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Universe and rotation (43 articles 2020.+16.-19.y.) hot The universe is rotating, after all (2013/14/15 y.) Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe

 

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Вселенная и вращение (40 статьи 2020.+16.-19.г.) hot Вселенная всё-таки вращается (2013/14/15 г.) Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса

 

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Svemir i vrtnja (43 članaka 2020. +16.-19.) hot Objavljeni članci (2013, 14, 15.) Svemir, što je to (2010.) U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom (knjiga 2008.) Weitter Duckss teorija svemira


2004.
Zadar's Theory of the Universe 2004.y. Zadarska teorija svemira
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 Kontakt e-mail: wduckss@gmail.com

There is no Chaos in the Universe (Judgment and Argument)
Author: Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Summary
The first part of the article deals with chaos that includes very different star systems. Inside a system there are objects with a lot of satellites and those with none. Some planets in distant orbits and brown dwarfs are warmer than some stars. The objects and stars of the same mass have completely different temperatures and are often classified into almost all star types.
There is light inside an atmosphere or on the surface of an object without an atmosphere, but it disappears just outside the atmosphere or the surface of the object without the atmosphere. There are galaxies with the blueshift and redshift; although the Universe expands faster and faster, there are 200 000 galaxies and clusters of galaxies that merge or collide. There are enormous differences in the quantity of redshift at the same distances for galaxies and larger objects, i.e., there are different distances – with the differences measured in billions of light-years – for the same quantities of redshift. .
The other part of the article removes chaos and returns order in the Universe by implementing identical principles in the whole of the volume and for all objects. This text is intended for a very broad circle of readers.

Keywords: chaos, processes in space, stars, galaxies, ordered universe

1. Introduction
The current events in astronomical measurements and observations are used here and they are classified into 14 tables. All data are linked to their source. Based on the usage of data, a chaotic behavior of the processes in the Universe is returned to order and it is pointed to processes that are valid in the whole of the volume and are applied to all objects.
The differences registered at different objects are a consequence of the conditions that are specific for each object.
The method of verification is based on the comparison of different sequences of data, in order to create a comprehensive image of the processes that affect a star, its orbits, mass, the speed of rotation, color, the level of temperature, etc.
The main feature or goal of this method is acquiring universality and removing any paradox that might negate the conclusions and their verification.
This article relies on my already published articles that use the same or similar data (https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html), which describe more thoroughly and always from another perspective some sections of this topic.

2. Chaos?
The analysis of the Universe, if it is not comprehensive, seems chaotic. Gravity does not explain the difference between the planets without satellites and planets with many dozens of satellites, as well as rings. Pluto (mean radius 1.188,3±0,8 km) has five discovered satellites, which make 12,2% of its mass. Venus has no satellites, although its diameter is five times larger than the one of Pluto.

Table 1. ~ % Mass of satellites Satellites /Central body

  Body ~ % Mass of satellites
Satellites /Central body
Radius km Distance AU ø Temperature K
1 Sun 0,14 695 700 - 5 772 (Ph.sph)
2 Venus No satellites 6 051.8±1,0 0,723332 737 K
3 Earth 1,23 6 371,0 1 287,16 (61-90 y)
4 Mars is negligible (two satellites) 3 389,5  ± 0,2 1,523 679 210
5 Jupiter 0,021 69 911 5,2044 112 (0,1 bar)
6 Saturn 0,024 58 232 9,5826 84 (0,1 bar)
7 Uranus 0,00677 25 362±7 19,2184 47 (0,1 bar)
8 Neptune 0,385 (Triton 0,3) 24 622,0±19 30,11 55 (0,1 bar)
9 Pluto 12,2 1 188,3±0,8 39,48 44
Table 1. ~ % Mass of satellites Satellites /Central body

A table, Mass of satellites /Central body, seems chaotic. The same goes for ø temperatures, too, which do not decrease with the increase of distance from a star and if they do decrease, they do it at a pace that is unpredictable. Mercury is colder than Venus and Uranus than Neptune. If the temperatures from the dark side of the objects are included here, the illusory chaos seems to be complete.

Table 2. Sun system, temperature deviation, temperatures/ distance

  The body in orbit around the Sun Minimum temperatures °K Distance from the Sun AU
1 Mercury 80 0,39
2 Moon 100 1
3 Mars 143 1.52
4 Vesta 85 2,36
5. Ceres 168 2,77
6 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 180 3,46
8 Callisto 80±5 5.20
9 Triton 38 30,11
10 Pluto 33 39,48
Table 2. Sun system, temperature deviation, relationship: minimum temperatures °K/distance from the Sun AU. (2018. W. Duckss) [1]

Although Mercury is 0,39 AU far from Sun, its lowest temperature is lower than these of Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Vesta, Ceres and 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The temperature of Callisto, which is 5,2 AU far, is approximately the same as that of Mercury. It is particularly obvious that the lowest temperature of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (180°K, distance 3,46 AU) is by 100°K higher than the lowest temperature of Mercury, or the one of Ceres (168°K), which is twice as high than the one of Mercury at the distance of 2,77 AU.
A seemingly complete chaos appears with the discovery of the exoplanets.

Table 3. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperatur

 

Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2 650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1 950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17 2.500 440
5 DH Tauri b 12 (8-22) (11) 2 750 330
6 HD 44627 13-14 1 600-2.400 275
7 1RXS 1609 b 14 1 800 330
8 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2 600 670
9 Oph 11 B 21 2 478 243
10 HIP 78530 b 23,04 2 800 710
Table 3. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass. ( 2018. Lombaert et al.) [2]

Chaos !? We now have bodies (planets) in very distant orbits with star temperatures.

Table 4. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Mass Sun 1 Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  Cool giant / 2.200
2 R Cassiopeiae Red giant 263-310 2.812
3 CW Leonis 0,7 – 0,9 700 2.200
4 IK Tauri 1 451-507 2.100
5 W Aquilae 1,04-3 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
6 R Doradus 1,2 370±50 2.740±190
7 T Cephei 1.5-1.8 329 +70 -50 2.400
8 S Pegasi  1,8 459-574 2.107
9 Chi Cygni 2,1 +1,5 -0,7 348-480 2.441-2.742
10 R Leporis 2,5 – 5 400±90 2.245-2.290
11 R Leonis Minoris  10,18 569±146 2.648
12 S Cassiopeiae loss at 3.5 x 10-6 MSun per year 930 1.800
Table 4. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

Although the mainstream of science claims that the objects that are below 13 masses of Jupiter cannot start nuclear processes (2013. James B. Kaler) [3], they are nevertheless hot and emit their own light. The following chaotic question imposes itself: how can a planet (DH Tauri b 2 750°K, HIP 78530 b 2 800°K, UScoCTIO 108 b, GQ Lupi b 2 600°K, 2MASS J2126-8140 1 800°K, B Tauri FU 2 375°K, ..) that is 100 to 6 900 AU far from its star and with a mass of 1 – 24 of the mass of Jupiter be hotter than a whole sequence of stars, the masses of which are 0,7 – 10 of the mass of Sun?
The additional mess is created by the data obtained from the comparison of small and large planets and brown dwarfs (all of the analyzed planets are very far from their stars), just as identical objects with approximately similar masses do.

Table 5. Brown dwarf and planets, mass/temperature

 
  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU
Mass up to 13 M Jup/(vs) Mass above 13M Jup

1 ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
2 54 Piscium B 50 810±50

3 DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
4 ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 -31 500 -550

5 OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
6 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)

7 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
8 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

Mass vs Mass

9 2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
10 DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5 695±60 1.168

11 Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150  
12 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)

13 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
14 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  
Table 5. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship: mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. (2018. W. Duckss)

Here are higher temperatures on the smaller objects than on the ones with a significantly larger mass, i.e., the objects that are below 13 mass of Jupiter are hotter than those that are above 30, 40, 50 and 60 mass of Jupiter (and the whole sequence of stars). The next part of the table compares the objects of the approximately similar masses that are above or below 13 mass of Jupiter and with a very significant difference in temperatures (B Tauri FU / DENIS J081730.0-615520 have 15 mass of Jupiter and the temperature of 2 375 / 950°K). The objects that are not supposed to be hot, according to the mainstream of science, because they are below the "magic" level of 13 M Jup – they are as hot as stars.
In the process of analyzing stars, more of the chaotic data appear again. The stars of the same radius or the same mass have extremely different temperatures and are often classified into higher or almost all star types.

Table 6. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1 EZ Canis Majoris WN3-hv 19 89.100
2 Centaurus X-3 O 20.5 ± 0.7 39.000
3 η Canis Majores B 19,19 15.000
4 HD 21389 A 19,3 9.730
5 Kappa Pavonis F 19 - 25 5,250 - 6,350
6 V382 Carinae G 20 5,866
7  S Persei M 20 3.000-3.600
8 DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
9 HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)

Table 6. Stars, similar mass (except No 8, 9, ), different classes (type) and temperatures.

Table 7.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

Star Type Mass (Sun = 1) Temperature K Radius (Sun=1)
S Pegasi M5e - M8.5e 1,4-1,8 2.107 459-574
R Leporis C7,6e(N6e) 2,5 – 5 2.245-2.290 400±90
Rho Orionis  K0 III 2,67 4.533 25
29_Orionis G8IIIFe-0.5 2,33 4.852 10,36
BX_Andromedae F2V 2,148 6.650 2,01
Mu_Orionis Aa 2,28 8.300 2,85
3_Centauri B8V 2,47 9.638 2,8
Vela X-1 B0.5Ib pulsar 1,88 31.500 ~11,2
HD_49798 sdO5.5 1,50 47.500 1,45
PSR J0348+0432 pulsar 2,01 / 13±2 km
14 Aurigae white dwarf 1,64 7.498 /
GQ Lupi b planet 1-36 MJup. 2.650 ± 100 Distance 100 AU
Table 7.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

The "combustion" of stars seems not to be following the laws of physics.  The same mass of different stars with a similar chemical composition does not burn with the same glow. Some of them are lazy, while the others are very lively. Whatever quantity of mass is observed makes no difference, because this phenomenon is omnipresent. It is the same with planets and brown dwarfs. The stars possessing a smaller quantity of mass are frequently warmer than over 96,15% of all stars (Harvard spectral classification) in the Milky Way (NSVS 14256825 0,528 M Sun, temperature 42 000°K, HD 149382 0.29−0.53 M Sun, 35 000°K; V391 Pegasi 0,5 M Sun, temperature 29 300 ± 500°K ...; 96,15% star temperature <6 000°K, + 3% F Class with temperature to 7 500°K=99,15% the total number of stars, the main sequence, in the Milky Way ).

Table 8. Star,mass/temperature

  Stars Maas of Sun Temperature K
  Cool Star
1 NML Cygni 50 3.834
2 WOH G64 25 3.200
3 Antares 12,4 3.400
4 UY Scuti 7-10 3.365
5 Beta Andromedae 3-4 3.842
6 HD 220074 1,2 3.935
7 Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3.626
8 Wolf 359 0,09 2,800 ± 100
9 SCR 1845-6357A 0,07 2.600-2.700
10 2M1207 0,025 2550 ± 150
  Hot Star
1 HD 149382 0,29-0,53 35.500±500
2 NSVS 14256825 0,528 42.000
3 HD 74389 0,69 39.500
4 Z Andromedae 0,75 90.000-100.000
5 RX J0439.8-6809 ~0,9 250.000
6 HD 49798 1,5 47.500
7 μ Columbae 16 33.000
8 S Monocerotis  29,1 38.500
9 AB7 O 44 36.000
10 Plaskett's star A 54 33,000 ± 2,000
11 HD 93403 A 68,5 39.300
Table 8. Star,mass/temperature, cold and hot stars, mass growth is not followed by temperature rise

After these data it is difficult not to discuss chaos. The stars of similar masses can have low temperatures, high temperatures and all temperatures in between. The same masses of different stars produce a whole sequence of temperatures and, vice versa, completely different masses from small to giant stars produce identical temperatures. At the first sight, there is no mathematics that could reconcile these complete opposites and put them inside the realm of physics.
Chaos gets increased when the density of objects is analyzed.

Table 9. The density and radius of the sun and the body in orbit

R/B Object Ø density g/cm3 Radius km
1 Sun 1,408 695.700 eq
2 Mercury 5,427 2.439,7
3 Venus 5,243 6.051,8
4 Earth 5,514 6.371
5 Moon 3.344 1.737,1
6 Mars 3,9335 3.389,5
7 Vesta 3,456 572,6
8 Ceres 2,161 965,2
9 67P/Ch-G 0,533 4,1x3,3x1,8
10 Jupiter 1,326 69.911
11 Saturn 0,687 58.232
12 Uranus 1,27 25.362
13 Neptune 1,638 24.622
14 Pluto 1,75 1.187
15 Sirius A 0,568 1.190.342,7
Table 9. The density and radius of the sun and the body in orbit (Source: NASA)

Chaos is the easiest way to explain density. The largest objects, Sun and gas giants, have the smallest density (except for some small, solid objects: 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 0,533 g/cm3, Pan 0,42 g/cm³, Atlas 0,46 g/cm³, Pandora  0,48 g/cm³, Prometheus 0,48±0,09 g/cm³, Amalthea0,857±0,099 g/cm³..). Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus have smaller densities than Sun, while Neptune has a larger density than it. A chemical composition of objects is related to their density. It is observed that solid objects may have small or large density. It is particularly chaotic to have volcanoes on smaller and larger objects, with or without a melted core (Enceladus, Io opposite to Earth and Venus). Titan moon has atmosphere, although its mass is only 0,0225 of the one of Earth (its atmosphere is as large as 1,5 of the one of Earth's), or Jupiter, which mass is 317,8 larger than the mass of Earth. The objects with the atmosphere, orbiting around Sun, have very different chemical compositions and the thicknesses of atmosphere. The atmosphere of Titan (2017. Sarah M. Hörst ) [4] (and Triton, Pluto (2019. A. A. Mardon et al.) [5]) is made of nitrogen (N2), while the atmosphere of Saturn (and Neptune), the planet around which Titan orbits, is made of hydrogen and helium.

When it leaves the atmosphere of a star, light immediately disappears. It appears again only on the orbiting objects or in nebulae made of particles and dust. It would seem as if something has been "swallowing" light and creating a complete darkness in the Universe. If that is to be ascribed to the influence of vacuum, that would create the following questions: why does vacuum reduce the intensity of light – the difference between Earth and Pluto is more than by 1 500 times. (Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, on Pluto 0,878 (2009-2018. Solar Intensity BRSP) [6]).

Figure 1. the Moon and the Earth Apollo 8; Sun;  Pluto and Charon moon; stars look like from outer space of the Dawn spacecraft; NASA
light and dark
Figure 1. the Moon and the Earth Apollo 8; Sun;  Pluto and Charon moon; stars look like from outer space of the Dawn spacecraft; NASA

Where do photons disappear? During nice, warm nights in June we can see fireflies in the dark. They do not disappear no matter how dark it may get – on the contrary: the darker it gets, the better they are visible. A few fireflies in a bottle can enable reading in the darkest night. In the outer space it is sufficient to turn away from the source of light and reading is impossible. On Earth, in the dark, if a flashlight is turned on and pointed to the back of a reader, that person is able to read, although the beams of light do not directly illuminate the text.

Figure 2. Moon, comet, ISS; NASA
dark and light
Figure 2. Moon, comet, ISS; NASA

Light disappears outside the atmosphere of a star, but when it arrives to Earth, it makes a turn around the obstacle just to check what is going on (= irony).
I have always been asking a simple question: how is the speed of light measured if the Universe is dark? Does this speed relate only to the spaces of the Universe where there is light?
The measurements of distant objects, which emit light, are closely related to light. The mainstream of science has been claiming for a 100 years that the larger the distance of an object, the more significant is its redshift. There are quite a few volumes of books that provide the formulae to calculate a correct result. However, chaos would not be what it is, if these formulae could be practically used in the reality.

Table 10. a part of galaxies with blueshift

Designation VLG…(blue shift)

VCC237 −423
IC3105 −284
VCC322 −323
VCC334 −350
VCC501 −224
IC3224 −100
VCC628 −540
VCC636 −113
IC3258 −593
IC3303 −427
VCC802 −318
IC3311 −287
VCC810 −470
VCC815 −866
VCC846 −845
NGC4396 −215
VCC877 −212
NGC4406 −374
VCC892 −784
VCC928 −395
IC3355 −126
VCC953 −563
Etc.
Table 10. a part of galaxies with blueshift (and negative speeds) at the distance of about 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc).
(2010. I.D. Karachentsev, O.G. Nasonova) [7]

If there is a distance of ~53 Mly from Earth, our mathematics becomes chaotic. Some authors claim that the Hubble constant  applies for the distances above 32,6 Mly and its value is from 60 -500 km/s by parsec. This is the reason why I have skipped over our local group and made this checking analysis almost at the double of the distance. It is obvious not only that the redshift does not increase, but also that there is the blueshift. It is impossible to register the blueshift directly (or, the approaching of galaxies) above 70 Mly, but some new research activities point out that 200 000 of galaxies merge or collide.(2019. W. J. Pearson et al.) [8]
What is merger and collision if not the blueshift between objects? A large portion of these objects are getting closer to us , but a spectroscope does not provide the correct results above 70 Mly. A complete chaos.

Table 11. Red shift /distance

  Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster Red shift (z) Distance M ly
1 Leo_Cluster 0,022 368,6
2 ARP 87 0,023726 330
3 Abell 2152 0,041 551
4 Hydra_Cluster 0,0548 190,1

z= 0,0502 to 0,0767, distance 190,1 to 1 063 M ly
1 Abell 671 0,0502 600
2. Abell 1060 0,0548 190,1
3 Abell_1991 0,0587 812
4 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
5 Laniakea Supercluster 0,0708 250
6 Abell 2029 0,0767 1 063

z= 0,1871 to 0,211, distance 2 485 to 2 645 M ly
1 Abell 383 0,1871 2 485
2 Abell 520 0,2 2 645
3 Abell_222(3) 0,211 2 400

distance z 0,28 > z 0285041 to z 0,359
1 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4 000
2 HE0450-2958 0,286041 3 000
3 Bullet Cluster 0,296 3 700
4 H1821 + 643 0,297 3 400
5 OJ 287 0,3060 3 500
6 Abell 2744 0,308 3 982
7 CID-42 0,359 3 900

z 0,375 > z 0,542 for 4 000 M ly
1 Abell_370 0,375 4 775
2 3C 47 0,425 4 300
3 3C_295 0,464 4 600
4 Musket Ball Cluster 0,53 700
5 Abell 754 0,542 760
6 3C 147 0,545 5 100
z 0,586 > z 0,71279 for 3 200 M ly and 0,87 for 2 000 M ly
1 MACS J0025.4-1222 0,586 6 070
2 Phoenix Cluster 0,597 5 700
3 RX J1131-1231 0,658 6 050
4 SDSS J0927+2943 0,71279 2 860
5 3C 454.3 0,859 7 700
6 ACT-CL J0102-4915 0,87 4 000

the distance for z 1,26, 127 and z 7,085 is the same; z 1,413 to 6,07 is smaller
1 Lynx Supercluster 1,26, 1,27 12 900
2 Twin Quasar 1,413 8 700
3 XMMXCS_2215-1738 1,45 10 000
4 Einstein Cross 1,695 8 000
5 3C9 2,0194 10 000
6 TON 618 2,219 10 400
7 EQ J100054+023435 4,547 12 200
8 SDSS J0303-0019 6, 07 12 881
9 ULAS J1120+0641 7,085 12 900

the distance z 8,38 and z 10,0 is same, for 8,6 and 9,4 is smaller
1 A2744 YD4 8,38 13 200
2 UDFy-38135539 8,6 13 100
3 GRB 090429B 9,4 13 140
4 Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13 200

Table 11. As redshift increases, the distance of the objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than "expected") or remains similar. (2020. W. Duckss)[9]

The section related to the explosions of stars (supernovae) is no exception, on the contrary, a total chaos. Until today, somewhat more than 400 novae – a total quantity – have been discovered in the Milky Way (2019. Harvard.edu) [10], in which there are 200 – 400 billion of stars. The ratio is obvious: there is 0,5 or one novae per a billion of stars. The mainstream of science claims that large stars explode (red stars of the M spectral type, like Betelgeuse, blue stars of the O type, like Melnick 42, etc.), the quantity of which is (depending on the method used) a few billion or a few hundred million of stars. How do the 400 stars out of 400 million of the similar stars "know" that they have to explode and all the rest of them have no idea about it? Chaos starts again when it is realized there are stars, the mass of which is enormous (R136a1, 315 M Sun, R136c, 230 M Sun, BAT99-98, 226 M Sun ..) and with a very large radius (UY Scuti, 1 708 R Sun, WOH G64, 1 540–2 575 R Sun, Westerlund 1-26, 1 530–1 580 (–2 550) R Sun ..) but they have not turned supernovae. The existence of Chandrasekhar limit 1,44 M Sun shows us that stars that explode are a bit larger than Sun (or smaller than it). How can it be that there is a lower limit, but there is no upper limit for a star to meet the conditions to explode? If we start believing that black holes already exist in some stars, we get a total chaos. A star with a black hole in it explodes and creates a black hole (= irony).
When black holes in the centers of galaxies (the diameters of which are from 3 000 to 30 x 40 thousand of ly (Milky Way ..)) are analyzed (Supermassive black hole has a ø of 0.001–400 AU) ) (1 ly = 63 241 AU), there is chaos. "In the Galactic Center there are around 10 million stars within one parsec." (Wikipedia) Namely in this time, on the basis of "measurements", the scientists are determining black holes in the centers of galaxies. At the same time it is impossible to measure the centers of the clusters of stars or the core of Jupiter or the core of our own star, but we can measure inside a matter that is several thousand light-years thick (= a joke). It is so chaotic, to be able to measure very far and deep, but to be unable to measure in the adjacent vicinity...
Black holes are a synonym for suction, but they have no problem with a star or a center of a galaxy as it seems they are not sucked in, but to the contrary, black holes eject  matter, radiation and light through the poles of such an object. How can a black hole eject  matter through 3 000 to 30 000 ly of matter or stars (10 million stars within one parsec), smaller objects, dust and gas? It would appear that this matter abides by some uknown new "traffic regulations" and "gets off the way" (= irony).
Black holes are not the only one being chaotic – our measurements are chaotic, too. Passing by Pluto revealed how many wrong measurements and unacceptable presentations of measurements have been made so far, but we are "precise" when offering evidence of the objects and planets that are by thousands, millions and billions of light-years away (= irony). A typical example of our instruments suffering from "presbyteria" (= irony).

3. Removing chaos
The removing of chaos and the values that are obtained by non-physical fabrications starts with rotation. At the moment, science observes rotation without its effects. An object or a planet that rotates, by its rotation creates correlations with the objects that are in the range of gravity. The speed of rotation determines appearance, temperature levels, the number of the orbiting objects, color, the emission of different types of radiation of objects and galaxies.


The effects of rotation differ: in the terms of speed, but also in the terms of smaller and bigger quantity of matter that rotates and also in the terms of how rich with matter some part of space is (is an object inside a nebula or outside it). Smaller quantities of mass (smaller stars, etc.) have to rotate faster to achieve the effects produced by a rotation of a larger star, due to more layers or belts that rotate at different speeds and achieve more important effects that way.
A larger quantity of the incoming matter or the matter that collides with a star opposite of the direction of its rotation can slow down the object even to the opposite of the direction of rotation. An object can significantly accelerate its rotation due to the income of a single object, but such occurrences are very rare.

Table 12. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  Galaxies Type galaxies Speed of galaxies
Fast-rotating galaxies

1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]
Contrary to: Slow Rotation

4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 12. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies.

The appearance of a galaxy is determined by the forces of attraction and also the speed of its rotation. Elliptical galaxies rotate rapidly, spiral galaxies have a very slow rotation. The size of a galaxy does not influence its appearance – there are galaxies of all sizes with a fast or slow rotation.

Table 13. Galaxies, type/ size

  galaxies type of galaxies speed of galaxies

  Large galaxies (fast-rotating)
1 APM 08279+5255 elliptical galaxy giant elliptical galaxy [25]
2 Q0906 + 6930 blazar the most distant known blazar
3 OJ 287 BL Lacertae object the largest known objects
4 S5 0014 + 81 blazar giant elliptical galaxy
5 H1821 + 643 quasar the most massive black hole

Contrary to: Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating)
6 Messier 110 elliptical galaxy dwarf elliptical galaxy 
7 Messier 32 "early-type" dwarf "early-type" galaxy
8 NGC 147 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
9 NGC 185 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
Table 13. galaxies, relationship: type of galaxies/ size of galaxies; No. 1-5 Large galaxies (fast-rotating), No. 6-9 Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating).

The centers of galaxies (bulges) can have a diameter from 10 000 ly (Milky Way to 30 (40) thousand, according to some authors. When objects rotate together around a center ("There are around 10 million stars within one parsec of the Galactic Center", Wikipedia) in a relatively small space (from 10 – 30 thousand ly), they adopt some characteristics of a single object. The rotation of such an object (bulge) creates the appearance of the whole galaxy: a fast rotation creates elliptical galaxies and a slow rotation – spiral galaxies.

When rotations are very fast in the core of the galactic centers (and stars), cyclones are created and their originations are vertical to the direction of rotation, i.e., on the poles of a bulge (of a star).
The cyclones are the inevitable product of the rotation of an object or planet. They disappear (or turn into shallow whirls) when the rotation speed of stars, clusters of stars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies and finally the Universe is very slow.

Figure 3. The Sun north pole

Star pole
Figure 3. The Sun north pole (ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium) [11] Saturn, Venus („The winds supporting super-rotation blow at a speed of 100 m/s (≈360 km/h or 220 mph)“ Wiki) NASA

Due to very fast rotations, only a small quantity of stars and galaxies create a cyclone from one pole to another. These cyclones or objects have very strong emissions of radiation through the cyclone openings and their poles rotate faster than the rest of the object.

Figure 4. Pulsar
Pulsar, Quasar
Figure 4. Pulsar, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center; Quasar, ESA/Hubble, NASA, M. Kornmesser „The discovery that the black hole in RX J1131 is spinning at over half the speed of light..“ NASA March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"

Here, a difference should be made between the emissions of radiation due to the impacts of smaller objects against the surface of a star and those objects that fall into a cyclone. A fall of a small object of a corresponding mass directly into a cyclone goes deep into the interior parts of a star and because of the explosion it may create a supernova or discard a smaller or larger part of matter and as a consequence speed up or down the rotation of the rest of a star's matter. Due to the explosion, a larger part of matter gets disintegrated and turns into dark matter. More than 96% of all stars in the Milky Way are the stars with a slow or very slow rotation (Harvard spectral classification) and they do not create supernovae. This is exclusively reserved for stars (independent of their mass) with a fast rotation and significant cyclones. Although an object can hit at the cyclone of a star where the space is not rich with matter, it is generally reserved for the stars in the space rich with matter, because there is a more frequent occurrence of events.

Figure 5. Artist’s concept of interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua)
interstellar asteroid
Figure 5. Artist’s concept of interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 Credits: European Southern Observatory/M. Kornmesser; Comet 2I/Borisov Credits: NASA, ESA and D. Jewitt (UCLA)

The observations of the redshift (and blueshift) have become chaotic and inaccurate, due to the setting of frames that do not belong to physics. It has been pointless for a long ago to hold to the science of a 100 years ago (1929. E. Hubble ) [12], the time when there were very few data, as presented in the Table 11.
Our instruments are able to measure the blueshift to 70 Mly (NGC 4419 dist. 56 Mly, -342 km/s (blueshift); M90 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly, −282 ± 4; RMB 56 65,2 Mly, -327 (2020. W. Duckss)  [9]). New measurements indicate 200 000 galaxies (2019. W. J. Pearson et al.) [8] that merge or collide. Within these 200 000 galaxies there is the blueshift among them and a large portion of them are getting closer to our instruments, which are unable to detect correctly the approaching of an object, but to the opposite: they detect them to be getting away.

Chaos is further removed by introducing real values of the radiation intensity decrease, which are manifested as the redshift. It can be seen during the time of sunrise and sunset, and also during the appearance of the so-called "red moon". („The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19  on Jupiter. „ Wiki).

Figure 6. The decline in the intensity of radiation produces red color
The decline in the intensity of radiation produces red color
Figure 6. Sunrise, Sunset (Zadar) and red Moon (Total Lunar Eclipse. nasa.gov)

Abell 671 has the redshift of 0,0502, it is 600 Mly away, Lynx Supercluster 1,26 (1,27) and it is 12 900 Mly away. Their combined distance is 13 500 Mly and their combined factor (z) equals 1,3102. To the opposite, GN-z11  has (z) of 11,09 and it is 13 400 Mly away. The difference in the redshift (z) is 10,5898 on GN-z11 and it is closer than Abell 671 and Lynx Supercluster with their combined factor (z) of 1,3102.

When a radiation intensity decrease value is set, (Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is on Callisto it´s 180,522772277 times lower of Mercury. ) there are settled distances in the volume and the differences of the speeds will determine whether an object is approaching to the observers or getting away from them. The difference exists because the clusters of galaxies rotate (2014 - Tovmassian, Hrant M.) [13] with the orientation in all directions and their orbits are within a supercluster of galaxies and finally in the Universe ("This is not something we set out to find, but we can't make it go away," Kashlinsky said The clusters appear to be moving along a line extending from our solar system toward Centaurus / Hydra, ") (2010. NASA) [14], "The clusters show a small but measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's expansion and does not change as distances increase, "says lead researcher Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We never expected to find anything like this." (2008. NASA) [15]).

Figure 7. The first measurements of the direction of rotation of the Universe
The first measurements of the direction of rotation of the Universe
Figure 7. The first measurements of the direction of rotation of the Universe Credit: NASA/Goddard/A. Kashlinsky, et al.

There is no room for expansion and old wrong deductions in the theory of the rotation of galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies. ( 1929. Edwin Hubble) [12]

Light is not chaos. Space is dark because light is not detected in it. A basic reason for it is there is no light in the space. There are only waves (radiation) in the space, which are not light, independent of their lenght. It can be seen – although it is not wanted to be seen – inside our system that there is a complete darkness just outside the atmospheres of Sun and Earth. The atmosphere of Sun has light, the space is dark and it only has radiation, the atmosphere of Earth (or other objects, clouds of particles and dust) has light. To make it absolutely clear, due to the decrease of the radiation intensity on large distances the objects are without light (unless they produce it themselves).(Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, on Pluto 0,878 (2009-2018. Solar Intensity BRSP) [6]). Light originates on the objects depending on the radiation intensity from the source. The power of radiation in the collision with the visible matter produces light. That is the main reason why it is totally dark at the very surface of an object without an atmosphere. The reflected radiation, after impacting against an object, loses its initial intensity and thus weakened produce much less light in the collision with the visible matter (for example, moonlight). The speed of light exists only inside the atmospheres of objects, it disappears in the laboratory-created vacuum and in the space with the insufficient quantity of the visible matter particles. Only the speed of radiation can be measured in the space. One should differ between a laboratory-created vacuum and a vacuum in the outer space, because particles (atmosphere) and vacuum cannot co-exist in a vacuum bottle, unlike in the outer space.

There is no chaos in the process and evolution of stars.
Body growth by constantly collecting materials (Earth: quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day (2017. CODITA) [16], (A permanent asymmetric Moon dust cloud exists around the Moon, created by small particles from comets. Estimates are 5 tons of comet particles strike the Moon's surface every 24 hours. Wikipedia (2015 National Geographic News) [17] Systems growth by constant mergers and collisions. (2015. David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley) [18].

Figure 8. Craters
Craters
Figure 8. Craters (NASA)

Smaller objects near a larger object, with a constant growth, know the process of hydrogen and helium migration towards the larger object. That is the main reason why Mercury, Earth, Mars, Titan and other smaller objects do not have atmospheres with hydrogen and helium like larger objects (the planets with impressive atmospheres, Sun and the other stars).  
Smaller objects have a slower growth than larger objects, because the material incoming onto the smaller objects needs to be reduced by the amount of hydrogen and helium that leave for the larger objects: "The loss of hydrogen from the atmosphere of Earth is estimated to be 3 kg/s and the one of helium 50 g/s."(2013. “ István Lagzi et al.) [19].
The amount of hydrogen and helium that migrate is different for different objects, because the processes of creating these elements are different. There is almost no hydrogen on Mars, except in minor quantities as a part of methane (0.00000004% on average, that it’s barely discernable even by the most sensitive instruments on Mars) (2019. NASA) [20] and even less as the part of the aerated water and ice molecules.

When analyzing the size of the objects that produce and emit radiation, there are three key factors to it.
Mass creates the force of pressure, which causes the object to create its own temperature and to start emitting radiation. The highest level of temperature achieved by mass and pressure is up to 1 800°K (see Table 4.).
The rotation of a star's mass and close binary effects are responsible for the smaller or larger increase of temperature above the level set by the force of pressure.

Table 14. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

Star Speed rotation Maas Sun=1 Radius Sun=1 Temperature K Type
White Dwarf 
GD 356 115 minutes 0,67 / 7.510,0 white dwarf 
EX Hydrae 67 minutes 0,55 ± 0.15 / / white dwarf 
AR Scorpii A 1,95 minutes 0,81 – 1,29 / / white dwarf pulsar
V455 Andromedae 67,62 second 0,6 / / white dwarf 
RX Andromedae 200 km/s 0,8  
40.000-45.000,0
white dwarf 
RX J0648.0-4418 13 second 1,3 / / white dwarf 
Pulsar
PSR J0348+0432 39,123 m. second 2,01 ± 0,04 13 ± 2 km / pulsar
Vela X-1 283 second 1,88 ~11,2 31.500 X-ray pulsar, B-type
Cen X-3 4,84 second 20,5 ± 0,7 12 39.000 X-ray pulsar
PSR B0943 + 10 1,1 second 0,02 2,6 km 310.000 pulsar
PSR 1257 + 12 6,22 m. second 1,4 10 km 28.856 pulsar
Wolf–Rayet stars
HD 5980 B <400  km/s 66 22 45.000 WN4
WR 2 500 km/s 16 0,89 141.000 WN2-w
WR 142 1.000 km/s 28,6 0,80 200.000 WO2
R136a2 200 km/s 195 23,4 53.000 WN5h
Normal hot stars
VFTS 102 600±100 km/s ~25 / 36.000 ± 5.000 O9:Vnnne
BV Centauri 500±100 km/s 1,18 / 40.000±1.000 G5-G8IV-V
Gamma Cassiopeiae 432 km/s 14,5 8,8 25.000 B0.5IVe
LQ Andromedae 300 km/s 8,0 3,4 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 220 km/s 22,5 – 56,6 14 - 26 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 250 km/s 28 8,1 45.000 O5V
Melnick 42 240 km/s 189 21,1 47.300 O2If
BI 253 200 km/s 84 10,7 50.100 O2V-III(n)((f*))
Red Dwarf
Gliese 876 96,6 days 0,37 0,3761±0,0059 3.129 ± 19 M4V
Kepler-42 2,9±0.4 km/s 0,13±0,05 0,17±0,04 3.068±174 M5V
Kapteyn's star 9,15  km/s 0,274 0,291±0,025 3.550±50 sdM1
Wolf 359 <3,0 km/s 0,09 0,16 2.800 ± 100 M6.5 Ve
Normal cool stars
HD 220074 3,0 km/s 1,2 ± 0,3 49,7 ± 9,5 3.935 ± 110 M2III
V Hydrae 11 - 14 km/s 1,0 420 - 430 2.650 C6,3e
β Pegasi 9,7 km/s 2,1 95 3.689 M2.5II–IIIe
Betelgeuse km/s 11,6 887 ±203 3.590 M1–M2 Ia–ab
F Type Star
Beta Virginis 4,3 km/s 1,25 1,681 ± 0,008 6.132 ± 26 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  17 km/s 1,236 1,323 6.516 ± 19 F6 V
4 Equulei 6,2±1,0 km/s 1,39 ~1,2 6.213±63 F8 V
6 Andromedae 18 km/s 1,30 1,50 6.425±218 F5 V
Table 14. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

The influence of binary effects can be seen from these examples: Sun / Venus, Sun / Earth, Io / Jupiter and Europa, Pluto / Charon, etc. Mercury is closer to Sun than Venus, but it also has lower temperatures, only due to its small and compact mass, in which there are no layers that can have different speeds of rotation, created by higher temperatures with the assistance of tidal forces. It is wrong to ascribe the difference to the atmosphere, because Titan has  93.7 K (−179.5 °C), 1.221.870 km semi axis orbit ,  Dione 87 K (−186°C) 377.396 km semi axis orbit  , Iapetus 90 – 130°K (-143 to -183°C) 3.560.820 km semi axis orbit  , Saturn 0,1 bar 84 K (−189 ° C). 
„In its beginning, every (historic) object is a comet. When an object has made enough number of orbits near a star, it has lost the most of its volatile elements. The objects with a minimum of volatile elements are called asteroids or solid (rocky) objects. Those objects that have not been approaching closer to a star possess the elements' structure of the lower order, which is typical for a cold or colder space. These elements are directly related to the temperature  (operating temperature) which exists in the space around and on such objects. Therefore, there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces. These objects, which possess a melted interior (Jupiter, Neptune, Earth, Venus), create their broad chemical structure and their heat on their own. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time.“ (2018. W. Duckss) [21]
Figure 9. Stellar Disks
Stellar Disks
Figure 9. Stellar Disks, credit: iopscience.iop.org Sean Andrews (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) December 2018

When the rotation of an object is not slow and the space is rich with matter, the rings or disks of gas, dust, asteroids and other smaller objects are created. There are parts of space around every object with a fast (or relatively fast) rotation, where matter is concentrated (the most frequently, gas or dust, or it is inside objects). In our system, such spaces are from Jupiter to Neptune, at Jupiter: from Io to Callisto, at Uranus: from Miranda to Oberon (Major moons),  at Neptune: from Proteus to Nereid. Saturn has more smaller spaces and the main disc from Rhea to Iapetus. Asteroid belts are always closer to an object than the disk of gas and dust.
The orbiting objects are getting closer to the main object with the decrease of temperature of the space: the closest orbit of Jupiter is 128 855 km, of Saturn 117 000, of Uran 49 977, of Neptun 48 224, and of Pluto 19 591 km.
The temperatures of space that are below -268,924°C are significantly further from the source of radiation and they make it possible for the objects to achieve faster orbits or the movement from the closer neighboring objects towards the source, although they are affected by less strong tidal forces. That can be concluded from the acceleration of Voyager at the edge of our system and faster comet speeds that are on the way towards Sun from the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt (the data state the average speed of 10 km/s), while a part of them have the speeds greater than all other objects (Hale-Bopp 52.5, Halley’s comet 66, Shoemaker-Levy hit into Jupiter by the speed of ~58 km/s).. (2014. W. Duckss) [22]

Dark matter (matter and energy) is nothing exotic, its presence is measured in our system, too ("The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19  on Jupiter. " Wikipedia).
Removing the current hypotheses from this area is also enabled by the evidence of the existence of thermo zone of Sun, which is similar to the one of Earth's thermosphere ( see Table 2. Sun system, temperature deviation).
In the outer space there is a kind of matter that influences the reduction of the radiation intensity. The outer space is no laboratory-created vacuum, which can be concluded from the fact of the existence of an atmosphere and cosmic vacuum one next to the other.    

4. Conclusion
Chaos in the Universe only seemingly exists when the processes are not taken as a whole, but the examples to be proven are chosen very selectively and singularly.
The other reason is that in the modern physics all data, obtained by measurements, need to be classified into hypotheses, which are considered to be more important than the real evidence. It is particularly disturbing that these hypotheses – some of them are more than 100 years old – were created on the basis of only a small quantity of evidence, which are often incorrect, but nevertheless they are persistently being put forward and thus the contribution of the contemporary scientists who create new values and present more and more evidence is being marginalized. This is a common case with all renowned publishers. For a single genuine research article they let through, they publish dozens of articles that have a sole purpose to support obsolete theories, which are far from any recent evidence and out of the reality of the Universe. A rotation of clusters of galaxies automatically disqualifies any claims of expansion and increasingly fast spreading of the Universe. One reason more to it is that there are also superclusters of galaxies, as well as 200 000 objects (galaxies and clusters of galaxies (David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley 2015.) [18]) that merge or collide.
The lack of nuclear radiation and radioactive pollution on stars (which would be enormous if their hypotheses were based on evidence) shows that the effects of the rotation of objects and close binary effects are responsible for temperature, color, quantity and the speed of the orbiting objects (as well as the asteroid belts and gas disks), the emission of radiation from the poles of an object. A rotation (together with the omnipresent forces of attraction inside matter) regulates star systems, smaller related groups to the creation of the clusters of stars, galaxies and other larger objects.   
_____________________________________________________________________
[1]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13   American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Paper Number: 3011059, Paper Title: How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? Nov. 2018. W.Duckss
[2]. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.07017.pdf  2018. „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[3]. http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/star_intro.html James B. Kaler, last modified on 19 June, 2013. „Below 13 Jupiters, fusion stops altogether.“
[4]. https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.08611  2017. „Titan's Atmosphere and Climate“ Sarah M. Hörst
[5]. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1704/1704.01511.pdf  „Understanding of Pluto atmopsheric dynamics and behaviour from New Horizons mission“ 2019.  A. A. Mardon,  G. Zhou
[6]. https://web.archive.org/web/20091122194548/http://starhop.com/library/pdf/studyguide/high/SolInt-19.pdf 22 Nov 2009 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunlight#Intensity_in_the_Solar_System
[7]. https://arxiv.org/abs/1007.1580v1   2010. „Blueshifted galaxies in the Virgo Cluster“  I.D. Karachentsev, O.G. Nasonova 
[8]. https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2019/11/aa36337-19/aa36337-19.html 'Effect of galaxy mergers on star formation rates' W. J. Pearson, L. Wang, M. Alpaslan, I. Baldry, M. Bilicki, M. J. I. Brown, M. W. Grootes, B. W. Holwerd, T. D. Kitching, S. Kruk, F. F. S. van der Tak,
[9]. https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/704/pdf  2020. "Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)" W. Duckss
[10] http://cbat.eps.harvard.edu/nova_list.html „CBAT List of Novae in the Milky Way“ 2019 Harvard.edu
[11]. https://www.foxnews.com/science/the-suns-turbulent-north-pole-looks-like-a-spooky-vortex-in-this-composite-image Science Published December 6, 2018, „The Sun's turbulent north pole looks like a spooky vortex in this composite image“ the European Space Agency's Proba-2 satellite. Proba-2 launched in 2009 to observe space weather. (ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium)
[12]. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp29hu.html „Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding“ 1929
[13]. http://inspirehep.net/record/1397595/plots?ln=hr The rotation of Galaxy Clusters - Tovmassian, Hrant M. Astrofiz. 58 (2014) 353-363, Astrophysics 58 (2015) 328 arXiv:1510.03489  [astro-ph.CO]
[14]. https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/releases/2010/10-023.html 03.10. 2010. „Mysterious Cosmic 'Dark Flow' Tracked Deeper into Universe“
[15]. https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2008/dark_flow.html 09.23.2008. „Scientists Detect Cosmic 'Dark Flow' Across Billions of Light Years“ Francis Reddy / Rob Gutro, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
[16]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en 16 August 2017 „Final Report Summary - CODITA (Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere)“
[17]. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/06/150617-moon-dust-cloud-comet-space/ Drake, Nadia; 17, National Geographic PUBLISHED June (17 June 2015). "Lopsided Cloud of Dust Discovered Around the Moon". National Geographic News
[18]. https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf  2015. "The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters" David Harvey, Richard Massey, Thomas Kitching, Andy Taylor, Eric Tittley
[19]. http://www.eltereader.hu/media/2014/04/Atmospheric_Chemistry_READER.pdf  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[20]. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/with-mars-methane-mystery-unsolved-curiosity-serves-scientists-a-new-one-oxygen  Nov. 12, 2019. „With Mars Methane Mystery Unsolved, Curiosity Serves Scientists a New One: Oxygen
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Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise) 2020.y.
Hrvatski
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v2i1.704 Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/704/pdf

Abstract
The discussion on the values of redshift, as well as blueshift, is based on a large increase in new evidence that in the whole volume of Universe there are gravitationally-bound objects (galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies) „Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters, including both ‘major’ and ‘minor’ mergers” [1].
That adds to a great diversity of galactic movement directions and their diverse appearances to an observer.
The accent here is at the point of "clearing the early Universe" and asks questions about how these types of radiation could be measured if all galaxies were created in the early stages of Universe, which had started emitting these types of radiation. At the same time, some questions are asked about
„With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [2] i.e., why the actual measured values of redshift are not applied.  

1. Introduction
The article deals with the newest measured data for the most distant galaxies with a significant redshift, for which there are two values, co-moving distance - light travel distance.
A special attention is dedicated to the difference between a value of redshift and the transformation into a distance below 13,8 Gly, distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving);  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance ULAS J1120+0641<).
As a starting point of this discussion I use the mainstream claims that the first types of radiation originated  320.000 – 380.000 years after a hypothetical beginning or creation of Universe and the spreading speed of Universe is always lower than the spreading speed of radiation (waves). 
The method of verification is the usage of a sequence of relations with mainstream evidence in a single place to eliminate the possibility of manipulation with data and conclusions. To speed up the release of this article, I will use tables and photographies already published in my articles [3], [4], [5], [6] and used in discussing other topics.

2. Values of blueshift and redshift presentation
For already some time science faces the problem of redshift value, which is determined very differently at the same distances; also, for the same value of redshift (z) there are very different distances and the speeds of withdrawal from (and approaching to) an observer, in the whole volume of Universe. Nowadays, as well as in the early stages of discovering new galaxies, the existence of blueshift has been ascribed and related only to the local group.
There is a similar quantity of galaxies with redshift and blueshift in our local group. 

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part)

galaxies, local groups Redshift km/s Blueshift km/s

Sextans B (4.44 ± 0.23 Mly)   300 ± 0  
Sextans A 324 ± 2  
NGC 3109 403 ± 1  
Tucana Dwarf 130 ± ?  
Leo I 285 ± 2  
NGC 6822    -57 ± 2
Andromeda Galaxy   -301 ± 1
Leo II (about 690,000 ly)  79 ± 1  
Phoenix Dwarf 60 ± 30  
SagDIG   -79 ± 1
Aquarius Dwarf   -141 ± 2
Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte   -122 ± 2
Pisces Dwarf    -287 ± 0
Antlia Dwarf 362 ± 0   
Leo A 0.000067  
Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal    -354 ± 3 
IC 10   -348 ± 1
NGC 185   -202 ± 3
Canes Venatici I ~  31  
Andromeda III   -351 ± 9
Andromeda II   -188 ± 3
Triangulum Galaxy   -179 ± 3
Messier 110   -241 ± 3
NGC 147 (2.53 ± 0.11 Mly)   -193 ± 3
Small Magellanic Cloud 0.000527  
Large Magellanic Cloud - -
M32   -200 ± 6
NGC 205   -241 ± 3
IC 1613   -234 ± 1
Carina Dwarf 230 ± 60  
Sextans Dwarf 224 ± 2  
Ursa Minor Dwarf (200 ± 30 kly)   -247 ± 1
Draco Dwarf   -292 ± 21
Cassiopeia Dwarf   -307 ± 2
Ursa Major II Dwarf   - 116 
Leo IV 130  
Leo V ( 585 kly) 173  
Leo T   -60
Bootes II   -120
Pegasus Dwarf   -183 ± 0
Sculptor Dwarf 110 ± 1  
Etc.    

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part) with redshift and blue shift km/s [3]

As technology advances and the quantity of the observed galaxies increases, many galaxies with blueshift (i.e., those that approach to an observer) outside our local group were discovered. All those galaxies that are gravitationally-bound (large and small mergers, the collision of galaxies – interactive galaxies) are to be added to those galaxies having spectral blueshift. Although we, the observers, notice their more or less expressed redshift, all of these galaxies exclusively experience blueshift between each other, due to approaching or collision. Recent research have discovered 200.000,0 galaxies in the interaction. [7]

Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift

Designation VLG…(blue shift)

NGC4419 −383
VCC997 −360
KDG132 −100
VCC1129 −105
VCC1163 −564
VCC1175 −118
VCC1198 −470
IC3416 −198
VCC1239 −672
VCC1264 −539
IC3435 −150
IC3445 −470
IC3471 −235
IC3476 −280
IC3492 −604
NGC4569 −345
VCC1750 −258
VCC1761 −269
VCC1812 −351
VCC1860 −124
IC0810 −188
IC3036 −126
IC3044 −298
VCC087 −267
NGC4192 −246
NGC4212 −199
VCC181 −267
A224385 −204
IC3094 −275
VCC237 −423
IC3105 −284
VCC322 −323
VCC334 −350
VCC501 −224
IC3224 −100
VCC628 −540
VCC636 −113
IC3258 −593
IC3303 −427
VCC802 −318
IC3311 −287
VCC810 −470
VCC815 −866
VCC846 −845
NGC4396 −215
VCC877 −212
NGC4406 −374
VCC892 −784
VCC928 −395
IC3355 −126
VCC953 −563
Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift (and negative speeds) at the distance of about 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc). [8]

At the distances above 70 Mly the values of (mostly) blueshift or approaching (the galaxies seen from Earth) are annihilated, also due to the increase in distance, which is the reason to decrease the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Above 70 Mly our instruments read redshift, regardles of approaching or withdrawing of an object from an observer.

However, at the distances above 70 Mly and below them
(„NGC 1.600 is 149,3 Kly away and its speed is 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c is 35 Mly away and with the speed of (a red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  2.975 ± 27, and the galaxy
NGC 280 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  3.878!
At the distance of 52 ± 3 (M86) there is a blue shift (-244 ± 5 km/s)  that is also present with the galaxy M90 at the distance of 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), while the other galaxies at the same distance (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99 (except NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) are with a positive sign and completely different speeds.“ [3])
we can read different values of redshift for the same distances or the same redshift value for the galaxies that have very different distances.

Table 3. Red shift /distance

  Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster Red shift (z) Distance M ly
1 Leo_Cluster 0,022 368,6
2 ARP 87 0,023726 330
3 Abell 2152 0,041 551
4 Hydra_Cluster 0,0548 190,1


1 Abell 671 0,0502 600
2. Abell 1060 0,0548 190,1
3 Abell_1991 0,0587 812
4 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
5 Laniakea Supercluster 0,0708 250
6 Abell 2029 0,0767 1063


1 Abell 383 0,1871 2485
2 Abell 520 0,2 2645
3 Abell_222(3) 0,211 2400


1 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4000
2 Bullet Cluster 0,296 3700
3 Abell 2744 0,308 3982
4 CID-42 0,359 3900


1 Abell_370 0,375 4775
2 3C_295 0,464 4600
3 Musket Ball Cluster 0,53 700
4 Abell 754 0,542 760


1 MACS J0025.4-1222 0,586 6070
2 Phoenix Cluster 0,597 5700
3 RX J1131-1231 0,658 6050
4 ACT-CL J0102-4915 0,87 4000


1 Lynx Supercluster 1,26, 1,27 12000
2 Twin Quasar 1,413 8700
3 XMMXCS_2215-1738 1,45 10000
4 Einstein Cross 1,695 8000
5 TON 618 2,219 10,400
6 EQ J100054+023435 4,547 12200
7 z8 GND 5296 7.5078±0.0004 13100


1 A2744 YD4 8,38 13200
2 UDFy-38135539 8,6 13100
3 GRB 090429B 9,4 13140
4 Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13200

Table 3. As redshift increases, the distance of the objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than "expected") or remains similar. [5]

It is very well known in science that the intensity of radiation decreases due to the increase of distance (which is obvious when at night we look at the stars with bare eyes).
„The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19  on Jupiter. 
The average intensity of the solar radiation, in W/ m², is as follows: 9 116.4 on Mercury; 1 366.1 on Earth; 50.5 on Jupiter; 0.878 on Pluto. Wikipedia
„The interaction of space and radiation directly influences the temperature of an object. On the following objects' surfaces it is as follows: 440°K on Mercury; 288°K on Earth; 152 on Jupiter16. The space around the objects has the same decreasing curve starting from the Sun towards the end of the system. The same goes for the dark side of the objects. The lowest temperature on Mercury is 100°K, on Uranus 49°K, on Pluto 28°K, in the Oort cloud 4°K. During observation, a compensation for the atmospheric influence and the interior temperature of an object needs to be taken into consideration, as these are the factors of interference when comparative data are being acquired.“ [10]
Although this is common knowledge, astronomers do not apply it in determining the real distance of objects that are more or less distant in the volume of Universe and the increase of redshift is related only to the increase of distance (so-called speed of galaxies' withdrawal from an observer). The evidence mentioned above, which encompass the whole – reachable with modern instruments – volume of Universe, point out that the increase of redshift is directly related to the decrease of the measured intensity of incoming waves and its value is corrected, depending on whether an object withdraws or approaches an observer. If these two values are applied, then the confusion that was created when applying only the increase of speed with the objects withdrawing further from us disappears.

It has to be stated clearly that, due to this concept, we have neither realistic values of positioning the distances of objects nor the observed volume of Universe. The further the distance, the weaker are the radiation, while redshift increases and is not limited to predetermined fixed constructions that do not allow a realistic overview of Universe.

3. Comoving distance- light travel distance
We are going to check the reality of these parameters, which are strictly imposed to scientists, from the angle of very limiting factors, presented nowadays by the scientific mainstream, and convince ourselves in credibility of their application and the validity of results.
If all theories are excluded, picture 1 should approximately present real values of measurement of objects in Universe (as well as those objects that are going to be discovered in near future, due to the ongoing progress of technology).

Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly
the universe 13,8 Gly
Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly

Mainstream science claims that 13,8 Gly is a total value of Universe, regardless of simultaneous evidence (claims)
„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“
„With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc) and data from published measurements: [12]

RD1
With a redshift of 5.34, light from this galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.5 billion years to reach us. But since this galaxy is receding from Earth, the present comoving distance is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years.
ULAS J1120+0641
(at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7.

UDFj-39546284
Subsequently it was reported (December 2012) to possibly be at a record-breaking redshift z = 11.9 using Hubble and Spitzer telescope data, including Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF).
UDFy-38135539
The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years).
There are a number of different distance measures in cosmology, and both "light travel distance" and "luminosity distance" are different from the comoving distance or "proper distance" generally used in defining the size of the observable universe[16][17] (comoving distance and proper distance are defined to be equal at the present cosmological time, so they can be used interchangeably when talking about the distance to an object at present, but proper distance increases with time due to the expansion of the universe, and is the distance used in Hubble's law.

EGS-zs8-1
The galaxy has a comoving distance (light travel distance multiplied by the Hubble constant, caused by the metric expansion of space) of about 30 billion light years from Earth.

Z8 GND 5296
Due to the expansion of the universe, this position is now at about 30 billion light-years (9.2 Gpc) (comoving distance) from Earth.
Q0906 + 6930
But since this galaxy is receding from Earth at an estimated rate of 285,803 km/s[1] (the speed of light is 299,792 km/s), the present (co-moving) distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc).

GN-108036
The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang . Redshift z=7.213.

The existence of redshift above the value (z) 5 pointed out that if (z) continues to grow, the concept of mainstream – 13,8 Gly (Big Bang) – is going to fall apart. Nowadays, the instruments register the value (z) of 11,9. When there is an overwhelming resistence from reactionary institutions and scientists, despite the newest measurements, then there appear unbelievable new ideas that do not belong to physics nor they represent science. The theme that is discussed here is one of them.

Figure 2. The Expanding Universe
The universe
Figure 2. The Expanding Universe – history (my compilation)

If there was a Big Bang, all the waves from that time should be approaching from a single direction, as shown in the figure 2. If radiation started for the first time 320 000 – 380 000
years after the explosion, during the so-called period of clearing the compact thick mass, then that radiation is impossible to measure today, no matter what mathemathical method may be used in the process. The reason to it is that all galaxies are created inside that mass that started emitting radiation. Since mainstram science also disagrees with the idea that the expansion of Universe or matter movement was faster than the spreading speed of waves in the space (which is still dubbed vacuum by the same mainstream), it can be seen that so-called measurements from that time are impossible to have been done.

Figure 3. The Early Universe
The universe
Figure 3. The Early Universe 320,000-380,000 years after the Big Bang, points 1-4 of Milky Way

We measure the objects, the age of which is estimated by mainstream to be withdrawn into past approximately as far as to the so-called early Universe, when the emission of radiation started. Points 1-4 in the so-called early Universe are some of the positions where our galaxy originated (Milky Way: 13.8 ± 4 billion years is age for BD +17° 3248; about 13.5 billion-years-old, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 B ..).
Within the most distant galaxies must be objects of similar age. Milky Way has a redshift (z) 0, the outermost galaxies have a redshift (z) 11.
Early Universe is also related to a small diameter, because the expansion has been taking place during all 13,8 Gly, due to which a contemporary volume of Universe should be created. If it was true that this small diameter of Universe started emitting radiation, besides the need for it to arrive from a single direction, it would have been obvious that this radiation left so-called early Universe with a diameter of only four times the diameter of our galaxy (under the condition that the expansion had been taking place at the speed of light). The universe has about 100 billion galaxies.
The deepest radiation of the early Universe needed to travel through only  200.000 ly in order to leave our Universe. The other problem is that the mainstream claims that Universe spreads ever faster, because the most distant galaxies show the most important redshift.
However, it is forgotten here that the mainstream also claims the most distant galaxies are the oldest galaxies.

GN-108036 The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang Redshift z=7.213.
GN-z11 ≈32 billion ly (9.8 billion pc) (present proper distance); ≈13.4 billion ly (4.1 billion pc) (light-travel distance); Helio radial velocity 295.050 ± 119.917 km / s

M33 -0,000607  (z) 2,38-3,07  Mly distance -179± 3 km/s
M64 0,001361   (z) 24± 7  Mly 408±4  km/s
CID-42  0,359    (z) 3,9  Gly 89.302 km/s
MS 1054-03

0,8321   (z)

6,757 Gly 246.759  km/s

So, what is correct here: that the most distant galaxies withdraw at the fastest speed, or that the oldest galaxies had been withdrawing at the fastest speed?
If the most distant galaxies are at the same time the oldest, then the fastest were the galaxies in the far past, so-called protogalaxies – and that is opposite to the claim that Universe spreads ever faster.
The next table shows that radiation incoming from the distances of more than  
12 Gly from all directions of the volume of Universe are measured.
Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

  Galaxy Right ascension Declination Red shift Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A 02h 39m 54.7s −01° 33′ 32″ 6,56 12,8
2 SXDF-NB1006-2 02h 18m 56.5s −05° 19′ 58.9″ 7,215 13,07
3 TN J0924-2201 09 h  24 m  19,92 s -22 ° 01 '41,5 " 5,19 12,523
4 UDFy-38135539 03h 32m 38.13s −27° 45′ 53.9″ 8,6 13,1
5 A2744 YD4 00h 14m 24.927s −30° 22′ 56.15″ 8,38 13,2
6 BDF-3299 22h 28m 12.26s −35° 09′ 59.4″ 7,109 13,05
7 SSA22−HCM1 22h 17m 39.69s +00° 13′ 48.6″ 5,47 12,7
8 EQ J100054+023435 10h 00m 54.52s +2° 34′ 35.17″ 4,547 (280.919 km/s) 12,2
9 ULAS J1120+0641 11h 20m 01.48s +06° 41′ 24.3″ 7,085 13,05
10 ULAS J1342 + 0928 13h 42m 08.10s +13h 42m 08.10s 7,54 13,1
11 GRB 090423 09h 55m 33.08s +18° 08′ 58.9″ 8,2 13
12 IOK-1 13h 23m 59.8s +27° 24′ 56″ 6,96 12,88
13 A1703 zD6 13 h 15 m 01.0 s +51° 50′ 04′ 7,054 13,04
14 Q0906 + 6930 09h 06m 30.75s +69° 30′ 30.8″ 5,47 12,3
15 MACS0647-JD 06h 47m 55.73s +70° 14′ 35.8″ 10,7 13,3

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [6]

The table shows galaxies from 00h 14m 24.927s to 22h 28m 12.26 s equatorial and −35° 09′ 59.4″ to +70° 14′ 35.8″ to the north/south from the celestial equator. Namely the measurements of galactic distances, advocated by the mainstream, indicate that similar distances are measured in all directions. These measurements represent the volume of Universe as being opposite to their claims of total maximum age of Universe of 13,8 Gly. The forms of radiation (measured recently) above 12 Gly approach from all parts of the volume. 
Now, from the table that recalculates real distances above 5 (z) and less into Big Bang constructs, it is again obvious that the diameter of Universe is twice as big as 13,8 Gly. When "real" values of  correct interpretation of redshift are included 
(With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] (Q0906 + 6930) light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). (Wikipedia)
there is another problem. 12,3 billion light-years multiplied with 2 makes 24,6 billion light-years, which is by 1,4 Gly less, if a limiting condition that radiation and expansion have been moving at the same speed is taken into consideration. The same difference continues to grow when (z) grows:
ULAS J1120+0641 Redshift 7.085±0.003[1]; distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving[2];  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance), the difference is 3,05,
UDFy-38135539 (z) 8,6; The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs[13] (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years), the difference is 270 Gly.
 Here, the data should also be included, that for dist. 2.4 Gly we measure red shift (z) 0,211 (Abell_222(3); za dist. 12,0 Gly we measure (z) 1,26, 1,27 (Lynx Supercluster) and other data from Table 3.
The galaxy  GN-z11  dist. 13,39 Gly has (z) 11,09  and it has a more significant redshift by 10,63 (4) than  Lynx Supercluster (1,26(7) 12.9 billion light years) but the distance is larger only by 0,49 Gly.
For the distance of 0,7 Gly Musket Ball Cluster there is a value of 0,53 (z), while the difference here is 10,63 Gly. The difference of (z) 10,63 matches Abell 1835 IR1916  which has (z) 10 and recommended age (distance) of 13,2 Gly. 
Let us repeat that:
„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“  „With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [12]
The rotation of Universe (instead of expansion) that is based on the similar principles as the rotation of clusters of galaxies or stars, is also unable to accept such confused data, because there are no very significant deviations by the volume of cluster. The internal galaxies move slower than the external ones, but make a single orbital cycle approximately at the same time. Under these conditions the measured value of redshift (z) and current distance between the measured objects are approximately the same. In the case Universe would be rotating, its diameter is presented in the table 4 and if the definition of redshift value, according to the mainstream, is used, the diameter goes above  25 Gly.
When including the decrease of wave intensity (with the increase of speed, currently used by the mainstream) as a dominant value in determining distances of objects in Universe, it would completely remove the existence of two values of interpreting distance or Comoving distance- light travel distance. Also, the obstacles to calculate real values of redshift would be gone. Very large quantity of objects (measured recently) will be the part of the volume of our Universe, a part of them will be waves incoming from the neighboring universes (our local group of universes).
„By applying the analogy of the ascending sequence of events, the more we are distanced from the source of radiation, the lower are the temperatures. Between the multi-universes, they are a bit closer to the absolute zero. The temperatures decrease as the wholes grow. An endlessly large volumetric belt of energy is expanding after the last ascending whole and the temperature there is absolute zero.
By the analogy, inside this belt there is an endless quantity of the wholes, similar to that one, but it is very likely that the whole with the absolute zero temperature in it could be the outer and the last whole in the hierarchy that goes further into the 3-D infinity (at least the infinity as humankind understands it).„ [13]  

4. Conclusion
With the transited distance, waves lose their intensity that is registered by the increasing redshift (Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878 [3]).
Confronting the evidence, that in recent time there are 200 000 of merging or colliding galaxies and have blueshift among themselves, some people are persistent in continuing that the increase of the galactic speed exclusively affects the value of redshift. A significant sum of evidence states there is also a redshift in those galaxies that are approaching to an observer (but only those that are further than 70 Mly away, while those that are closer than that register a blueshift).
By continuing to use such a platform, unbelievable fabrications occur, which have no place in physics. They distort real measurements and instead of science they try to incorporate into physics some "values" that do not belong to it.
Measurements should be presented exclusively within realistic values and there is no need for subsequent embellishments to preserve such structures that exceed the limits of physics.
It is necessary to determine real values of the influence of the radiation intensity weakening  (with a constant and slow increase of speed of the distant galaxies in their orbits inside Universe) within the redshift value. The clusters of galaxies have rotations that are different from zero and due to their constant orbital rotation it seems to an observer that galaxies have very different directions of movement. Generally, they travel in the orbit of their cluster, as a dot on a planet, a star that rotates together with its planet inside their galaxy, which rotates further in its cluster and that cluster within its supercluster and finally all together rotate in Universe.

 ___________________________________________________________________________
[1]. https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ 2015.  David   Harvey1,2 , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[2]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q0906%2B6930#Distance_measurements "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database" Results for 0901+6942. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
[3]. http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Demolition-hubbles-law-big-bang-the-basis-of-modern-and-ecclesiastical-cosmology.pdf Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2018, GSJ© 2018 www.globalscientificjournal.com Weitter Duckss
[4].http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13   American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Paper Number: 3011059 
Paper Title: How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? Nov. 2018. W.Duckss
[5]. https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 Vol 1, No 4 (2019), The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe, Weitter Duckss, Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
[6]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf Effects of Rotation Arund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe, Weitter Duckss, Volume 8 – February 2019
[7]. https://phys.org/news/2019-10-record-number-galaxies-galaxy-mergers-ignite.html 21. lis 2019. - Record-number of over 200,000 galaxies confirm: galaxy mergers ignite star bursts Two galaxies in the process of merging. Credit: NASA/ESA/
[8]. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.750.3348&rep=rep1&type=pdf ID Karachentsev, 9. srp 2010. - 2 List of blueshifted galaxies in Virgo. According to the Virgo ... Table 1. List of Virgo cluster galaxies with negative radial velocities. Designation.
[9]. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf  International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 408, The observation process in the universe through the database, Slavko Sedic (W.Duckss)
[10]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe#Most_distant_objects  Meszaros, Attila; et al. (2009). "Impact on cosmology of the celestial anisotropy of the short gamma-ray bursts". Baltic Astronomy. 18: 293–296. arXiv:1005.1558Bibcode:2009BaltA..18..293M
[11]. https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#15b 2013/14. Why is the universe cold? W. Duckss

 

This article has more than 16 000 visits (only on my page) (Nov./07.2018 - 11/11.2019.)
The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems
Published: Nov. 7, 2018. in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13
Author, Weitter Duckss, Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

Abstract
The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

_________________________________________________________________
References
[1]. W.Duckss http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Zadars-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf,  „Constant proces“
[2]. W.Duckss  https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-formation-of-particles-in-the-Universe.pdf 7/2018
[3]. W.Duckss http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/The-influence-of-rotation-of-stars-on-their-radius-temperature.pdf
[4]. W.Duckss..https://www.academia.edu/16790589/The_causal_relation_of_space_and_the_absence_of_light_in_Universe
[5] W.Duckss  http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268345-why-is-the-universe-dark/
[6] W.Duckss..https://www.academia.edu/19025940/Why_there_is_a_ring_an_asteroid_belt_or_a_disk_around_the_celestial_objects 
[7] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/26326626/Weitter_Ducksss_Theory_of_the_Universe  „Rotation of an object“
[8] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/small-asteroid-or-comet-visits-from-beyond-the-solar-system Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[9] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitor-dazzles-scientists Nov. 20, 2017 "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[10] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf „What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?“, Article No 7.
[11] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf Article No 2.
[12] W.Duckss   http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf „The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color“ Article No 1.
[13] W.Duckss  http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/DEMOLITION-HUBBLES-LAW-BIG-BANG-THE-BASIS-OF-MODERN-AND-ECCLESIASTICAL-COSMOLOGY.pdf 
[14] https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey1,2∗ , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[15] W.Duckss  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf  „Why did CERN fail?“ Article No 3.
[16] W.Duckss   http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf "What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?" Article No 7.
[17] W.Duckss   https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#15b „Why is the Universe cold?“
[18] W.Duckss   https://www.academia.edu/17760569/The_Oort_cloud._Speed_of_light_is_not_the_limit
[19] W.Duckss   http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdfWhy there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?“ Article No 3.
[20] W.Duckss   http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed.pdf   [21] W.Duckss   https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#14b  „Observing the quasars through rotation“
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf „The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars“ Article No 2. [22] https://www.universetoday.com/110031/supermassive-black-holes-dizzying-spin-is-half-the-speed-of-light/ „Supermassive Black Hole’s Dizzying Spin is Half the Speed of Light“ Article written: 5 Mar , 2014Updated: 23 Dec , 2015 by Elizabeth Howell [23] https://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/march/chandra-and-xmm-newton-provide-direct-measurement-of-distant-black-holes-spin/#.W4eeGugzaUl March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"
[24]   https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.05130 „CALIFA reveals Prolate Rotation in Massive Early-type Galaxies: A Polar Galaxy Merger Origin?“ Athanasia Tsatsi, Mariya Lyubenova, Glenn van de Ven, Jiang Chang, J. Alfonso L. Aguerri, Jesús Falcón-Barroso, Andrea V. Macciò (Submitted on 17 Jul 2017)      [25]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APM_08279%2B5255 APM 08279+5255 etc [26]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way#Galactic_Center
[27]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole#Physical_properties  
[28]  http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html „The Milky Way Galaxy“  
[29] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf „Functioning of the Universe“ [30] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/small-asteroid-or-comet-visits-from-beyond-the-solar-system Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[31]  https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitor-dazzles-scientists Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_ISON#Orbit the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] https://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/properties-of-sunlight/solar-radiation-in-space „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/37363821/Processes_in_Universe_in_Pictures
[36] W.Duckss  Https://www.academia.edu/11692363/Universe_and_rotation
[37] W.Duckss  https://www.academia.edu/29645047/Universe-2010.doc „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.

Keywords:
Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;

The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe new
Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v1i4.474
https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 November 2019

Summary
This article completes the circle of presenting the process of the constant growth of objects and systems and the topics to complete it consist of the visible matter violent disintegration and its re-creation inside the Universe. A constant process of the visible matter disintegration is presented as the end of the process, the proportions of which are gigantic, and the creation of the visible matter as the beginning of it.
The disintegration of particles disturbs the balance of the Universe's wholeness; despite the enormous loss of the visible matter, the Universe is constantly growing.
After having postponed it for a while, this article discusses the age of objects and the Universe as a consequence of the process of the constant matter growth. The acquired results are completely different from those, offered by the renowned experts of the time.
The articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], with this one, too, make the integral part of the complete circular process of matter growth inside and outside of our Universe.

Keywords: disintegration of matter; particle formation; the age of the Universe

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to unite the total processes of the constant matter growth inside the Universe, based on the independent research, the use of databases of generally accepted, easily verifiable evidence for the broadest community of readers. This article is a summary of the materials inside the process of the constant matter gathering, with the articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], due to gravity or the law of universal gravitation.
The disintegration of matter is a process of turning the visible matter into the invisible matter and energy and it exists in the whole of the Universe. The loss of the enormous quantities of matter is replaced with the process of the visible matter constant growth out of the invisible matter inside the space or the whole of the Universe.
The age of the objects is analyzed through the time needed for matter to gather into dust, asteroids (comets) and increasingly larger objects, star systems, galaxies and finally the Universe.

Reference:
[1]. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 29 July 2008. Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.
[2]. Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Mars Fact Sheet"National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
[3].  http://www.eltereader.hu/media/2014/04/Atmospheric_Chemistry_READER.pdf  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[4]. Williams, David R. (23 December 2016). "Saturn Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017
[5]. Niemann, H. B.; et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe" (PDF). Nature438 (7069): 779–784. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..779Ndoi:10.1038/nature04122PMID 16319830
[6]. New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron, J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 – Published 1 November 1937
[7]. http://web.ihep.su/dbserv/compas/src/yukawa35/eng.pdf
[8]. http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive   W. Duckss
[9]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13    „How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?“ 2.8. Light   W. Duckss
[10]  https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf   „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.1 The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe,   W. Duckss
[11]. https://www.britannica.com/science/nebula
[12]. https://www.thoughtco.com/element-composition-of-sun-607581What Is the Sun Made Of? Table of Element Composition
[13]. https://www.academia.edu/28066462/Why_there_are_differences_in_structure_of_the_objects_in_our_system Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system   W. Duckss
[14]. Astr. Soc. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stx2640 "Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta" 
Anaïs Bardyn,  Donia Baklouti,  Hervé Cottin,  Nicolas Fray,  Christelle Briois, John Paquette,  Oliver Stenzel,  Cécile Engrand,  Henning Fischer,  Klaus Hornung,  Robin Isnard, Yves Langevin,  Harry Lehto,  Léna Le Roy,  Nicolas Ligier,  Sihane Merouane,  Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay,  Jouni Rynö,  Rita Schulz,  Johan Silén,  Laurent Thirkell, Kurt Varmuza,  Boris Zaprudin,  Jochen Kissel,  Martin Hilchenbach
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 469, Issue Suppl_2, July 2017, Pages S712–S722
[15]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Interacting_galaxies  Category:Interacting_galaxies
[16]. http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf   W. Duckss
[17]. GSA Data Repository 2018087 Ge et al., 2018, A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization: Geology, https://doi.org/10.1130/G39894.1.
[18]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019072115.pdf  When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, W. Duckss

 

Small, fast-spinning hot stars are not White Dwarfs new
Croatian        Pусский 
"White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars"
Author(s): Weitter Duckss
Download Full PDFRead Complete Article
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019
https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019112177.pdf

Summary
In order to determine the density of white dwarfs and other stars I used a database and created several relations, such as mass/volume of different star types, to create comparable dana, the values of rotation, the percentage of the objects orbiting around a central object and the explanation how different speeds of rotation, if unused, influence the irregular derivation of the gravitational results. Some other factors, essential in creating real values in astrophysics, are also analyzed here.  The results acquired in such a way reveal a real image, which is impossible to perceive if analysing only a small or limited quantity of stars and other objects. It doesn't work without a larger sequence of relations of different parameters.
The research represents the interweaving of data for stars when indicators start displaying comparable results.  The rotation speed value is closely related to star types, as presented in the tables 4 and 6. At the same time it defines the temperature level of an object, but only faintly affects its density. Density mildly decreases with the increase of the rotation speed, but magnetic field value increases strongly. 

Keywords: White Dwarfs; hot stars; rotation speed  

1. Introduction
The article analyses several parameters, included in several relations, based on which real data representing white dwarfs could be created, in the terms of their real density and some other factors that ascribe white dwarfs into that type of the celestial objects.
Star types are related to the speed of rotation around an object, in the relation with temperature. The influence of rotation is on the magnetic field value, on the percentage of objects in the orbit and on the orbital speeds. Tables 3, 7, 8 and 9 show that objects with the same mass can be classified into groups of many star types. If the effects of the star rotation are ruled out, then a proper answer for such an outcome is not possible to find, because a similar quantity of mass has to produce similar values.
There are more than 270 links in 14 tables, leading towards the database, in which a reader can check the source of information (reference). The goal of this is not to dispute or to support the mainstream points of view, but to introduce real data checking, which is available these days in the form of the official scientific measuring. The topic on matter is not limited to white dwarfs, but it rather analyzes all star types and the centers of galaxies.

________________________________________________________________

Reference:
[1]. 272 linnks type RX J1131-1231HD 183263 bJupiter; GQ Lupi b; dist. 330 AU; BI 253 etc. in one to multiple steps leads to the source
[2]. https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/13644/how-do-star-densities-work How do star densities work?
[3]. https://sciencing.com/calculate-stellar-radii-7496312.html How to Calculate Stellar Radii
[4]   https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/dwarfs2.html „White Dwarf Stars“  Last Modified: December 2010
[5]. http://cds.cern.ch/record/435428/files/0004317.pdf  "The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars" Shmuel Balberg and Stuart L. Shapiro∗ Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801
[6]. https://www.universetoday.com/24681/white-dwarf-stars/  February 4, 2009 by fraser cain, „White Dwarf Stars“
[7]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars, W.Duckss
[8]. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.07017.pdf  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[9]. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/102627/reporting/en Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
[10]. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13
2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation W.D.
[11]. https://scienceatyourdoorstep.com/2018/06/13/star-mass-and-density/  Star Mass and Density june 13, 2018 / Emma
[12]. http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W.D.
[13]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Jupiter#List Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
[14]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Saturn#List Rea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus
[15]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Neptune#List Proteus, Triton, Nereid
[16]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Uranus#List Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon

 

2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life new

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 july 2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia
07/09/2019

Abstract
In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.
__________________________________________________________________

Reference
[1].https://www.academia.edu/37363821/A_Constant_Growth_Rotation_And_Its_Effects_Cyclones_Light_And_Redshift_With_Images  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophile#Characteristics
[4]. https://asknature.org/strategy/unique-antifreeze-protects-from-extreme-cold/ „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“

 

 

Demoliranje Hubble's law, Big Bang, osnova "moderne" i crkvene kozmologije

English  Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology
Pусский Снос закон Хаббла, Big Bang, основа “современной” и церковную космология
Hrvatski

„Ako su dva predmeta predstavljani kugličnim ležajevima i prostornim vremenom istezanjem gumenog lima, učinak Dopplera uzrokovan je valjanjem kuglica preko listova kako bi se stvorio neobičan pokret.  Kozmološki crveni pomak događa se kada su kuglični ležajevi zaglavljeni na listi i list je rastegnut.“ Wikipedia
Dobro, provjerimo to na našoj lokalnoj skupini galaksija (tablica iz moga članka „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

...
Hubble constant "Za većinu druge polovice 20. stoljeća vrijednost procijenjeno je između 50 i 90 (km / s) / Mpc . (danas postoji nekoliko konstanti, sve su oko 70 km/s)."
Opet ne valja nešto sa zakonom i konstantom!  M90 je udaljena 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly i gle čuda, ima plavi pomak od −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
Galaksije na udaljenosti 32,6 Mly prema, tko zna čijoj konstanti, trebaju imati oko 700 km/s, na dvostrukoj udaljenosti od 65,2 Mly trebaju imati brzinu udaljavanja oko 1.400 km/s, itd.
Zanimljivo je da

NGC 1.600 je udaljena 149,3 Kly i ima brzinu 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c
je udaljena 35 Mly ima brzinu (red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010
je udaljena 140 Mly i ima brzinu od 2.975 ± 27!
NGC 280 je udaljena 464 Mly i ima brzinu od 3.878! ...

Ovi dečki i cure koji vrše mjerenja su nešto promašili ili je neupotrebljiv Hubble´s zakon i konstanta (bilo čija vrijednost konstante).

Na udaljenosti od 52 ± 3 (M86) imamo plavi pomak (-244 ± 5 km/s) koji imamo i kod galaksije M90  na udaljenosti 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), dok su ostale galaksije na istoj udaljenosti (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99, NGC 4419) sa pozitivnim predznakom (osim NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) i potpuno različitim brzinama.

10.03.2018.g.

 

Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

English Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Pусский Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса

 

U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom ( knjiga- 2008.g.)

Kratka knjiga. Građa knjige je o Svemiru, utkana je u svakodnevnicu i poratna zbivanja, prožeta humorom i zamišljenim razgovorima sa autorima radova o kojima se raspravlja dok nastaje novi rad.

SADRŽAJ:

1 Rasprava sa Hawkingom   2 Fotoni javite se
3 Hubbleova konstanta   4 CERN-ova unaprijed izgubljena bitka ...

 

Članci su objavljeni u:

Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v2i1.704 "Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)"
https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/704/pdf 2020.y.

DOIhttps://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v1i4.474 " The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe"
https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 November 2019

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf march 2019

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, International Journal of Sciences https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019072115.pdf july 2019.

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019 White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars
https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019112177.pdf

The Intellectual Archive Journal
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32370/IAJ.2055„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ http://www.IntellectualArchive.com/files/Duckss.pdf; April 2019.

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems"
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 november 2018

www.ijser.org
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf  
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?THE-UNIVERSE-IS-ROTATING-AFTER-ALL.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf

http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf 2017 .y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf-3.2017.y.
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf 5.2017.y.

https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Where-is-the-truth-about-Big-Bang-theory.pdf 30.7.2017.y. https://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-formation-of-particles-in-the-Universe.pdf 7/2018

www.globalscientificjournal.com
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/The-influence-of-rotation-of-stars-on-their-radius-temperature.pdf 31.08.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHY-ATMOSPHERES-OF-STARS-LACK-METALS.pdf 13.10.2017.y.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/How-are-the-spiral-and-other-types-of-galaxies-formed.pdf 11.2017.
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Where-did-the-blue-spectral-shift-inside-the-universe-come-from.pdf  2018.y.

http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/WHAT-IS-HAPPENING-TO-OXYGEN-AND-HYDROGEN.pdf 2018  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Why-is-The-Evolution-of-Stars-incorrect.pdf  
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/DEMOLITION-HUBBLES-LAW-BIG-BANG-THE-BASIS-OF-MODERN-AND-ECCLESIASTICAL-COSMOLOGY.pdf
http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/ZADARS-THEORY-OF-THE-UNIVERSE.pdf

www.academia.edu

https://www.academia.edu/(Weitter Duckss profil)

www.ijoart.org
http://www.ijoart.org/research-paper-publishing_october-2016.shtml Universe and rotation

www.ijoar.org
http://www.ijoar.org/journals/IJOAR/Volume4_Issue11_november2016.html The observation process in the universe

www.unexplained-mysteries.com
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/301520-quicker-burning-and-temperature-of-star/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/295090-what-are-the-lakes-on-titan-made-of/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/299470-weitter-ducksss-theory-of-the-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/298246-differences-in-structure-of-the-body/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/292076-gravitational-waves/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267990-mars-life-creation-in-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268345-why-is-the-universe-dark/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268680-atom-why-did-cern-fail/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267586-the-universe-is-rotating/ etc.

www.newtheory.ru
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/sushchestvuet-li-bistroe-i-medlennoe-sgoranie-zvezd-t4092.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/gde-pravda-o-bolshom-vzrive-t4290.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pereocenka-starih-i-vse-je-upotreblyaemih-teoriy-o-vselennoy-t4267.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pochemu-est-raznici-mejdu-strukturami-obektov-nashey-sistemi-t3919.html

http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/prichinnaya-svyaz-vrashcheniya-zvezdi-i-ee-temperaturi-gravita-t4044.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/chto-takoe-rabochie-temperaturi-elementov-i-soedineniy-t3987.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/teoriya-vselennoy-veittera-dukssa-t3868.html
http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/processi-vo-vselennoy-t3636.html и т.д.

facebook, plus.google
https://www.facebook.com/slavko.sedic (comments on articles  space.com; phys.org; NASA
etc.

 

Memorial center Nikola Tesla Croatia, Smiljan

 

Nikola-Tesla Memorijalni Centar Nikola Tesla, Smiljan, Coratia

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