets that achieve their temperatures on their own, without a central object, are included in this table. They are shown as the examples here to avoid the discussions that would state that objects that are close to a star achieve their temperatures exclusively through the extreme radiation of the central object. High temperatures are registered in data bases at all distances.
Sirius B is distant 20 AU (Uranus' orbit), T 25.200° K (Sirius A 9.940° K); Procion B 15 AU, T 7.740° K (Procion A 6.350°K), 40 Eriidani B (C) 400 AU (B i C 15 AU between themselves) T 16.500°K (B) / 3.100 (C) / 5.300 (A); Acrux B 1 AU, T 28.000° K (Acrux A T 24.000); Epsilon Aurigae B 18 AU, T 15.000 (A 7.750° K)..
The stars (and planets) with a small radius and mass have temperatures higher or similar as a part of large central stars.

Table 2. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  / 2.200
2 CW Leonis 700 2.200
3 IK Tauri 451-507 2.100
4 W Aquilae 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
5 T Cephei 329 +70 -50 2.400
6 S Pegasi  459-574 2.107
7 Chi Cygni 348-480 2.441-2.742
8 R Leporis 400±90 2.245-2.290
9 R Leonis Minoris  569±146 2.648
10 S Cassiopeiae 930 1.800

Table 2. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470° K; V Hya 2.160° K; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; R Lep 2.290; W Ori 2.625; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095; RV Cyg 2.675° K.. [2]
These indicators point to a different perspective on the so-called zones suitable for the appearance of life. Just before the creation of these stars in the orbit, as a result of insufficient mass and possibly a slower rotation, these objects had a crust and atmosphere, i.e., they were objects with a melted interiority and very active geological processes.

3. The speed of rotation around the axis of an object accelerates the rise of temperature and creates a global magnetic field
A speed of rotation around an axis, with the binary effects and mass included, determines the level of temperature of an object. At the same time it enables the appearance of geological processes, because of the temperature amplitudes between a day and a night. A rotation creates a global magnetic field on the objects with a melted interiority and on stars.

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

1 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
2 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

3 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
4 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Table 3. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship:mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [2]

The objects from the table 3 have very distant orbits, where the influence of a central object is marginal. At the same time it is seen that the mass of an object is not responsible for the level of temperature. It should be particularly pointed out that a smaller quantity of mass is enough for an object to independently produce temperatures that are required for the appearance of life.

   Brown dwarf & planets Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

  Mass up to 13 Mass of Jupiter
1 CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
2 PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
3 2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
4 GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
5 WD 0806-661  6-9  300-345 2.500
6 Venus 0,002 56 737 0,723
7 Earth 0,003 15 184 - 330 1,00

Table 4. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C. [2]

The objects from 1-5 achieve high temperatures independently. Venus makes it possible due to the tidal forces of Sun and Earth does it independently and with the binary effects, too. The objects can achieve the optimal temperatures for the appearance and progress of life at all distances from a central object. Those objects that have an independent rotation and are closer to the central object make the optimal temperature conditions with the quantity of mass, which is lesser than the one of Earth and the distance a bit shorter than 1 AU. (depending on the speed of rotation and mass of the central object). With the increase of distance and the reduction of the tidal force effects, the objects need to gain mass and/or increase the speed of rotation to achieve the temperatures that are optimal for the appearance of life. The object 2MASS J2126-8140 is a star (T 1.800° K) with its mass of 13,3 (± 1,7) masses of Jupiter, at the distance of 6.900 AU, OTS 44 is a central object, which mass is 11,5 MJ (1.700 - 2.300° K), ROXs 42Bb  9 MJ, T 1.950 ± 100° K, distance  157 AU..

  Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s Radius Sun 1

1 8_Andromeda 3.616±22 5±1  30
2 β Pegasi 3.689 9,7 95
3 Aldebaran 3.910 634 day 44,2
4 HD 5980 B 45.000 400 22
5 BI 253 50.100 200 10,7
6 HD 269810 52.500 173 18
7 WR 142 200.000 1.000 0,40

Table 5. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-3 cold stars, 4-7 hot stars.[2]

Table 5 exhibits a primary influence of rotation to the level of temperature. Without rotation, the objects with completely or partially melted interiority can have no global magnetic field, which is an effective protector of an environment, in which simple and complex living organisms are created and existing.

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km

Table 6. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and radius. [1] 

The lack of global magnetic field is registered on Venus, Mars and other objects without a melted interiority (Uranus 0,1 Gauss, Neptune 0,14 G, Saturn 0,2 G, Jupiter 4,2 G, Pluto has no global magnetic field ..).

4. Working temperatures of elements and compounds and chemical composition
The quantity of elements (mass fraction (ppm)) in our galaxy: Hydrogen 739.000, Helium 240.000, Oxygen 10.400, Carbon 4.600, Neon 1.340, Iron 1,090, Nitrogen 960 ..
This is, roughly, similar to the chemical composition of gaseous planets and Sun - that quantity is almost all of the matter in our system.
Opposite to these objects, Earth has chemical composition of the crust: chemical composition of the crust: Silica SiO2 60.2%; Alumina Al2O3 15.2%; Lime CaO 5.5%; Magnesia MgO 3.1%; iron(II) oxide FeO 3.8%; sodium oxide Na2O 3.0%; potassium oxide K2O 2.8%; iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 2.5%; water H2O 1.4%; carbon dioxide CO2 1.2%; titanium dioxide TiO2 0.7% (Total ~100%).
Inner objects cannot hold H2 and He, which migrate towards Sun. This is the reason why an object that lacks independent rotation or insufficient mass has no significant quantities of water (Venus, Mars, Ceres, Vesta,...). The objects in the external orbits produce very low (minor) quantities of O2 and they also cannot produce significant quantities of water.
This is, of course, valid with the existing mass of the object in the orbit and their rotation speeds. With the increase of mass ( ~1,5 of the mass of Earth, depending on rotation) Mars will be able to hold a part of its hydrogen in the compounds of CH4, H2O, NH3 etc. although hydrogen will continue to migrate towards Sun.
In the area rich with matter, due to "fast" growth, the objects have a shorter period that is suitable to the appearance of life. The period becomes unsuitable when an object's mass reaches a point, after which hydrogen and helium remain on the object.
The objects outside the area rich with matter are in a significantly better position. These objects achieve a melted interiority when their mass equals a few masses of Earth.
Nowadays, on these distances, the objects that are below the mass of Jupiter are registered and their temperatures are significantly high (at these distances it is impossible to detect an object, unless it has a significantly high temperature (the radiation emission):(OGLE-2011-BLG-0173L b 0,19 MJup, dist. 10 AU; HD 163296 b 0,3 MJ, dist. 105 AU; HD 163296 c 0,3 MJ, dist 160 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-028L b 0,094 MJ, dist. 7,14 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-274 b 0,8 MJ, dist. 40 AU ..).
High temperatures are estimated at the objects, which mass is only a few times larger than the one of Jupiter: (Planet HD 95086 b  2.6 (± 0.4) MJ, distance 61.7 (-8.4 +20.7) AU, T 1.050° K; 2M1207b 4 (+6−1) MJ, dist. 24–231 AU, T 1600 ± 100 K; HR 8799 b 5 (+2, -1) MJ, ~68 AU, T 870 (+30, -70) K; GJ 504 b 4 MJ, dist. 43,5 AU,  544±10 ° K...).
The independent objects with high temperatures (brown dwarfs) are nowadays detected with the mass of 5 and more masses of Jupiter: (ULAS J0034-00 0,005 M Sun, T 550 – 600°K; WISE 1828+2650  3 – 6 M Jup, T 250 – 400° K; WISE 0855−0714  ~3 – 10 MJ, T 225- 260° K; CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7 MJ, T ~700° K; PSO J318.5-22 6,5 MJ, T 1160; ..).

A chemical composition of the objects in an orbit depends also on:
Quote: „ there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces.. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The comet shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3 i td).“ [2] end quote.

The temperature of space and an object determines, which elements create its atmosphere and enter the processes of the object's chemical structure construction.
The working temperature of water is from 0 to +100°C; oxygen from -218,35 to -188,14°C; nitrogen from -209,86 to -195,75°C; methane from -182,5 to -161,49; hydrogen from -259,14 to -252,87°C; helium from -272,20 to -268,934°C; sulphur dioxide from -72 do -10°C , etc.
Temperature and distance of the body in our system: Mercury distance 0.387 098 AU, temperature 80 – 700° K; Venus 0.723332 AU; 750 K; Earth 1 AU, 144-330 K; Mars 1.523679 AU, 130-308 K; Jupiter 5.2044 AU, 112-165 K; Saturn 9.5826 AU, 85-134° K; Titan 9.5826 AU, 93,7 K; Uranus 19.2184 AU, 47-76 K; Neptune 30,11 AU, 55-72 K; Pluto 39,48 AU, 33-55 K..
In the elements' and compounds' working temperature / the temperature of the object ratio, it can be determined, which elements and compounds will create the atmosphere and the structure of the object. If the temperature is above the boiling point of oxygen, which is 90,188 K (on Jupiter, it is 112-165 K), such an object needs to have almost all of its oxygen in the atmosphere; when all the compounds containing oxygen and oxygen itself are taken into account, there are only traces of water (0.0004%±0.0004%) on Jupiter.
There are some species on Earth that can use a kind of antifreeze and successfully progress in cold types of climate. Microorganisms on Earth can endure the temperatures from -20° C (Synechococcus lividus) do 121° C (Pyrolobus fumariiPyrococcus furiosus ). [3]  
antifreeze is a complex sugar called xylomannan). The spores of the bacterial species of Bacillus have endured having been heated to the temperature of 420 ° C . [4]
However, we discuss here the environment that is suitable for the appearance of (more complex forms of) life, because only when life appears and progresses to a certain level, there is a possibility to discuss the conditions, in which life can survive and adapt. Such an environment does not include extreme temperatures, in which survive such organisms that were created somewhere else and have evolved to survive in the extreme conditions. The appearance of life needs an optimal and balanced temperature in a long period of time. Besides such an atmosphere, these objects must have significant quantities of compounds that are a base to create life. The problem of our (star system's) planets is they have no liquids that would stay in the same place in the liquid form for a long period of time.

5. Conclusion
In reality, the appearance and progress of life are to be expected on all objects, but only during a particular period of time and under the conditions, needed for such an object to progress. Finally, these conditions come down to the achievement of the melted interiority and an independent rotation – which should not be extremely slow. Under these conditions, geological processes become very active. In the process of interaction of the melted interiority with crust, atmosphere and liquids in or on the crust, a complex atoms and compounds are created. Inside our system, nowadays only Earth meets these conditions. __________________________________________________________________

[1].  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2].  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[4]. „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“


hot This article has more than 9,000 visits (11/07.2018 - 2/28.2019.)
The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems
Published in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Author, Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

2. The effects of rotation around an axis (objects) and a center (systems)
2.1. The formation of a system by rotation
The observation of the rotational effects can be done through the orbits of objects around a central object. All orbits (of an object) are placed around the equatorial region or cut through it if they are inclined, i.e., if there is an inclination from the equatorial plane. The speed of an object that approaches a central object has nothing to do with the appearance of the orbit, because if it did, we would have had orbits around the poles [7]. The objects that lack an independent rotation (i.e., the objects that are tidally locked) or have an extremely slow rotation have no possibility to take and hold other objects in their own orbits (for example, Venus, Mercury, internal satellites (tidally locked). 
Quote: These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits (new evidence, confirmation [8],  [9]), nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is. end quote
The objects on their poles have no rotation related to the vertically incoming objects, therefore their collisions are almost the only option.
Quote: One object becomes a nova and a large number (millions) of others with the same parameters just go on the same way. It is necessary to consider some very rare factors, like, for example, the impacts of large objects into planets, but even more rare – those that hit only a small part of the objects (one event in more than ten million of objects - stars).
Within the growth of an object, some smaller object is starting a reaction when colliding with a star. If that should remain a rare event, it needs to be a specific event under the specific conditions. The only possible specificity is for that object (the errant objects, incoming from outside the Solar system) to arrive vertically onto one of the poles and to hit the opening of a cyclone that exists on the poles of stars. That way, it would get an opportunity to break into the interior of an object.
When discussing the vertical trajectories, it is necessary to point out that only the forces of attraction exist there, because an object creates the forces of repulsion in the horizontal direction only. end quote [10]  
A part of an object goes through a central object, due to a constant movement of a central object (Sun 220 km/s) and goes irreversibly further into space.

2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation
A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [11]   
A radius, related to mass (Sun =1) is negative, when stars with a fast rotation are the subject matter, while it is completely opposite with cold, red, slowly-rotating stars. [12]
A bit of a remark: the author of this article disagrees with the current estimates of the stars' mass, as he claims they are the product of old hypotheses which lacked enough evidence to support them. The author suggests that a radius be equal to a mass when discussing slowly-rotating stars and that the mass decrease up to 100% with fast-rotating stars. For example, Melnick 42, 21,1 R of Sun, its mass should be around 30 M of Sun (currently, 189 M of Sun).
That would give the option to avoid these illogicalities:

Table 1. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K

1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834

Table 1. Stars, similar mass (except No 5, 6, 7), different classes (type) and temperatures.

A same or similar mass should produce the same or similar outcome, given other conditions are the same. These days, scientific community totally undervalues the rotation of objects and its effects.

Table 2. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity, mass/radius.  

  Star Mass, Sun 1 Radius, Sun 1 Temperature °K Rotation speed  km/s

  Stars with slow rotation
1. Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4
2. R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
3. HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
4. Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
5. Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
6. Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
7. Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
8. Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
9. Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
10. Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
11. Betelgeuse

Fast-rotating stars

11,6 887 ±203 3.590 5
12. IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
13. Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
14. η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
15. Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
16. Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
17. Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
18. Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
19. WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
20. Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
21. S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
22. Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
23. Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
24. HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
25. HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
26. HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
27. HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
28. VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
29. Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
30. R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200

Table 2. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-12 cold stars, 13-29 hot stars.

The influence of rotation is more significant with stars that possess larger mass, because warming up and pressure are the result of friction, occurring between layers of a star. These stars that rotate faster will have higher temperatures than small stars, with the same or slower rotation (binary effects excluded).
Slowly-rotating stars have less significant surface gravity than the fast-rotating stars. [12]

Table3. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Rotation km/s or day Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1 Surface gravity cgs

1. Betelgeuse 3.140-3641 5 7,7-20 950-1200 0,5
2. Aldebaran 3.910 643 d 1,5±0,3 44,2±0,9 1,59
3. Pollux 4.666±95 558 d 2.04±0,3 8.8±0,1 2,685
4. Polaris 6.015 119 d 4,5 46±3 2.2
5. Canopus 7.350 8,0 9,0-10,6 71,4±4,0 2,1
6. Beta Pictoris 8.052 (9.790) 130 1,75 1,8 4,15
7. Denebola 8.500 128 1,78 1.728 4,0
8. Fomalhaut 8.590 93 1,92 1,842 4,21
9. Vega 9.692±180 12,5 h 2,135 2,36x2,81 4,1
10. Sirijus a 9.940 225-250 2.02 1,711 4,33
11. Albireo B 13.200±600 0,6 days 3,7 2,7 4,00
12. Sirijus b 25.200   / 0,978 0,0084 8,57

Table 3. Stars, No 1-7 low temperatures, small rotation speed, small surface gravity, in relation: radius>mass; No 8-16 high temperature, high Surface gravity, in relationship: radius<mass (Sun=1).

2.3. Gravitationally Bound Objects
Gravity and rotation  create systems. Super clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally-bound objects known today. The rotation of a cluster is different from zero. [13]

Table 4. Galaxy, distance /speed

  Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

1. NGC 4450 ~50 1954 ± 4
2. NGC 4262 50,0 1359 ± 4
3. NGC 4550 50.0 381 ± 9
4. Messier 89 50 ± 3  290 ± 5
5. NGC 4435 52 0.002638(z)
6. Messier 86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
7. Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
8. Messier 91 63 ± 16  486 ± 4
9. NGC 4388 65.10 ± 18.43 2.524

Table 4. Galaxy, relationship: distance 50-65.10± 18.43 Mly/speed of movement.

Table 5. Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy, redsfift/distance

  Supercluster (galaxy) Redsfift (z) Distance M ly

1 The Laniakea Supercluster +0,0708 250
2 Horologium Supercluster 0,063 700
3 Abell 754 0,0542 760
4 Abell 133 0,0566 763
5 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
6 CID-42  0,359 3.900 (3,9 Gly)
7 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4.000
8 Einstein Cross 1,695 8.000
9 Twin Quasar 1,413 8.700
10 Lynx Supercluster 1,26 & 1,27 12.900

Table 5. The Universe, Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy: redsfift (z)/distance M ly(G ly).

Table 6. Galaxies, redsfift/distance/speed

  Galaxies Redsfift (z) Distance billion ly Speed km/s  

1 EQ J100054+023435 4.547 12,2 280.919
2 Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
3 Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
4 GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917

Table 6. The Universe, relationship: redsfift (z)/distance G ly/speed km/s.

Besides rotation, there is also the law of (matter) attraction, which causes collisions, larger and smaller fusions of galactical clusters and Supercluster. [14]  One should make a distinction between collisions, in which the orbits of objects or systems are different, and fusions, in which objects share the same orbit and gravity causes a soft fusion of objects (for example, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
The accumulation is a constant growing process from the formation of particles, the accumulation of particles  into nebulae, ... , joining into (chemical) compounds, the formation of smaller and larger objects. Stars, star systems, binary stars which are the initial stage of the formation of star clusters, galaxies, galactical clusters and finally Universe are all created with the increase in mass and in the force of pressure (which depends on the speed of rotation). A part of matter gets disintegrated by the explosions of stars. These explosions cause even or more significant results than those, made by the collisions in LHC in Switzerland. [15]
Quote: Despite destruction (the disintegration of matter), the observations show that the Universe is not losing its mass. On the contrary, it increases. It means that the Universe is efficiently replacing all of the lost matter, the minimum of which is 20 quadrillion of the Sun’s masses, and even “some” more.
It is not to be forgotten that a smaller part of matter is also been disintegrated in the collisions of waves and particles. In order for the muons to be registered at all in the laboratories, a countless number of particle disintegrations needs to occur. It is an everlasting occurrence on the objects orbiting around a star from the beginning of time till these days and until a star becomes a nova. A good portion of matter is being disintegrated in the collisions of objects and galaxies. Therefore, the colossal dimensions are not related only to the creation of matter, but also to the growth of all objects within stellar systems, galaxies and the Universe. Millions of craters are only a reminder of that process being contiguous and ongoing. end quote [16]
The author of the article discusses the following two or at the most three wholes (Multiverse,...), based on the decrease of temperature and radiation intensity with the increase of distance from the source, on the constant growth of gravitationally related systems, on systems behaving as a single object in attracting matter, inside the space in which the temperature is 0°K and the processes are still or extremely slow. [17]
An object in an orbit can approach or distance itself from a central object. It depends on the influx of matter to the object. If an object in an orbit has a relatively low influx of matter from a central object, it starts falling slowly to the central object (Mars/ Phobos) and the process is opposite when the influx of matter is more significant on the object in the orbit – it starts moving away (Earth/ Moon) (similar to the relation of a pendulum and a weight). The same situation is with the systems, with a remark that a faster rotation accelerates the processes.
The law of low temperatures is manifested in star systems and galaxies; the objects have higher orbital speeds with lesser gravitational effects. The temperature, which is below the melting point of helium, 4,216°K, is responsible for it. The stars that are on the edges of galaxies, just as the objects on the edges of star systems, have higher speeds with lesser gravitational effects than their neighboring objects that are closer to the center. [18]

2.4. The formation of galaxies
Matter attraction gathers objects into systems and rotation regulates these systems. When a large number of stars rotate around the common center in a relatively small volume (i.e., in the centers of galaxies), they act as a single object and create systems similar to star systems. A galactical disk is created on the same principles as the orbits of objects around stars and asteroid belts or gas disks; rotation, the speed of rotation, the force of attraction. [19]  In a large majority of situations, central objects represent almost the whole mass of a system (Sun 99,86 %).
There are different galactical centers inside the general process of growth. Slow rotations create centers made of stars and other matter that look like the spherical groups of stars (there is a big difference in the speed of rotation) and they do not create a familiar-looking center inside the galactical center. [20]  Cyclones, that break down a large part of stars and create a completely new and the largest object in Universe, are formed by fast rotation on the poles of the galactical centers. [21] 
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars. The same applies to cold stars and those stars, which temperatures are somewhere in between.

Table 7. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  galaxies type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies
1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation
4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)

Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies.

The speed of rotation affects the form of a galaxy and more dynamic processes inside such galaxies.

Table 8. Galaxies, type/ size

  galaxies type of galaxies speed of galaxies

  Large galaxies (fast-rotating)
1 APM 08279+5255 elliptical galaxy giant elliptical galaxy [25]
2 Q0906 + 6930 blazar the most distant known blazar
3 OJ 287 BL Lacertae object the largest known objects
4 S5 0014 + 81 blazar giant elliptical galaxy
5 H1821 + 643 quasar the most massive black hole

Contrary to: Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating)
6 Messier 110 elliptical galaxy dwarf elliptical galaxy 
7 Messier 32 "early-type" dwarf "early-type" galaxy
8 NGC 147 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
9 NGC 185 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Table 8. galaxies, relationship: type of galaxies/ size of galaxies; No. 1-5 Large galaxies (fast-rotating), No. 6-9 Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating).

2.5. Changing the Structure of Galaxy, the Increase of Radiation Intensity With the Increase of the Speed of Rotation
With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy.
If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, the nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc (3,000-16,000 ly [26]  or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly (according to some other sources [27] ) from a pole to the other one. It's diameter: the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU [28]   – there is a disparity between a central point (a black hole should be there) and a pole of the central structure of a galaxy (different occurrences and the beginning of different radiation emissions are measured there). The distance from the horizons (poles) and the center is 1.500 to 15.000 ly and more, when giant galaxies with a very fast rotation are discussed.
The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are 3.000 to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars [29]). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). Their existence have been confirmed on the poles of Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate.

2.6. Cyclones, Acceleration of Galaxies, the Increase of the Intensity of Radiation, due to the increase in rotation
Cyclones are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars [10]).
The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy; related to stars, objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere and photosphere of a star [29] ). It is known that hot and fast-rotating stars are mostly found in nebulae or other matter-enriched space.  Recent appearances of the objects from the outside of our system, A / 2017 U1 [30]  (1I / 2017 U1) [31]  (inclination 122.69°) and C/2012 S1 [32]  (inclination 62,4°) confirm that such events are no rarity even in the space, which is less matter-enriched.
The size of a galaxy (as well as stars) depends on the quantity of matter in the space around it (free stars, the clusters of stars, smaller and larger galaxies with or without a central structure, nebulae, etc.). Galaxies with a faster rotation experience stronger attraction forces and also the possibility to grow faster. That fact alligns them with the galaxies that are younger than those with a slower rotation – if there are similar masses or sizes and similar quantities of matter in their space. The same goes for the stars; the stars with a faster rotation grow faster – if other factors are similar. These similarities are present in our system, too, and are related to the planets with a faster rotation.
The formation of objects and galaxies occurs in a very cold space (the temperatures of 2-3°K ), it supports superconductivity (radiation expands at the speed of ~300.000 km/s), in space, waves and radiation lose their intensity with the growing distanceThe temperatures below 4,216°K (below the boiling point of helium) make it possible for the objects in that zone to move faster – if other conditions are similar – unlike the objects which temperatures are above 4,216°K. At galaxies and stars, these things happen on the edges of these systems, where the results of measuring the speed of objects indicate faster movement than of those objects, which are closer to the center of a system (The proof is accelerating Voyagers).

3.  Dark matter in space and Light
3.1. Dark matter
I give evidence for the connection of dark matter existence by the processes that are visible and measurable inside our system. If a part of space is (almost) empty, without the presence of matter (dark matter), there should exist the following: an even spreading of Sun radiation and independence of the temperature increase  due to radiation. The temperature of space can be observed indirectly. The easiest way to gain the result is to observe the temperature on the dark side of an object (the minimal temperatures).

Table 9. Sun system, temperature deviation, temperatures/ distance

  The body in orbit around the Sun Minimum temperatures °K Distance from the Sun AU

1 Mercury 80 (100 equator) 0,39
2 Moon 100 1
3 Mars 143 1.52
4 Vesta 85 2,36
5. Ceres 168 2,77
6 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 180 3,46
7 Ganymede 70 5,20
8 Callisto 80±5 5.20
9 Triton 38 30,11
10 Pluto 33 39,48

Table 19. Sun system, temperature deviation, relationship: minimum temperatures °K/distance from the Sun AU.

These measurements of minimal temperatures show deviations from the accepted claims that the intensity of ("termal") radiation decreases with the square distance. Except Mars and Pluto, not all objects have enough quantity of atmosphere, which could cause doubt about the correct way of selecting objects in the example. If a factor of measurement imprecision is also taken into consideration, the deviations are still impossible to be removed as they show that the objects from the examples  1 – 5,20 AU have the same or higher minimal temperatures than Mercury and they are also of the lesser or similar mass. Mercury and Ceres are in a group of objects, which are explored equally well and in details; however, it is shown that the minimal temperature on Ceres is two times higher, even though it should be decreasing, according to the law of radiation intensity decrease with the increase of square distance.
If deviation is excluded and minimal temperatures are observed very roughly, it is obvious that there is a temperature decrease with the increase in distance: Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878. [33] 
At the end of our system, the temperature is estimated at less than 4 ° K.
The decrease of radiation intensity is (visually) the most notable when measuring the radiation of stars. The further the objects, the lower the intensity (with regards and correction of mass and temperature of a star). An example of deviation can also be found in the termosphere of our planet (although that example is (partially) solved in the way that a certain quantity of radiation, allocated to a lesser quantity of particles, results with easier temperature rise to higher temperatures). The examples from the table eliminate the claims that radiation dissipate with the increase of space  (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is more than 3 AU further from Mercury and its minimal temperature is by 100°K  higher).
Quote: The existence of matter can be observed here, on Earth, too. A balloon, inflated 2-3 km deep under the water surface, will explode just before the surface or on it, due to the air expansion. The similar thing happens to the balloons, which are sent outside the atmosphere – they explode at the maximum altitude of 40 (104) km above the surface of Earth, due to the equalizing the pressures. There are different kinds of matter and different outcomes, but the final outcome is the same: the pressures get equalized. The balloons are moving in the direction, which is opposite to the activity of gravitation and they exclusively abide the law of equalizing the different pressures. The balloons "know" where is the less dense matter inside a volume. end quote [34] 
The termal deviation and the decrease of temperature from a source to the edges of a system indicate that there is a similarity between some processes in space and in the atmosphere (of Earth).  Due to the interaction of radiation with particles of atmosphere and object itself, matter warms up. Space also warms up, due to the activity of the same radiation and without visible matter being present. As radiation waves distance themselves from a source, the intensity of radiation decreases, as well as temperature (both minimal and maximal) of space and visible matter (an object). A similar example can be found on Earth. Water is the warmest on its surface. The lowest temperatures are in the deepest waters, if geological warmings are excluded (hot spots). Energy, different kinds of radiation and visible matter (which does not create its own warmth by geological processes) are very cold. The temperature of visible matter, when sources of radiation are not there at all or when they are too far, tends to be absolute zero (0°K).
Space is the purest vacuum, but only if related to visible matter. According to evidence and definition, vacuum does not create friction which could reduce the intensity of radiation waves. A smaller part of particles in space, when collided by waves of radiation, turn into high-energy particles.
Quote: Different kinds of matter coexist one by the other and the transition from one into the other is more or less defined. That is impossible between matter and vacuum, because the pressures of matter and vacuum always tend to equalize and that is not what can be seen between the atmosphere and vacuum and with the gas (particle) gathering into nebulae, etc.
Right here, just outside (even inside) the atmosphere, there is the kind of matter, which is known to us, which had been defined and its influence on the visible matter calculated – it only remains to be detected. end quote [34] 
If we push water out of a bowl, which is placed under water, it starts moving towards space with a lower pressure. The same thing happens to a balloon filled with helium.

3.2. Light
Light appears on the place of collision between radiation waves and particles. If there is no radiation, or if it is minimal, matter is very cold. If there is no visible matter, space warms up  (80 to 180°K), just as visible matter. An important difference is that space does not produce light in collisions with radiation, no matter the intensity or sort of radiation.
Warmth and light are produced only by visible matter. The light of Sun disappears immediately after leaving the atmosphere of Sun or with the disappearance of visible matter. Temperature drastically falls after leaving the atmosphere, but it does not disappear immediately (80 to 100°K) – it gradually diminishes with the increase of distance through space. It does not matter, whether to name a space between a source and an object as invisible matter or just space. The important fact is that invisible space actively supports the processes that can be recognized in the visible mattter, too.
Space equals complete dark. Light appears only on objects (nebulae,  planets,  etc ). If there is no visible matter, there is no light. Stars (Sun - on the image) do not emit light, stars emit radiation. Light appearance and temperature growth occur in the collision of radiation and visible matter. There is no light immediately outside the atmosphere of Sun. [35] 

4. Conclusion
Rotation and attracting matter create systems. Gravity without the effect of rotation, does not create systems.
The force of attraction (gravity) and the rotation of objects are basic preconditions to create dual or more complex systems (spherical and other groups of stars, galaxies and groups of galaxies). If gravity was the only existing or even dominating force, there would be no universe at all. Without the main creator of all systems – the rotation of objects, which places the falling objects into their orbits – the objects would fall vertically one upon the other. Rotation should not be observed only in the frame of a rotating object, but as a whole of an object and the space, with the attraction forces in it. Not only an object rotates, but the forces within its space rotate with it, too. [36]
 The rotation acts as antigravity. Due to the rotation, the antigravitational forces are changing the course of movement of the incoming objects from straight into round or ellyptic, around the bigger rotating object. In that way, the collapse of the minor part of that mass or these objects, existing in a new way, does not occur.[37]
The rotation creates vortexes and cyclones (at the poles) in the center of galaxies and stars.  Central objects in the centres of the galaxies observe more complex laws that are not based on the physical black holes. Beginning from the stars the size of our Sun, even the low speed rotations cause polar cyclones, which will in time turn into whirlwinds of the galactic size (up to 30 000 light-years). They are able to hold together such a massive objects; the rotation of matter around a whirlwind holds the whole galaxy together. [38]
  Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered, or the blue shift between the objects in collision . There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies (speeds of movement by orbits) and the Universe (the rotation) is occurring many times slower. [39] 

Madam  Sylvie Wallimann-Crépin's Editorial Committee of EPD Sciences (2004) for the first boost at the beginning of the research.
Professor Zoran Ćoso, University of Zadar, for the translations in English and Russian.
My wife, Ranka Sedić, who funds this independent research.
[1]. W.Duckss,  „Constant proces“
[2]. W.Duckss 7/2018
[3]. W.Duckss
[4]. W.Duckss..
[5] W.Duckss
[6] W.Duckss.. 
[7] W.Duckss  „Rotation of an object“
 [8] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[9] Nov. 20, 2017 "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[10] W.Duckss „What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?“, Article No 7.
[11] W.Duckss Article No 2.
[12] W.Duckss „The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color“ Article No 1.
[13] W.Duckss 
[14]  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey1,2∗ , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[15] W.Duckss  „Why did CERN fail?“ Article No 3.
[16] W.Duckss "What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?" Article No 7.
[17] W.Duckss „Why is the Universe cold?“
[18] W.Duckss
[19] W.Duckss there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?“ Article No 3.
[20] W.Duckss   [21] W.Duckss  „Observing the quasars through rotation“ „The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars“ Article No 2. [22] „Supermassive Black Hole’s Dizzying Spin is Half the Speed of Light“ Article written: 5 Mar , 2014Updated: 23 Dec , 2015 by Elizabeth Howell [23] March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"
[24] „CALIFA reveals Prolate Rotation in Massive Early-type Galaxies: A Polar Galaxy Merger Origin?“ Athanasia Tsatsi, Mariya Lyubenova, Glenn van de Ven, Jiang Chang, J. Alfonso L. Aguerri, Jesús Falcón-Barroso, Andrea V. Macciò (Submitted on 17 Jul 2017)      [25] APM 08279+5255 etc [26]
[28] „The Milky Way Galaxy“  
[29] W.Duckss „Functioning of the Universe“ [30] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[31] Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss
[36] W.Duckss  Https://
[37] W.Duckss „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss

Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;


In process

The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe

Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

This article completes the circle of presenting the process of the constant growth of objects and systems and the topics to complete it consist of the visible matter violent disintegration and its re-creation inside the Universe. A constant process of the visible matter disintegration is presented as the end of the process, the proportions of which are gigantic, and the creation of the visible matter as the beginning of it.
The disintegration of particles disturbs the balance of the Universe's wholeness; despite the enormous loss of the visible matter, the Universe is constantly growing.
After having postponed it for a while, this article discusses the age of objects and the Universe as a consequence of the process of the constant matter growth. The acquired results are completely different from those, offered by the renowned experts of the time.
The articles [3], [4] and [5], with this one, too, make the integral part of the complete circular process of matter growth inside and outside of our Universe.

Keywords: disintegration of matter; particle formation; the age of the Universe

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to unite the total processes of the constant matter growth inside the Universe, based on the independent research, the use of databases of generally accepted, easily verifiable evidence for the broadest community of readers. This article is a summary of the materials inside the process of the constant matter gathering, with the articles [3], [4] and [5]), due to gravity or the law of universal gravitation.
The disintegration of matter is a process of turning the visible matter into the invisible matter and energy and it exists in the whole of the Universe. The loss of the enormous quantities of matter is replaced with the process of the visible matter constant growth out of the invisible matter inside the space or the whole of the Universe.
The age of the objects is analyzed through the time needed for matter to gather into dust, asteroids (comets) and increasingly larger objects, star systems, galaxies and finally the Universe.

2. The Disintegration of Matter
The existence of the process of disintegration or decomposition of matter is proved inside the small and large particle colliders. If the particles are influenced by the strong percussive force, then atoms (protons, electrons, neutrons) are decomposed after each collision into neutrinos and dark matter (invisible to our instruments).
Only in the process of the Sun's (as the object that emits waves) percussive waves to the atmosphere a significant quantity of matter gets disintegrated  (some 10 000 muons per m2 hits the surface of Earth every minute (the surface of Earth is ‎510 072 000 km²)). [1] 
In the period of 2,20 x 10-6 of a  second, muons are disintegrated into electrons and neutrinos:
μ - → e - + νe + νμ
μ + → e + + ν e + ν μ [2]
A chemical composition of atmosphere (Earth: N2 78,08%; O2 20,95%; Ar 0,934%; CO2 0,0408%; ~1% of vapor) is the first to be exposed to the percussive waves (above 200 km) consisting of the atomic oxygen (O), helium (He) and hydrogen (H) [3]. It can be found out from the chemical composition of the outer atmosphere, which particles muons are created from. These are the particles that are exposed to the percussive waves first. The impact of the waves to the atmosphere (to the particles, the visible matter) also creates light, heat and ionizes particles. [4]
The disintegration of particles also takes place when two objects (asteroids, planets,...) collide.  
There is a significant disintegration of particles when objects fall into fast cyclones and also at fast rotating stars and when stars fall into fast rotating cyclones of the galactic centers. These cyclones are situated on the northern and southern poles of the gas giants, stars and galactic centers.
There is an infinite quantity of particles' collisions in the explosion of a star, percussive values of which are of the higher or even value as those in LHC. These collisions lead to the disintegration of large quantities of the star's mass (the most of its total mass).  
To date it has been discovered (total number until today) just over 400 novae in the Milky Way. [5]
The information about the total quantity of the disintegrated visible matter can be found in the previous article  (or (real data) ~400 x (factor 3) = 1200 x ~100 billion galaxies in the Universe x min. 8 M Sun > 8 493 galaxies of the Milky Way size), an approximately real value of the disintegrated visible matter in the Universe caused by the explosions of stars.

3. A Creation of Visible Matter
That contemporary understanding of the Universe is seriously out of balance can be deducted from the facts of the Universe constantly expanding, gaining mass, from the omnipresent disintegration of the visible matter and the constantly ascending process of matter and system gathering. On one hand, enormous quantities of the visible matter get disintegrated every second, but on the other side, there is a constant growth of the visible matter, through objects and systems.
A disbalance is again noticeable in the following: "A chemical composition of a nebula is quite balanced; a fact which, by the way, follows the general composition of the Universe, which approximately consists of 90 %  of hydrogen atoms and almost all of the rest is helium (~10%) with oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen and other elements, which, put together, make two atoms per one thousand of them". [6]
A chemical composition of stars: (Sun Photospheric composition (by mass): Hydrogen 73.46%, Helium 24.85%, Oxygen 0.77%, Carbon 0.29%, Iron 0.16%, Neon 0.12% …); there is again a significant discrepancy between their chemical compositions and the compositions of the remainders after the explosions of stars and also those of nebulae and the Universe.
Until now it has been discovered a bit more than 400 remainders of super novae in our galaxy (a total number of stars in our galaxy is 200-400 billion), which does not by far match the total mass of 3-5% of interstellar matter in the Milky Way. A chemical composition of nebulae and stars tell us that the explosions of stars significantly reduce the diversity of elements, existing on a star prior to the explosion.
It is very important to say here that the diversity of a chemical composition of stars is significantly lower in the terms of quantity, ratio and complex atoms, than the ones of the objects that are in the orbit of a star.  [3] 
The claims that complex elements are created in the explosions of stars and that they arrived to our planet, without having analyzed the chemical composition of all the objects in our system, are unrealistic. Uneven and different chemical compositions of the Sun and its orbiting objects deny such a hypothesis. Relating the existence of complex atoms to the remainders of the stars' explosions is incorrect, because the chemical composition of the remainders, left after a star has exploded, is in a total discrepancy with the composition of objects in our system and because, if that were the case, the chemical composition of all the objects would have been the same, which is disproved by the research and the evidence. [7]
The creation of complex elements is seen in the process of removing the volatile elements of the comets, which is violent and voluminous at the beginning. When a comet has made enough orbits around a star, the quantity of volatile elements in it is reduced and it turns into an asteroid. It should be pointed out that a chemical composition of a comet gets more complex with every turn around the Sun, which is at the end represented in the chemical composition of the asteroid. [8]
The impossibility to relate the chemical compositions of planets and stars with the compositions of nebulae and interstellar material indicates that there is a process of creating new visible matter. That is particularly seen from the chemical composition of a material, which is outside the objects in the space. The first complex particle in the creation is hydrogen (in the atomic state), the fact demonstrated by the presence of this particle in nebulae, between objects and inside the Universe (90%). During time, the creation of the other particles  follows the ratio:  helium ~10% and all the other elements are only in traces, up to 2% maximum (Sun ~1,7%).
A greater diversity of all elements starts to appear when, due to the forces of attraction, the objects orbiting around a star start appearing in the orbits around the stars (high temperatures decompose complex atoms).
The greatest diversity is found on the objects (i.e., in their crust) that have a melted core, have an independent rotation and are mostly closer to a star. The creation of complex atoms takes place in the crust of such an objects, due to the pressure of the melted core on the crust, which itself is like a laboratory for the creation of complex atoms and compounds. A part of creation also takes place in the contact of the melted matter with water, atmosphere, ... This is seen on Mars, which has no melted core nor there are dynamic geological processes, necessary to create large quantities of complex atoms and compounds. Small quantities of hydrogen quickly migrate from Mars towards the Sun or get decomposed because of the radiation waves and they leave the planet with deserts and without water or compounds based on hydrogen.(supplement  1)

4.  Processes Related to the Constant Ascending Process of Matter Gathering
The process of matter gathering is seen on Earth and in the outer space. Matter gathers into nebulae, small and large objects, small and large systems. [9]  It can be deducted from the percussive craters on Earth and the other objects in our system.
Impact craters 
Figure 1. Percussive craters on some objects (NASA)
Percussive craters have covered completely such objects that lack atmosphere, independent rotation, that have a relatively solid surface and only minimal internal geological processes to remove the craters. A constant growth is presented by old craters, inside which new ones have appeared. Inside these new ones there are even newer ones... The frequency of such objects arriving to Earth (measured in their quantity, mass and the time interval in which they are appearing) makes it possible to conclude that the period of creating such reliefs on these objects is quite long and that it is a constant process. The duration of process is seen from the daily arrival of the space material onto Earth (quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day [3]).
Udarni krateri
Figure 2. Craters (NASA)
With the increase of an object's mass and also with the participation of tidal forces from the central object and the other objects, too, as well as the speed of rotation around its axis, such an object starts emitting the surplus of its own radiation, which is the indicator of a melted (hot) core being created  (Jupiter, Neptune). The core melting with the significant influence of tidal forces is seen on Venus, which is smaller than Earth and lacks its own rotation, but it has a significantly higher temperature and more active volcanic processes than Earth. A lack of mass is impossible to compensate with a rotation and tidal forces, which can be monitored on Mars, Mercury, Uranus, ... – these objects emit no significant radiation (Uran 1,06), at least they are less important than those incoming from the central object. The existence of melted core (i.e., matter) is the beginning of the process of creating hot objects from brown dwarfs to the largest stars and stars with a very fast rotation („O“ type ~0,00003% from the total number of stars in Milky Way).
A rotation of an object around its axis creates orbits for smaller objects and matter around a central object, creates also binary systems, globular clusters of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies, the Universe, Multiverse and, at the most, two systems more. When the objects that emit radiation (which creates light and heat in the collision with the visible matter) get diluted, the outer space and the visible matter that emits none of its own radiation have the temperature of 0°K and all of the processes either stop or become extremely slow.
One should always keep in mind that this is only one in the endless sequence of such or similar systems that exist in the Absolute zero.
Tidally locked objects (i.e., those that lack their own independent rotation) or those with an extremely slow rotation cannot create orbits, just as the objects with a rotation cannot create orbits around their poles (north – south).  

5. The Age of Objects and the Universe
A constant growth or a constant matter gathering, in contemporary terms of understanding the age of Universe, is a very slow process without any form of sensationalism and ascribing supernatural abilities to the laws of physics (nature). As a starting point in determining the age of the Universe I will use the agreed age estimate for the asteroids and the materials from the Moon, which is about 4.5 billion of years. The quantity of matter, which is daily arriving to Earth, is 50 to 300 tons per day.
It needs to be mentioned that in certain phases growth has a different pace, which is also different in the whole volume of the Universe. The same goes for any object in a star system. For example, an object existing in an asteroid belt has a different growth pace than the one existing in a gaseous disk outside that belt, no matter be it internal or external objects. 
When matter gets gathered into clouds (nebulae), the forces of attraction become stronger. The larger the object and the faster the rotation, the influence of the forces of attraction is more significant.
It would be much easier to determine the age of Earth if we were able to measure the age of melted matter. The rock, originated from lava, is 0 years old, equally today and 4 Gy ago (zircon from the Jack Hills Western Australia „Dashed line indicates 4.4 Ga(y) apparent 207Pb/206Pb age“ [11]).
If we were to adapt the matter gathering to the growing mass (an asteroid with 4,5 Gy of age) and the daily arrival of matter to Earth, which is 50 to 300 tons per day, we would have the approximate result of 6 x 1024 of years (1024: in short scale :  a septillion ; in long scale :  a quadrillion of years). It should be mentioned here that larger objects „steal“ matter (H2 and He) from smaller objects, which changes the approach in determining the age for each object.
The diameter of the Universe is calculated to be about 13,7 G ly.
The Universe rotates at the speed of up to 30.000 km/s [5] (which is far below contemporary data that do not consider that distance contributes to the increase in red  spectrum). That speed is sufficient to create a disk-shaped form of the Universe.
To achieve a disk-shaped form of a system, it takes, besides the speed of rotation, a large number of turns around some axis. The approximate diameter of the Universe is about 27 Gly (r  is ~13,7 Gly). Besides the process of constant growth, the processes of disintegration and the creation of matter  should also be included in the calculations about the Universe. With an approximate speed of rotation reaching 10% of the speed of light, the Universe makes a single turn in ~ 860 Gly. This number needs to be multiplied with a very large number of turns around its axis. ..

6. Conclusion
Particles are disintegrated by force due to the percussive waves from stars to the atmospheres of the objects in their orbits, due to objects' collisions, due to cyclones in the objects' polar regions, due to explosions of stars and due to our particle colliders.
The creation of the visible matter is seen in the increase of mass of the Universe and its chemical composition (H ~90%; He ~10%, the rest of the elements are in traces, up to 2%).
A constant, ascending growth (the consolidation of objects and systems) is registered as the arrival of matter to the formed objects, which is proved by the millions of percussive craters on the objects, by the processes of collisions, merger and interaction of objects, galaxies and the clusters of galaxies.
The distance between the objects in the outer space creates a red shift; after some distance (= 70 Gly), no matter whether galaxies are approaching to the observer or not, which is concluded from the collisions, mergers and interactions of galaxies and the rotations of galaxy clusters and their collisions, mergers and the creation of super clusters.
The age of Earth and other objects is determined by the time needed to gather matter, influenced also by the constant forces of attraction. Every object has a different growth pace, which depends on its position in a system or the position of the system in the Universe.

The age of the Universe is determined by the constant growth, creation and disintegration of matter and the time needed to gather a whole system with a disk-shaped form, due to a relatively fast rotation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Supplement 1.
The lack of O2
Titan moon has a chemical composition of atmospheres by volume:
98.4% nitrogen (N2),
1.4% methane (CH4),
0.2% hydrogen (H2);

Lower Tropospheres:
95.0% N2,
4.9% CH4;

(97% N2,
2.7 ± 0.1% CH4,
0.1-0.2% H2)
The temperature on Titan (Saturn Moon) is -179.5 ° C.
The lack of H2
The minimal temperature on Mars is -143°C, while the average and maximal one are -63°C and +35°C respectively. The chemical composition of its atmosphere is:
carbon-dioxide 95,97%;
argon 1,93%;
nitrogen 1,89%;
oxygen 0,146%;
carbon-monoxide 0,0557%,
which in total makes 99,9917% of the elements and compounds, present in its atmosphere.

(The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg2, Fe2)2SiO4; Fe3O4.  Etc.  [10] ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1]. New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron, J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 – Published 1 November 1937
[2]. H. Yukawa, PTP, 17, 48 1935 On the Interaction of Elementary Particles H. Yukawa (Received 1935)
[3].,  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W. Duckss
[4].   „How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?“ 2.8. Light W. Duckss
[5]. „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.1 The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe, W. Duckss
[6]. Nebula, astronomy, written by: John S. Mathis
e_of_the_objects_in_our_system W.Duckss
[8]. Astr. Soc. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stx2640
[10]. W.D.
[11]. GSA Data Repository 2018087 Ge et al., 2018, A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization: Geology,


Demoliranje Hubble's law, Big Bang, osnova "moderne" i crkvene kozmologije

English  Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology
Pусский Снос закон Хаббла, Big Bang, основа “современной” и церковную космология

„Ako su dva predmeta predstavljani kugličnim ležajevima i prostornim vremenom istezanjem gumenog lima, učinak Dopplera uzrokovan je valjanjem kuglica preko listova kako bi se stvorio neobičan pokret.  Kozmološki crveni pomak događa se kada su kuglični ležajevi zaglavljeni na listi i list je rastegnut.“ Wikipedia
Dobro, provjerimo to na našoj lokalnoj skupini galaksija (tablica iz moga članka „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

Hubble constant "Za većinu druge polovice 20. stoljeća vrijednost procijenjeno je između 50 i 90 (km / s) / Mpc . (danas postoji nekoliko konstanti, sve su oko 70 km/s)."
Opet ne valja nešto sa zakonom i konstantom!  M90 je udaljena 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly i gle čuda, ima plavi pomak od −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
Galaksije na udaljenosti 32,6 Mly prema, tko zna čijoj konstanti, trebaju imati oko 700 km/s, na dvostrukoj udaljenosti od 65,2 Mly trebaju imati brzinu udaljavanja oko 1.400 km/s, itd.
Zanimljivo je da

NGC 1.600 je udaljena 149,3 Kly i ima brzinu 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c
je udaljena 35 Mly ima brzinu (red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010
je udaljena 140 Mly i ima brzinu od 2.975 ± 27!
NGC 280 je udaljena 464 Mly i ima brzinu od 3.878! ...

Ovi dečki i cure koji vrše mjerenja su nešto promašili ili je neupotrebljiv Hubble´s zakon i konstanta (bilo čija vrijednost konstante).

Na udaljenosti od 52 ± 3 (M86) imamo plavi pomak (-244 ± 5 km/s) koji imamo i kod galaksije M90  na udaljenosti 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), dok su ostale galaksije na istoj udaljenosti (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99, NGC 4419) sa pozitivnim predznakom (osim NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) i potpuno različitim brzinama.



Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

English Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Pусский Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса


U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom ( knjiga- 2008.g.)

Kratka knjiga. Građa knjige je o Svemiru, utkana je u svakodnevnicu i poratna zbivanja, prožeta humorom i zamišljenim razgovorima sa autorima radova o kojima se raspravlja dok nastaje novi rad.


1 Rasprava sa Hawkingom   2 Fotoni javite se
3 Hubbleova konstanta   4 CERN-ova unaprijed izgubljena bitka ...


Članci objavljeni u:

The Intellectual Archive Journal;„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ April 2019.

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" march 2019

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems" november 2018 2017 .y. 5.2017.y. 30.7.2017.y. 7/2018 31.08.2017.y. 13.10.2017.y. 11.2017.  2018.y. 2018 Duckss profil) etc. Universe and rotation The observation process in the universe etc. и т.д.

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Memorial center Nikola Tesla Croatia, Smiljan


Nikola-Tesla Memorijalni Centar Nikola Tesla, Smiljan, Coratia