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Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise) 2020.y.

DOI: Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal

This article has more than 16 000 visits (Nov./07.2018 - 11/11.2019.)
The Processes Which Cause the Appearance of Objects and Systems
Published: Nov. 7, 2018. in American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Author, Weitter Duckss, Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

The beginning of the formation of galaxies can be recognized in the planetary and stellar systems.
The rotation speed of a galactic center determins the form of a galaxy an the ongoing processes. The forces of attraction and the rotation of stars firstly form binary systems.
The objects that are locked down by their tidal forces or that posses an extremely slow rotation, i.e. they have no independent rotation – they don't have other objects orbiting around themselves; for example: Mercury, Venus and the majority of satellites.
A very fast cyclone rotation (in an elliptical galaxy) creates huge friction, whichheats up matter; that can be seen on quasars  and very fast-rotating small objects (stars) through the emission of radiation that takes place on the poles.
A vast number of stars and other matter (the center of a galaxy), when rotating around the common center, act as a single body, related to the rest of the galaxy.
A slow rotation of a galactic center (as in the stellar clusters) does not create a recognizable center (the center looks more like the ones of close binary systems), while the fast rotation creates the center that ranges from the northern to the southern pole of the center.
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars.
Cyclones (in the north and south poles of the galaxy nucleus) are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars). The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy).

1. Introduction
The goal of this article is to sum up the processes of the objects' formation in Universe, with a special review of galaxies. In this article, these basic laws of nature are used: a constant process of growth, valid for all objects in Universe [1]; matter attraction feature [2]; the effects of objects' rotation around their axes [3] and inside a system; a decrease of radiation intensity and temperature with the increase of distance from a source of radiation or temperature (an object that creates and emits radiation) [4]; the absence of light in Universe; a short debate on dark matter from the other angle [5]. I consider the rotation of objects as the central process which creates the systems of stars, galaxies, the clusters of galaxies, Universe, Multiverse,... ; it creates all systems, determines their appearance and, related to stars, their temperatures, radii, colors, orbital speeds of the objects around a star, their numbers, asteroid belts and gas disks.[6] 

2. The effects of rotation around an axis (objects) and a center (systems)
2.1. The formation of a system by rotation
The observation of the rotational effects can be done through the orbits of objects around a central object. All orbits (of an object) are placed around the equatorial region or cut through it if they are inclined, i.e., if there is an inclination from the equatorial plane. The speed of an object that approaches a central object has nothing to do with the appearance of the orbit, because if it did, we would have had orbits around the poles [7]. The objects that lack an independent rotation (i.e., the objects that are tidally locked) or have an extremely slow rotation have no possibility to take and hold other objects in their own orbits (for example, Venus, Mercury, internal satellites (tidally locked). 
Quote: These objects also have a speed, just as the objects that approach straight or with an inclination towards the equator do, but these speeds neither create orbits (new evidence, confirmation [8],  [9]), nor there are observations to support such claims. If there is no rotation, there is also no orbit, no matter what the speed of the incoming object is. end quote
The objects on their poles have no rotation related to the vertically incoming objects, therefore their collisions are almost the only option.
Quote: One object becomes a nova and a large number (millions) of others with the same parameters just go on the same way. It is necessary to consider some very rare factors, like, for example, the impacts of large objects into planets, but even more rare – those that hit only a small part of the objects (one event in more than ten million of objects - stars).
Within the growth of an object, some smaller object is starting a reaction when colliding with a star. If that should remain a rare event, it needs to be a specific event under the specific conditions. The only possible specificity is for that object (the errant objects, incoming from outside the Solar system) to arrive vertically onto one of the poles and to hit the opening of a cyclone that exists on the poles of stars. That way, it would get an opportunity to break into the interior of an object.
When discussing the vertical trajectories, it is necessary to point out that only the forces of attraction exist there, because an object creates the forces of repulsion in the horizontal direction only. end quote [10]  
A part of an object goes through a central object, due to a constant movement of a central object (Sun 220 km/s) and goes irreversibly further into space.

2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation
A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0.08–0.45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2,400–3,700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [11]   
A radius, related to mass (Sun =1) is negative, when stars with a fast rotation are the subject matter, while it is completely opposite with cold, red, slowly-rotating stars. [12]
A bit of a remark: the author of this article disagrees with the current estimates of the stars' mass, as he claims they are the product of old hypotheses which lacked enough evidence to support them. The author suggests that a radius be equal to a mass when discussing slowly-rotating stars and that the mass decrease up to 100% with fast-rotating stars. For example, Melnick 42, 21,1 R of Sun, its mass should be around 30 M of Sun (currently, 189 M of Sun).
That would give the option to avoid these illogicalities:

Table 1. Star, type / mass / temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K

1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834

Table 1. Stars, similar mass (except No 5, 6, 7), different classes (type) and temperatures.

A same or similar mass should produce the same or similar outcome, given other conditions are the same. These days, scientific community totally undervalues the rotation of objects and its effects.

Table 2. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity, mass/radius.  

  Star Mass, Sun 1 Radius, Sun 1 Temperature °K Rotation speed  km/s

  Stars with slow rotation
1. Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4
2. R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
3. HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3
4. Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3
5. Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
6. Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44
7. Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5
8. Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8
9. Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8
10. Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2
11. Betelgeuse

Fast-rotating stars

11,6 887 ±203 3.590 5
12. IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
13. Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125
14. η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95
15. Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150
16. Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87
17. Spica secondary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199
18. Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432
19. WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120
20. Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220
21. S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120
22. Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70
23. Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10
24. HD 5980 C 34 24 34.000 120
25. HD 5980 A 61 24 45.000 250
26. HD 93250 83,3 15,9 46.000 130
27. HD 269810 130 18 52.500 173
28. VFTS 682 150 22 52.200±2.500 200
29. Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300 240
30. R136a2  195 23,4 53.000 200

Table 2. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-12 cold stars, 13-29 hot stars.

The influence of rotation is more significant with stars that possess larger mass, because warming up and pressure are the result of friction, occurring between layers of a star. These stars that rotate faster will have higher temperatures than small stars, with the same or slower rotation (binary effects excluded).
Slowly-rotating stars have less significant surface gravity than the fast-rotating stars. [12]

Table3. Stars, temperature/rotation speed/surface gravity; mass/radijus

  Star Temperature °K Rotation km/s or day Mass, Sun 1 Radijus, Sun 1 Surface gravity cgs

1. Betelgeuse 3.140-3641 5 7,7-20 950-1200 0,5
2. Aldebaran 3.910 643 d 1,5±0,3 44,2±0,9 1,59
3. Pollux 4.666±95 558 d 2.04±0,3 8.8±0,1 2,685
4. Polaris 6.015 119 d 4,5 46±3 2.2
5. Canopus 7.350 8,0 9,0-10,6 71,4±4,0 2,1
6. Beta Pictoris 8.052 (9.790) 130 1,75 1,8 4,15
7. Denebola 8.500 128 1,78 1.728 4,0
8. Fomalhaut 8.590 93 1,92 1,842 4,21
9. Vega 9.692±180 12,5 h 2,135 2,36x2,81 4,1
10. Sirijus a 9.940 225-250 2.02 1,711 4,33
11. Albireo B 13.200±600 0,6 days 3,7 2,7 4,00
12. Sirijus b 25.200   / 0,978 0,0084 8,57

Table 3. Stars, No 1-7 low temperatures, small rotation speed, small surface gravity, in relation: radius>mass; No 8-16 high temperature, high Surface gravity, in relationship: radius<mass (Sun=1).

2.3. Gravitationally Bound Objects
Gravity and rotation  create systems. Super clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally-bound objects known today. The rotation of a cluster is different from zero. [13]

Table 4. Galaxy, distance /speed

  Galaxy Distance Mly Red shift km/s

1. NGC 4450 ~50 1954 ± 4
2. NGC 4262 50,0 1359 ± 4
3. NGC 4550 50.0 381 ± 9
4. Messier 89 50 ± 3  290 ± 5
5. NGC 4435 52 0.002638(z)
6. Messier 86 52 ± 3 -244 ± 5
7. Messier 61 52.5 ± 2.3  1483 ± 4
8. Messier 91 63 ± 16  486 ± 4
9. NGC 4388 65.10 ± 18.43 2.524

Table 4. Galaxy, relationship: distance 50-65.10± 18.43 Mly/speed of movement.

Table 5. Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy, redsfift/distance

  Supercluster (galaxy) Redsfift (z) Distance M ly

1 The Laniakea Supercluster +0,0708 250
2 Horologium Supercluster 0,063 700
3 Abell 754 0,0542 760
4 Abell 133 0,0566 763
5 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
6 CID-42  0,359 3.900 (3,9 Gly)
7 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4.000
8 Einstein Cross 1,695 8.000
9 Twin Quasar 1,413 8.700
10 Lynx Supercluster 1,26 & 1,27 12.900

Table 5. The Universe, Supercluster, galactical clusters, galaxy: redsfift (z)/distance M ly(G ly).

Table 6. Galaxies, redsfift/distance/speed

  Galaxies Redsfift (z) Distance billion ly Speed km/s  

1 EQ J100054+023435 4.547 12,2 280.919
2 Q0906 + 6930 5,47 12,3 299,792 
3 Z8 GND 5296 7,5078±0,0004 13,1 291.622 ± 120 
4 GN-z11 11,09 13,4 295.050 ± 119.917

Table 6. The Universe, relationship: redsfift (z)/distance G ly/speed km/s.

Besides rotation, there is also the law of (matter) attraction, which causes collisions, larger and smaller fusions of galactical clusters and Supercluster. [14]  One should make a distinction between collisions, in which the orbits of objects or systems are different, and fusions, in which objects share the same orbit and gravity causes a soft fusion of objects (for example, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
The accumulation is a constant growing process from the formation of particles, the accumulation of particles  into nebulae, ... , joining into (chemical) compounds, the formation of smaller and larger objects. Stars, star systems, binary stars which are the initial stage of the formation of star clusters, galaxies, galactical clusters and finally Universe are all created with the increase in mass and in the force of pressure (which depends on the speed of rotation). A part of matter gets disintegrated by the explosions of stars. These explosions cause even or more significant results than those, made by the collisions in LHC in Switzerland. [15]
Quote: Despite destruction (the disintegration of matter), the observations show that the Universe is not losing its mass. On the contrary, it increases. It means that the Universe is efficiently replacing all of the lost matter, the minimum of which is 20 quadrillion of the Sun’s masses, and even “some” more.
It is not to be forgotten that a smaller part of matter is also been disintegrated in the collisions of waves and particles. In order for the muons to be registered at all in the laboratories, a countless number of particle disintegrations needs to occur. It is an everlasting occurrence on the objects orbiting around a star from the beginning of time till these days and until a star becomes a nova. A good portion of matter is being disintegrated in the collisions of objects and galaxies. Therefore, the colossal dimensions are not related only to the creation of matter, but also to the growth of all objects within stellar systems, galaxies and the Universe. Millions of craters are only a reminder of that process being contiguous and ongoing. end quote [16]
The author of the article discusses the following two or at the most three wholes (Multiverse,...), based on the decrease of temperature and radiation intensity with the increase of distance from the source, on the constant growth of gravitationally related systems, on systems behaving as a single object in attracting matter, inside the space in which the temperature is 0°K and the processes are still or extremely slow. [17]
An object in an orbit can approach or distance itself from a central object. It depends on the influx of matter to the object. If an object in an orbit has a relatively low influx of matter from a central object, it starts falling slowly to the central object (Mars/ Phobos) and the process is opposite when the influx of matter is more significant on the object in the orbit – it starts moving away (Earth/ Moon) (similar to the relation of a pendulum and a weight). The same situation is with the systems, with a remark that a faster rotation accelerates the processes.
The law of low temperatures is manifested in star systems and galaxies; the objects have higher orbital speeds with lesser gravitational effects. The temperature, which is below the melting point of helium, 4,216°K, is responsible for it. The stars that are on the edges of galaxies, just as the objects on the edges of star systems, have higher speeds with lesser gravitational effects than their neighboring objects that are closer to the center. [18]

2.4. The formation of galaxies
Matter attraction gathers objects into systems and rotation regulates these systems. When a large number of stars rotate around the common center in a relatively small volume (i.e., in the centers of galaxies), they act as a single object and create systems similar to star systems. A galactical disk is created on the same principles as the orbits of objects around stars and asteroid belts or gas disks; rotation, the speed of rotation, the force of attraction. [19]  In a large majority of situations, central objects represent almost the whole mass of a system (Sun 99,86 %).
There are different galactical centers inside the general process of growth. Slow rotations create centers made of stars and other matter that look like the spherical groups of stars (there is a big difference in the speed of rotation) and they do not create a familiar-looking center inside the galactical center. [20]  Cyclones, that break down a large part of stars and create a completely new and the largest object in Universe, are formed by fast rotation on the poles of the galactical centers. [21] 
The speed of rotation is not exclusively responsible for the size of an object (a galaxy, a star,...) because a fast rotation is a characteristic of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The same goes for a slow rotation. The same principle applies to stars. There are big stars with different speeds of rotation, and the same goes for small stars. There are hot stars with very small mass, but there are also hot giant stars. The same applies to cold stars and those stars, which temperatures are somewhere in between.

Table 7. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  galaxies type galaxies Speed of galaxies

  Fast-rotating galaxies
1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation
4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)

Table 7. galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies.

The speed of rotation affects the form of a galaxy and more dynamic processes inside such galaxies.

Table 8. Galaxies, type/ size

  galaxies type of galaxies speed of galaxies

  Large galaxies (fast-rotating)
1 APM 08279+5255 elliptical galaxy giant elliptical galaxy [25]
2 Q0906 + 6930 blazar the most distant known blazar
3 OJ 287 BL Lacertae object the largest known objects
4 S5 0014 + 81 blazar giant elliptical galaxy
5 H1821 + 643 quasar the most massive black hole

Contrary to: Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating)
6 Messier 110 elliptical galaxy dwarf elliptical galaxy 
7 Messier 32 "early-type" dwarf "early-type" galaxy
8 NGC 147 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy
9 NGC 185 spheroidal galaxy dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Table 8. galaxies, relationship: type of galaxies/ size of galaxies; No. 1-5 Large galaxies (fast-rotating), No. 6-9 Dwarf galaxies (fast-rotating).

2.5. Changing the Structure of Galaxy, the Increase of Radiation Intensity With the Increase of the Speed of Rotation
With the increase of speed of rotation (including faster orbits of stars and changing the structure in the centers of galaxies) there is also the increase of intensity and quantity of radiation coming from the openings of a cyclone on the poles of a central structure of our galaxy.
If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, the nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc (3,000-16,000 ly [26]  or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly (according to some other sources [27] ) from a pole to the other one. It's diameter: the size of a super-massive black hole is ~ 0,001-400 AU [28]   – there is a disparity between a central point (a black hole should be there) and a pole of the central structure of a galaxy (different occurrences and the beginning of different radiation emissions are measured there). The distance from the horizons (poles) and the center is 1.500 to 15.000 ly and more, when giant galaxies with a very fast rotation are discussed.
The emissions of radiation are measured on the poles that are 3.000 to 30.000 ly and more far from each other and that proves the existence of cyclones (cyclones and whirls on stars [29]). Cyclones (the eye of a cyclone) are the places of occurrence for all occurrences that have ever been measured (radiation emissions, star formations, etc.). Their existence have been confirmed on the poles of Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. They are formed due to the rotation of an object – and galaxies, especially their centers, rotate.

2.6. Cyclones, Acceleration of Galaxies, the Increase of the Intensity of Radiation, due to the increase in rotation
Cyclones are responsible for acceleration and deceleration of galactical and stellar rotations (as well as the death of stars [10]).
The influx of hotter matter accelerates the rotation of an object (the influx of stars to the cyclone in the center of a galaxy; related to stars, objects heat up by passing through the atmosphere and photosphere of a star [29] ). It is known that hot and fast-rotating stars are mostly found in nebulae or other matter-enriched space.  Recent appearances of the objects from the outside of our system, A / 2017 U1 [30]  (1I / 2017 U1) [31]  (inclination 122.69°) and C/2012 S1 [32]  (inclination 62,4°) confirm that such events are no rarity even in the space, which is less matter-enriched.
The size of a galaxy (as well as stars) depends on the quantity of matter in the space around it (free stars, the clusters of stars, smaller and larger galaxies with or without a central structure, nebulae, etc.). Galaxies with a faster rotation experience stronger attraction forces and also the possibility to grow faster. That fact alligns them with the galaxies that are younger than those with a slower rotation – if there are similar masses or sizes and similar quantities of matter in their space. The same goes for the stars; the stars with a faster rotation grow faster – if other factors are similar. These similarities are present in our system, too, and are related to the planets with a faster rotation.
The formation of objects and galaxies occurs in a very cold space (the temperatures of 2-3°K ), it supports superconductivity (radiation expands at the speed of ~300.000 km/s), in space, waves and radiation lose their intensity with the growing distanceThe temperatures below 4,216°K (below the boiling point of helium) make it possible for the objects in that zone to move faster – if other conditions are similar – unlike the objects which temperatures are above 4,216°K. At galaxies and stars, these things happen on the edges of these systems, where the results of measuring the speed of objects indicate faster movement than of those objects, which are closer to the center of a system (The proof is accelerating Voyagers).

3.  Dark matter in space and Light
3.1. Dark matter
I give evidence for the connection of dark matter existence by the processes that are visible and measurable inside our system. If a part of space is (almost) empty, without the presence of matter (dark matter), there should exist the following: an even spreading of Sun radiation and independence of the temperature increase  due to radiation. The temperature of space can be observed indirectly. The easiest way to gain the result is to observe the temperature on the dark side of an object (the minimal temperatures).

Table 9. Sun system, temperature deviation, temperatures/ distance

  The body in orbit around the Sun Minimum temperatures °K Distance from the Sun AU

1 Mercury 80 (100 equator) 0,39
2 Moon 100 1
3 Mars 143 1.52
4 Vesta 85 2,36
5. Ceres 168 2,77
6 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 180 3,46
7 Ganymede 70 5,20
8 Callisto 80±5 5.20
9 Triton 38 30,11
10 Pluto 33 39,48

Table 19. Sun system, temperature deviation, relationship: minimum temperatures °K/distance from the Sun AU.

These measurements of minimal temperatures show deviations from the accepted claims that the intensity of ("termal") radiation decreases with the square distance. Except Mars and Pluto, not all objects have enough quantity of atmosphere, which could cause doubt about the correct way of selecting objects in the example. If a factor of measurement imprecision is also taken into consideration, the deviations are still impossible to be removed as they show that the objects from the examples  1 – 5,20 AU have the same or higher minimal temperatures than Mercury and they are also of the lesser or similar mass. Mercury and Ceres are in a group of objects, which are explored equally well and in details; however, it is shown that the minimal temperature on Ceres is two times higher, even though it should be decreasing, according to the law of radiation intensity decrease with the increase of square distance.
If deviation is excluded and minimal temperatures are observed very roughly, it is obvious that there is a temperature decrease with the increase in distance: Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878. [33] 
At the end of our system, the temperature is estimated at less than 4 ° K.
The decrease of radiation intensity is (visually) the most notable when measuring the radiation of stars. The further the objects, the lower the intensity (with regards and correction of mass and temperature of a star). An example of deviation can also be found in the termosphere of our planet (although that example is (partially) solved in the way that a certain quantity of radiation, allocated to a lesser quantity of particles, results with easier temperature rise to higher temperatures). The examples from the table eliminate the claims that radiation dissipate with the increase of space  (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is more than 3 AU further from Mercury and its minimal temperature is by 100°K  higher).
Quote: The existence of matter can be observed here, on Earth, too. A balloon, inflated 2-3 km deep under the water surface, will explode just before the surface or on it, due to the air expansion. The similar thing happens to the balloons, which are sent outside the atmosphere – they explode at the maximum altitude of 40 (104) km above the surface of Earth, due to the equalizing the pressures. There are different kinds of matter and different outcomes, but the final outcome is the same: the pressures get equalized. The balloons are moving in the direction, which is opposite to the activity of gravitation and they exclusively abide the law of equalizing the different pressures. The balloons "know" where is the less dense matter inside a volume. end quote [34] 
The termal deviation and the decrease of temperature from a source to the edges of a system indicate that there is a similarity between some processes in space and in the atmosphere (of Earth).  Due to the interaction of radiation with particles of atmosphere and object itself, matter warms up. Space also warms up, due to the activity of the same radiation and without visible matter being present. As radiation waves distance themselves from a source, the intensity of radiation decreases, as well as temperature (both minimal and maximal) of space and visible matter (an object). A similar example can be found on Earth. Water is the warmest on its surface. The lowest temperatures are in the deepest waters, if geological warmings are excluded (hot spots). Energy, different kinds of radiation and visible matter (which does not create its own warmth by geological processes) are very cold. The temperature of visible matter, when sources of radiation are not there at all or when they are too far, tends to be absolute zero (0°K).
Space is the purest vacuum, but only if related to visible matter. According to evidence and definition, vacuum does not create friction which could reduce the intensity of radiation waves. A smaller part of particles in space, when collided by waves of radiation, turn into high-energy particles.
Quote: Different kinds of matter coexist one by the other and the transition from one into the other is more or less defined. That is impossible between matter and vacuum, because the pressures of matter and vacuum always tend to equalize and that is not what can be seen between the atmosphere and vacuum and with the gas (particle) gathering into nebulae, etc.
Right here, just outside (even inside) the atmosphere, there is the kind of matter, which is known to us, which had been defined and its influence on the visible matter calculated – it only remains to be detected. end quote [34] 
If we push water out of a bowl, which is placed under water, it starts moving towards space with a lower pressure. The same thing happens to a balloon filled with helium.

3.2. Light
Light appears on the place of collision between radiation waves and particles. If there is no radiation, or if it is minimal, matter is very cold. If there is no visible matter, space warms up  (80 to 180°K), just as visible matter. An important difference is that space does not produce light in collisions with radiation, no matter the intensity or sort of radiation.
Warmth and light are produced only by visible matter. The light of Sun disappears immediately after leaving the atmosphere of Sun or with the disappearance of visible matter. Temperature drastically falls after leaving the atmosphere, but it does not disappear immediately (80 to 100°K) – it gradually diminishes with the increase of distance through space. It does not matter, whether to name a space between a source and an object as invisible matter or just space. The important fact is that invisible space actively supports the processes that can be recognized in the visible mattter, too.
Space equals complete dark. Light appears only on objects (nebulae,  planets,  etc ). If there is no visible matter, there is no light. Stars (Sun - on the image) do not emit light, stars emit radiation. Light appearance and temperature growth occur in the collision of radiation and visible matter. There is no light immediately outside the atmosphere of Sun. [35] 

4. Conclusion
Rotation and attracting matter create systems. Gravity without the effect of rotation, does not create systems.
The force of attraction (gravity) and the rotation of objects are basic preconditions to create dual or more complex systems (spherical and other groups of stars, galaxies and groups of galaxies). If gravity was the only existing or even dominating force, there would be no universe at all. Without the main creator of all systems – the rotation of objects, which places the falling objects into their orbits – the objects would fall vertically one upon the other. Rotation should not be observed only in the frame of a rotating object, but as a whole of an object and the space, with the attraction forces in it. Not only an object rotates, but the forces within its space rotate with it, too. [36]
 The rotation acts as antigravity. Due to the rotation, the antigravitational forces are changing the course of movement of the incoming objects from straight into round or ellyptic, around the bigger rotating object. In that way, the collapse of the minor part of that mass or these objects, existing in a new way, does not occur.[37]
The rotation creates vortexes and cyclones (at the poles) in the center of galaxies and stars.  Central objects in the centres of the galaxies observe more complex laws that are not based on the physical black holes. Beginning from the stars the size of our Sun, even the low speed rotations cause polar cyclones, which will in time turn into whirlwinds of the galactic size (up to 30 000 light-years). They are able to hold together such a massive objects; the rotation of matter around a whirlwind holds the whole galaxy together. [38]
  Greater distance weakens the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Lesser intensity of waves is registered as a greater shift into red.
A very important fact needs to be stressed here: although after certain distance only red shift is registered, at the same time – on that and on all other distances – the collisions of galaxies are registered, or the blue shift between the objects in collision . There is an increase of speed along with the weakening of the intensity of waves, but by no means in numbers that are these days taken as an undeniable evidence. The rotation of the clusters of galaxies (speeds of movement by orbits) and the Universe (the rotation) is occurring many times slower. [39] 

Madam  Sylvie Wallimann-Crépin's Editorial Committee of EPD Sciences (2004) for the first boost at the beginning of the research.
Professor Zoran Ćoso, University of Zadar, for the translations in English and Russian.
My wife, Ranka Sedić, who funds this independent research.
[1]. W.Duckss,  „Constant proces“
[2]. W.Duckss 7/2018
[3]. W.Duckss
[4]. W.Duckss..
[5] W.Duckss
[6] W.Duckss.. 
[7] W.Duckss  „Rotation of an object“
[8] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[9] Nov. 20, 2017 "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[10] W.Duckss „What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?“, Article No 7.
[11] W.Duckss Article No 2.
[12] W.Duckss „The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color“ Article No 1.
[13] W.Duckss 
[14]  „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ David Harvey1,2∗ , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2
[15] W.Duckss  „Why did CERN fail?“ Article No 3.
[16] W.Duckss "What are the dimensions of destruction and creation in the Universe?" Article No 7.
[17] W.Duckss „Why is the Universe cold?“
[18] W.Duckss
[19] W.Duckss there is a ring, an asteroid belt or a disk around the celestial objects?“ Article No 3.
[20] W.Duckss   [21] W.Duckss  „Observing the quasars through rotation“ „The Reverse Influence of Cyclones to the Rotation of Stars“ Article No 2. [22] „Supermassive Black Hole’s Dizzying Spin is Half the Speed of Light“ Article written: 5 Mar , 2014Updated: 23 Dec , 2015 by Elizabeth Howell [23] March 5, 2014 Release 14-069 "Chandra and XMM-Newton Provide Direct Measurement of Distant Black Hole's Spin"
[24] „CALIFA reveals Prolate Rotation in Massive Early-type Galaxies: A Polar Galaxy Merger Origin?“ Athanasia Tsatsi, Mariya Lyubenova, Glenn van de Ven, Jiang Chang, J. Alfonso L. Aguerri, Jesús Falcón-Barroso, Andrea V. Macciò (Submitted on 17 Jul 2017)      [25] APM 08279+5255 etc [26]
[28] „The Milky Way Galaxy“  
[29] W.Duckss „Functioning of the Universe“ [30] Oct. 26, 2017 „Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' from Beyond the Solar System“
[31] Nov. 20, 2017, "Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists"
[32] the orbit of Comet ISON
[33] „Solar Radiation in Space“ Christiana Honsberg and Stuart Bowden
[34] W.Duckss  Article No 1.
[35] W.Duckss
[36] W.Duckss  Https://
[37] W.Duckss „The relations in the Universe“
[38] W.Duckss  „The forbidden article: Gravity and anti-gravity“ Article No 4.
[39] W.Duckss

Effects of rotation ; Forming a galaxy; Dark matter; Light;

The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe new
Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: November 2019

This article completes the circle of presenting the process of the constant growth of objects and systems and the topics to complete it consist of the visible matter violent disintegration and its re-creation inside the Universe. A constant process of the visible matter disintegration is presented as the end of the process, the proportions of which are gigantic, and the creation of the visible matter as the beginning of it.
The disintegration of particles disturbs the balance of the Universe's wholeness; despite the enormous loss of the visible matter, the Universe is constantly growing.
After having postponed it for a while, this article discusses the age of objects and the Universe as a consequence of the process of the constant matter growth. The acquired results are completely different from those, offered by the renowned experts of the time.
The articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], with this one, too, make the integral part of the complete circular process of matter growth inside and outside of our Universe.

Keywords: disintegration of matter; particle formation; the age of the Universe

1. Introduction
The goal of the article is to unite the total processes of the constant matter growth inside the Universe, based on the independent research, the use of databases of generally accepted, easily verifiable evidence for the broadest community of readers. This article is a summary of the materials inside the process of the constant matter gathering, with the articles [8], [9], [10]  and [18], due to gravity or the law of universal gravitation.
The disintegration of matter is a process of turning the visible matter into the invisible matter and energy and it exists in the whole of the Universe. The loss of the enormous quantities of matter is replaced with the process of the visible matter constant growth out of the invisible matter inside the space or the whole of the Universe.
The age of the objects is analyzed through the time needed for matter to gather into dust, asteroids (comets) and increasingly larger objects, star systems, galaxies and finally the Universe.

2. The Disintegration of Matter
There are two stages of matter disintegration in the Universe.
The first one is the disintegration of complex atoms and compounds into hydrogen. This process exists on Earth. The crust of Earth has more complex chemical composition than the melted interiority of Earth.

Table 1. the Earth crust and s mantle

% crust of the Earth % mantle of the Earth
SiO2 60,2 46
Al2O3 15,2 4,2
CaO 5,5 3,2
MgO 3,1 37,8
FeO 3,8 7,5
Na2O 3 0,4
K2O 2.8 0,04
Fe2O3 2.5  
H2O 1,4  (1,1)  
CO2 1,2  
TiO2 0,7  
P2O5 0,2  
Table 1. comparison the chemical composition of the Earth crust and s mantle

High temperatures of the melted interiority of Earth, when in contact with crust, water, air, etc., create an entire diapason of complex elements and compounds. Additional favorable conditions to create complex elements and compounds are the rotation around an axis (the differences in temperature between day and night), the changes of seasons and active geological processes.

High temperatures of the melted interiority of Earth disintegrate a part of complex elements and compounds into those that are simpler or less present. When temperature increases, the chemical composition of an object grows ever simpler and the last to exist are hydrogen and helium, while the rest make up to 2%. 

Table 2. Sun composition of the photosphere

Hydrogen 73,46 %
Helium 24,85 %
Oxygen 0,77 %
Carbon 0,29 %
Željezo 0,16 %
Neon 0,12 %
Nitrogen 0,09 %
Silicon 0,07 %
Magnesium 0,05 %
Sulfur 0,04 %
Table 2. Sun composition of the photosphere (by mass) [1]

Although the table 1 does not represent it, it is known that inside Earth, as well as on its crust, there are significant quantities of hydrogen-based compounds (H2O, hydrocarbons CxHx..), there is no hydrogen on Mars, neither on its surface nor in the atmosphere, there is only „NASA again reported.. that Curiosity had detected a tenfold increase ('spike') in methane in the atmosphere around it in late 2013. and early 2014. Four measurements taken over two months in this period averaged 7 ppb, suggesting that methane is released at intervals“.

Table 3. The atmosphere of Mars

95,97% carbon dioxide
1,93% argon
1,89% nitrogen
0,146% oxygen
0,0557% carbon monoxide
0,0210% water vapor
0,0100% nitrogen oxide
0,00025% neon
0,00008% hydrogen deuterium oxide
0,00003% krypton
0,00001% xenon
Table 3. The composition by volume of the atmosphere of Mars [2]

(The geological composition of the Mars surface: Mars is a terrestrial planet, consisting of the minerals of silicon and oxygen, metals and other elements that usually form rocks. The plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8; pyroxenes are silicon-aluminium oxides with Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn, Li replaced with Si and Al; hematite Fe2O3, olivine (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4; Fe3O4 ..)
The internal planets (just as Earth, hydrogen 0,00006%) have only minor quantities of hydrogen in their atmospheres, due to the process of constant migration of hydrogen towards a more massive object (Sun).
Despite that fact, hydrogen (and helium) are constantly incoming into the atmosphere (it is estimated that the loss of hydrogen from Earth is 3 kg/s and helium, 50 g/s). [3]
There are two options: either hydrogen was present in vast quantities on Earth long ago, or there exist the constant processes of hydrogen creation. The first option grows ever more incorrect, because of the fact that larger objects take hydrogen and helium from smaller objects, including Earth. That is obvious from the chemical composition of larger objects (such as Sun and gas giants) and the rest of smaller objects (with no exception).  

Table 4. The atmosphere of Saturn and Titan moon

96,3 ± 2,4% hydrogen (H2 )
3,25 ± 2,4% helium (He)
0,45 ± 0.2% methane (CH4 )
0,0125 ± 0,0075% ammonia (NH3 )
0.0110 ± 0,0058% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0,0007 ± 0,00015% ethane (C2H6 )
Ices : ammonia (NH3 )
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
In contrast to Saturn, Titan (Saturn's moon) has:
98,4% nitrogen ( N2 )
1,4% methane ( CH4 )
0,2% hydrogen ( H2 )
Lower troposphere:
95,0% (97%) nitrogen ( N2 )
1,4% (2.7±0.1%) methane (CH4 )
(0.1–0.2%) hydrogen ( H2 )
Table 4. Saturn and Titan (Saturn's moon)  atmosphere [4],[5]

Second stage, the existence of the process of disintegration or decomposition of matter is proved inside the small and large particle colliders. If the particles are influenced by the strong percussive force, then atoms (protons, electrons, neutrons) are decomposed after each collision into neutrinos and dark matter (invisible to our instruments).
Only in the process of the Sun's (as the object that emits waves) percussive waves to the atmosphere a significant quantity of matter gets disintegrated  (some 10 000 muons per m2 hits the surface of Earth every minute (the surface of Earth is ‎510 072 000 km²)). [6] 
In the period of 2,20 x 10-6 of a  second, muons are disintegrated into electrons and neutrinos:
μ - → e - + νe + νμ
μ + → e + + ν e + ν μ [7]
A chemical composition of atmosphere (Earth: N2 78,08%; O2 20,95%; Ar 0,934%; CO2 0,0408%; ~1% of vapor) is the first to be exposed to the percussive waves (above 200 km) consisting of the atomic oxygen (O), helium (He) and hydrogen (H) [8]. It can be found out from the chemical composition of the outer atmosphere, which particles muons are created from. These are the particles that are exposed to the percussive waves first. The impact of the waves to the atmosphere (to the particles, the visible matter) also creates light, heat and ionizes particles. [9]
The disintegration of particles also takes place when two objects (asteroids, planets,...) collide.  
There is a significant disintegration of particles when objects fall into fast cyclones and also at fast rotating stars and when stars fall into fast rotating cyclones of the galactic centers. These cyclones are situated on the northern and southern poles of the gas giants, stars and galactic centers.
There is an infinite quantity of particles' collisions in the explosion of a star, percussive values of which are of the higher or even value as those in LHC. These collisions lead to the disintegration of large quantities of the star's mass (the most of its total mass).  
To date it has been discovered (total number until today) just over 400 novae in the Milky Way. [10]
The information about the total quantity of the disintegrated visible matter can be found in the previous article  (or (real data) ~400 x (factor 3) = 1200 x ~100 billion galaxies in the Universe x min. 8 M Sun > 8 493 galaxies of the Milky Way size), an approximately real value of the disintegrated visible matter in the Universe caused by the explosions of stars.

3. A Creation of Visible Matter
That contemporary understanding of the Universe is seriously out of balance can be deducted from the facts of the Universe constantly expanding, gaining mass, from the omnipresent disintegration of the visible matter and the constantly ascending process of matter and system gathering. On one hand, enormous quantities of the visible matter get disintegrated every second, but on the other side, there is a constant growth of the visible matter, through objects and systems.

Table 5.  The small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected of object

  Object Red shift the small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected Distance M ly
1 Messier 66 0,002 425 M65 and NGC 3628 31
2 NGC 7479 0,00794 SN 1990U and SN2009jf 105
3 Arp 299 0,010 IC 694 and NGC 3690 130
4 Arp 87 0,023726 NGC 3808A i NGC 3808B 330
5 Arp 272 0,034239 NGC 6050 and IC 1179 494,13 ± 55,89
6 MRC 1138-262 2.156 It is formed from dozens of smaller galaxies that were seen in the process of merging  10600
7 CL 1358 + 62   3,035 the most distant galaxy merger discovered, as of 2008 11400
8 RD1 5,34 0140 + 326 RD1 12000
Table 5.  Object, the small and large mergers, collisions, gravitationally connected

A disbalance is again noticeable in the following: "A chemical composition of a nebula is quite balanced; a fact which, by the way, follows the general composition of the Universe, which approximately consists of 90 %  of hydrogen atoms and almost all of the rest is helium (~10%) with oxygen, carbon, neon, nitrogen and other elements, which, put together, make two atoms per one thousand of them". [11]
A chemical composition of stars: (Sun Photospheric composition (by mass): Hydrogen 73.46%, Helium 24.85%, Oxygen 0.77%, Carbon 0.29%, Iron 0.16%, Neon 0.12% … all heavier elements total ~1,5-2% (There are only trace amounts of other elements, including oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, neon, iron, and sulfur. These trace elements make up less than 0.1 percent of the mass of the Sun.)); [12] there is again a significant discrepancy between their chemical compositions and the compositions of the remainders after the explosions of stars and also those of nebulae and the Universe.
Until now it has been discovered a bit more than 400 remainders of super novae in our galaxy (a total number of stars in our galaxy is 200-400 billion), which does not by far match the total mass of 3-5% of interstellar matter in the Milky Way. A chemical composition of nebulae and stars tell us that the explosions of stars reduce the diversity of elements, existing on a star prior to the explosion.
It is very important to say here that the diversity of a chemical composition of stars is significantly lower in the terms of quantity, ratio and complex atoms, than the ones of the objects that are in the orbit of a star.  [8] 
The claims that complex elements are created in the explosions of stars and that they arrived to our planet, without having analyzed the chemical composition of all the objects in our system, are unrealistic. Uneven and different chemical compositions of the Sun and its orbiting objects deny such a hypothesis. Relating the existence of complex atoms to the remainders of the stars' explosions is incorrect, because the chemical composition of the remainders, left after a star has exploded, is in a total discrepancy with the composition of objects in our system and because, if that were the case, the chemical composition of all the objects would have been the same, which is disproved by the research and the evidence.
Quote: The object 67P/Churymov-Garasimenko, classified as a comet, has a lower density of all so-called gaseous planets. Although it is relatively close to Sun, its aggregate state is solid, so Philae could easily land on its surface. This fact clearly states that gaseous planets are solid (and solid/melted) objects with impressive atmospheres.
There are solid objects with even lower density: Pan 0,42 g/cm3, Atlas 0,46 g/cm3, Pandora 0,48 g/cm3 – all of them the satellites of Saturn. Etc.
The objects that are closer to the central object possess a higher density (due to the higher tidal force effects), as well as the objects with bigger masses and higher temperatures of space (Ariel/Umbriel; Titania/Oberon; Proteus/Triton; Rhea/Iapetus; Galileo's satellites; Phobos/Deimos; internal/external planets; etc). Of course, it does not mean that all objects belong to this group. The very division of asteroids into S, M and V type suggests a dramatical deviation. One part of objects becomes more dense in the beginning of their approach to the Sun (because volatile matter disappears and higher temperatures help the creation of the more complex elements). The other part of objects was created during the disintegration of objects (the internal – the higher density, and the external – the lower density), due to the collisions. In both cases a continuation of growth must be taken into consideration, as the lesser objects keep arriving to their surfaces. A certain portion of satellites also does not abide the strict law (density, mass, space temperature and distance to the central object), which implies the different past of these objects before they got captured by the central object. A part of it definitely belongs to the different composition of objects that constantly bombard satellites and other objects. It is unlikely that more dense asteroids from the asteroid belt would hit the outer objects, unlike the interior ones, because the gravitational force of Sun is dominant.
The conclusion would be that it is a very complex and dynamic pattern related to the processes of objects' creation – it is constantly moving and growing. The complexity of objects is related to the space temperature, the mass of an object and the total sum of tidal forces. Furthermore, the complexity is influenced by the position of an object related to the planet, Sun, as well as the asteroid belt. The important role also belongs to time when object got captured, for how long the object had been near Sun (perihelion) and at what distance. end quote. [13]
The creation of complex elements is seen in the process of removing the volatile elements of the comets, which is violent and voluminous at the beginning. When a comet has made enough orbits around a star, the quantity of volatile elements in it is reduced and it turns into an asteroid. It should be pointed out that a chemical composition of a comet gets more complex with every turn around the Sun, which is at the end represented in the chemical composition of the asteroid. [14]
The impossibility to relate the chemical compositions of planets and stars with the compositions of nebulae and interstellar material indicates that there is a process of creating new visible matter. That is particularly seen from the chemical composition of a material, which is outside the objects in the space. The first complex particle in the creation is hydrogen (in the atomic state), the fact demonstrated by the presence of this particle in nebulae, between objects and inside the Universe (90%). During time, the creation of the other particles  follows the ratio:  helium ~10% and all the other elements are only in traces, up to 2% maximum (Sun ~1,7%).
A greater diversity of all elements starts to appear when, due to the forces of attraction, the objects orbiting around a star start appearing in the orbits around the stars (high temperatures decompose complex atoms).
The greatest diversity is found on the objects (i.e., in their crust) that have a melted core, have an independent rotation and are mostly closer to a star. The creation of complex atoms takes place in the crust of such an objects, due to the pressure of the melted core on the crust, which itself is like a laboratory for the creation of complex atoms and compounds. A part of creation also takes place in the contact of the melted matter with water, atmosphere, ... This is seen on Mars, which has no melted core nor there are dynamic geological processes, necessary to create large quantities of complex atoms and compounds. Small quantities of hydrogen quickly migrate from Mars towards the Sun or get decomposed because of the radiation waves and they leave the planet with deserts and without water or compounds based on hydrogen.

4.  Processes Related to the Constant Ascending Process of Matter Gathering
The process of matter gathering is seen on Earth and in the outer space. Matter gathers into nebulae, small and large objects, small and large systems. [15]  It can be deducted from the percussive craters on Earth and the other objects in our system.
Impact craters 
Figure 1. Percussive craters on some objects (NASA)

Percussive craters have covered completely such objects that lack atmosphere, independent rotation, that have a relatively solid surface and only minimal internal geological processes to remove the craters. A constant growth is presented by old craters, inside which new ones have appeared. Inside these new ones there are even newer ones... The frequency of such objects arriving to Earth (measured in their quantity, mass and the time interval in which they are appearing) makes it possible to conclude that the period of creating such reliefs on these objects is quite long and that it is a constant process. The duration of process is seen from the daily arrival of the space material onto Earth (quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day [3]).
Udarni krateri
Figure 2. Craters (NASA)

The duration of process is seen from the daily arrival of the space material onto Earth (quantity estimates ranging from 50 to 300 tons per day [8]).
With the increase of an object's mass and also with the participation of tidal forces from the central object and the other objects, too, as well as the speed of rotation around its axis, such an object starts emitting the surplus of its own radiation, which is the indicator of a melted (hot) core being created  (Jupiter, Neptune).

Table 6. Brown dwarf and planets, mass/temperature

Mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) Mass above 15 M

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU
1 ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
2 54 Piscium B 50 810±50  
3 DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
4 ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 15 -31 500 -550  
5 OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
6 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
7 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
8 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

Mass vs Mass

9 2M 044144 9.8±1.8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
10 DT Virginis 8.5 ± 2.5 695±60 1.168
11 Teide 1 57± 15 2.600±150  
12 Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb 40 – 60 (28±7) 1.300-1400 (880-940) 1.500 (between 2,1)
13 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
14 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  
Table 12. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship: mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [10]

The core melting with the significant influence of tidal forces is seen on Venus, which is smaller than Earth and lacks its own rotation, but it has a significantly higher temperature and more active volcanic processes than Earth. A lack of mass is impossible to compensate with a rotation and tidal forces, which can be monitored on Mars, Mercury, Uranus, ... – these objects emit no significant radiation (Uran 1,06), at least they are less important than those incoming from the central object. The existence of melted core (i.e., matter) is the beginning of the process of creating hot objects from brown dwarfs to the largest stars and stars with a very fast rotation („O“ type ~0,00003% from the total number of stars in Milky Way).
A rotation of an object around its axis creates orbits for smaller objects and matter around a central object, creates also binary systems, globular clusters of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies, the Universe, Multiverse and, at the most, two systems more. When the objects that emit radiation (which creates light and heat in the collision with the visible matter) get diluted, the outer space and the visible matter that emits none of its own radiation have the temperature of 0°K and all of the processes either stop or become extremely slow.
One should always keep in mind that this is only one in the endless sequence of such or similar systems that exist in the Absolute zero.
Tidally locked objects (i.e., those that lack their own independent rotation) or those with an extremely slow rotation cannot create orbits, just as the objects with a rotation cannot create orbits around their poles (north – south). 

5. The Age of Objects and the Universe
A constant growth or a constant matter gathering, in contemporary terms of understanding the age of Universe, is a very slow process without any form of sensationalism and ascribing supernatural abilities to the laws of physics (nature). As a starting point in determining the age of the Universe I will use the agreed age estimate for the asteroids and the materials from the Moon, which is about 4.5 billion of years. The quantity of matter, which is daily arriving to Earth, is 50 to 300 tons per day.
It needs to be mentioned that in certain phases growth has a different pace, which is also different in the whole volume of the Universe. The same goes for any object in a star system. For example, an object existing in an asteroid belt has a different growth pace than the one existing in a gaseous disk outside that belt, no matter be it internal or external objects. 
When matter gets gathered into clouds (nebulae), the forces of attraction become stronger. The larger the object and the faster the rotation, the influence of the forces of attraction is more significant.
It would be much easier to determine the age of Earth if we were able to measure the age of melted matter. The rock, originated from lava, is 0 years old, equally today and 4 Gy ago (zircon from the Jack Hills Western Australia „Dashed line indicates 4.4 Ga(y) apparent 207Pb/206Pb age“ [17]).
If we were to adapt the matter gathering to the growing mass (an asteroid with 4,5 Gy of age) and the daily arrival of matter to Earth, which is 50 to 300 tons per day, we would have the approximate result of 6 x 1024 of years (1024: in short scale :  a septillion ; in long scale :  a quadrillion of years). It should be mentioned here that larger objects „steal“ matter (H2 and He) from smaller objects, which changes the approach in determining the age for each object.
The diameter of the Universe is calculated to be about 13,7 G ly. (If „the most distant objects in the universe are the galaxies  GN-z11 13,39 G ly (billion light years), EGSY8p7 13,23 G ly, GRB 090423 13,18 G ly, etc.).

Table 7.(22.) the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

  Galaxy Right ascension Declination Red shift Distance G ly
1 HCM-6A 02h 39m 54.7s −01° 33′ 32″ 6,56 12,8
2 SXDF-NB1006-2 02h 18m 56.5s −05° 19′ 58.9″ 7,215 13,07
3 TN J0924-2201 09 h  24 m  19,92 s -22 ° 01 '41,5 " 5,19 12,523
4 UDFy-38135539 03h 32m 38.13s −27° 45′ 53.9″ 8,6 13,1
5 A2744 YD4 00h 14m 24.927s −30° 22′ 56.15″ 8,38 13,2
6 BDF-3299 22h 28m 12.26s −35° 09′ 59.4″ 7,109 13,05
7 SSA22−HCM1 22h 17m 39.69s +00° 13′ 48.6″ 5,47 12,7
8 EQ J100054+023435 10h 00m 54.52s +2° 34′ 35.17″ 4,547 (280.919 km/s) 12,2
9 ULAS J1120+0641 11h 20m 01.48s +06° 41′ 24.3″ 7,085 13,05
10 ULAS J1342 + 0928 13h 42m 08.10s +13h 42m 08.10s 7,54 13,1
11 GRB 090423 09h 55m 33.08s +18° 08′ 58.9″ 8,2 13
12 IOK-1 13h 23m 59.8s +27° 24′ 56″ 6,96 12,88
13 A1703 zD6 13 h 15 m 01.0 s +51° 50′ 04′ 7,054 13,04
14 Q0906 + 6930 09h 06m 30.75s +69° 30′ 30.8″ 5,47 12,3
15 MACS0647-JD 06h 47m 55.73s +70° 14′ 35.8″ 10,7 13,3
Table 7. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [10]

The Universe rotates at the speed of up to 30.000 km/s [10] (which is far below contemporary data that do not consider that distance contributes to the increase in red  spectrum). That speed is sufficient to create a disk-shaped form of the Universe.

Table 8. Red shift /distance

  Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster Red shift (z) Distance M ly
1 Leo_Cluster 0,022 368,6
2 ARP 87 0,023726 330
3 Abell 2152 0,041 551
4 Hydra_Cluster 0,0548 190,1
5 Abell 671 0,0502 600
6. Abell 1060 0,0548 190,1

7 Abell_1991 0,0587 812
8 Corona Borealis Supercluster 0,07 946
9 Laniakea Supercluster 0,0708 250
10 Abell 2029 0,0767 1063

11 Abell 383 0,1871 2485
12 Abell 520 0,2 2645
13 Abell_222(3) 0,211 2400

14 Saraswati Supercluster 0,28 4000
15 Bullet Cluster 0,296 3700
16 Abell 2744 0,308 3982
17 CID-42 0,359 3900

18 Abell_370 0,375 4775
19 3C_295 0,464 4600
20 Musket Ball Cluster 0,53 700
21 Abell 754 0,542 760

22 MACS J0025.4-1222 0,586 6070
23 Phoenix Cluster 0,597 5700
24 RX J1131-1231 0,658 6050
25 ACT-CL J0102-4915 0,87 4000

26 Lynx Supercluster 1,26, 1,27 12000
27 Twin Quasar 1,413 8700
28 XMMXCS_2215-1738 1,45 10000
29 Einstein Cross 1,695 8000
30 TON 618 2,219 10,400
31 EQ J100054+023435 4,547 12200

32 z8 GND 5296 7.5078±0.0004 13100
32 A2744 YD4 8,38 13200
33 UDFy-38135539 8,6 13100
34 GRB 090429B 9,4 13140
35 Abell 1835 IR1916 10,0 13200

Table 8. As the red spectrum increases, the distance between objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than  "expected") or remains similar. 

Quote: If two or more systems merge or are in some other form of interaction, the detected redshift in all of these systems should not be interpreted exclusively as a result of distancing the systems. A part of these systems is getting closer to an observer and a blueshift should be detected there, but it is not. With the increase of distance, the intensity of waves is decreased – the consequence of which is the increase in red spectrum, independently of the object being distanced away or getting closer to an observer.
Figure 26. A red color before sunrise and after sunset; to the east (up) and to the west (down) at sunset (Zadar, Croatia)

A red color is directly related to the decrease of wave intensity from the emitting object. On the images, the Sun is behind the horizon. After a certain distance the weakening of radiation intensity overcomes the speed of the system getting closer to the observer and after that distance it gets impossible to detect the blueshift. In the processes of getting closer, merger and collisions of galaxies and clusters of galaxies there is only the blueshift among these systems, although the redshift is detected, because of the low wave intensity. Nowadays, the blueshift is not detected above 70 M ly. An exact example is the appearance of a red moon. Moon gets red when it is in the shadow of Earth. The waves from Sun do not reach Moon then. 
Red Moon
Figure 27. Red Moon, a display of the process.  end quote.

To achieve a disk-shaped form of a system, it takes, besides the speed of rotation, a large number of turns around some axis. The approximate diameter of the Universe is about 27 Gly (r  is ~13,7 Gy). Besides the process of constant growth, the processes of disintegration and the creation of matter  should also be included in the calculations about the Universe. With an approximate speed of rotation reaching 10% of the speed of light, the Universe makes a single turn in ~ 860 Gy. This number needs to be multiplied with a very large number of turns around its axis. .. [18]

6. Conclusion
Particles are disintegrated by force due to the percussive waves from stars to the atmospheres of the objects in their orbits, due to objects' collisions, due to cyclones in the objects' polar regions, due to explosions of stars and due to our particle colliders.
The creation of the visible matter is seen in the increase of mass of the Universe and its chemical composition (H ~90%; He ~10%, the rest of the elements are in traces, up to 2%).
A constant, ascending growth (the consolidation of objects and systems) is registered as the arrival of matter to the formed objects, which is proved by the millions of percussive craters on the objects, by the processes of collisions, merger and interaction of objects, galaxies and the clusters of galaxies.
The distance between the objects in the outer space creates a red shift; after some distance (= 70 Gly), no matter whether galaxies are approaching to the observer or not, which is concluded from the collisions, mergers and interactions of galaxies and the rotations of galaxy clusters and their collisions, mergers and the creation of super clusters.
The age of Earth and other objects is determined by the time needed to gather matter, influenced also by the constant forces of attraction. Every object has a different growth pace, which depends on its position in a system or the position of the system in the Universe.
The age of the Universe is determined by the constant growth, creation and disintegration of matter and the time needed to gather a whole system with a disk-shaped form, due to a relatively fast rotation.

[1]. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 29 July 2008. Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.
[2]. Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Mars Fact Sheet"National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
[3].  „Atmospheric Chemistry“ István Lagzi; Róbert Mészáros; Györgyi Gelybó; Ádám Leelőssy, Copyright © 2013 Eötvös Loránd University
[4]. Williams, David R. (23 December 2016). "Saturn Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017
[5]. Niemann, H. B.; et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe" (PDF). Nature438 (7069): 779–784. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..779Ndoi:10.1038/nature04122PMID 16319830
[6]. New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron, J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 – Published 1 November 1937
[8].  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive   W. Duckss
[9].    „How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed?“ 2.8. Light   W. Duckss
[10]   „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.1 The Disintegration, Formation and the Constant Growth of Matter and the Objects in the Universe,   W. Duckss
[12]. Is the Sun Made Of? Table of Element Composition
[13]. Why there are differences in structure of the objects in our system   W. Duckss
[14]. Astr. Soc. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stx2640 "Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta" 
Anaïs Bardyn,  Donia Baklouti,  Hervé Cottin,  Nicolas Fray,  Christelle Briois, John Paquette,  Oliver Stenzel,  Cécile Engrand,  Henning Fischer,  Klaus Hornung,  Robin Isnard, Yves Langevin,  Harry Lehto,  Léna Le Roy,  Nicolas Ligier,  Sihane Merouane,  Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay,  Jouni Rynö,  Rita Schulz,  Johan Silén,  Laurent Thirkell, Kurt Varmuza,  Boris Zaprudin,  Jochen Kissel,  Martin Hilchenbach
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 469, Issue Suppl_2, July 2017, Pages S712–S722
[15].  Category:Interacting_galaxies
[16].   W. Duckss
[17]. GSA Data Repository 2018087 Ge et al., 2018, A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization: Geology,
[18].  When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, W. Duckss


Small, fast-spinning hot stars are not White Dwarfs new
Croatian        Pусский 
"White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars"
Author(s): Weitter Duckss
Download Full PDFRead Complete Article
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019

In order to determine the density of white dwarfs and other stars I used a database and created several relations, such as mass/volume of different star types, to create comparable dana, the values of rotation, the percentage of the objects orbiting around a central object and the explanation how different speeds of rotation, if unused, influence the irregular derivation of the gravitational results. Some other factors, essential in creating real values in astrophysics, are also analyzed here.  The results acquired in such a way reveal a real image, which is impossible to perceive if analysing only a small or limited quantity of stars and other objects. It doesn't work without a larger sequence of relations of different parameters.
The research represents the interweaving of data for stars when indicators start displaying comparable results.  The rotation speed value is closely related to star types, as presented in the tables 4 and 6. At the same time it defines the temperature level of an object, but only faintly affects its density. Density mildly decreases with the increase of the rotation speed, but magnetic field value increases strongly. 

Keywords: White Dwarfs; hot stars; rotation speed  

1. Introduction
The article analyses several parameters, included in several relations, based on which real data representing white dwarfs could be created, in the terms of their real density and some other factors that ascribe white dwarfs into that type of the celestial objects.
Star types are related to the speed of rotation around an object, in the relation with temperature. The influence of rotation is on the magnetic field value, on the percentage of objects in the orbit and on the orbital speeds. Tables 3, 7, 8 and 9 show that objects with the same mass can be classified into groups of many star types. If the effects of the star rotation are ruled out, then a proper answer for such an outcome is not possible to find, because a similar quantity of mass has to produce similar values.
There are more than 270 links in 14 tables, leading towards the database, in which a reader can check the source of information (reference). The goal of this is not to dispute or to support the mainstream points of view, but to introduce real data checking, which is available these days in the form of the official scientific measuring. The topic on matter is not limited to white dwarfs, but it rather analyzes all star types and the centers of galaxies.

2. Determining the density of white dwarfs and "normal" stars
2.1. Star density
I use the existing databases in providing evidence to support or dispute the existence of extreme densities of stars and other objects. All evidence are related to the source of information through one or several steps. [1]
The method to acquire reliable data is to create a sequence of relations from the official measuring results, carried out and obtained on the same place and without the possibility to manipulate the results. The selection of evidence to be analyzed is as it is, because generally there are no cumulative data (temperature, mass, radius, luminosity, etc.) for a large number of objects which are used  for relation sequences, in order to analyze matter from all angles.
A part of the evidence are here on purpose, to be relevant and comparable inside the relations. The data from the relations are intended to cover the whole diapason of values: mass, radius, temperature, etc. A single object of a certain type is never an object of analysis, not even in a single case. If based on particular cases, the conclusions tend to be opposite to the real situation.

Table 1. The observation of the parallel indicators of mass, radius, temperature and surface gravity

Star Volume Mass, Sun=1 Radius, Sun=1 Mass/volume Type of star
White subdwarf star
V391 Pegasi 0,02865 0,5±0,05 0,23±0,03 17,45 blue-white subdwarf star
HD_49798   7,1795 1,5 1,45 0,2089282 sdO6p
NSVS 14256825 0,016153 0,528 0,19 32,687 sdOB / M V
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,026 / 0,0093 0,48 / 0,120 0,223 / 0,158 18,46 / 12,9 sdBV/M
HVS 7 150,72 3,7 4,0 0,02455 sdB
Kepler-70 0,0197 0,496 0,203 25,178 sdB
PG 1047+003 0,07948 0,5 0,15 62,91 sdBe
Groombridge 1830 0,744 0,661 0,681 0,8884 class G8 subdwarf
Kapteyn's Star 0,058 0,274 0,291 4,7241 sdM1
HD 134439 0,4431 ~0,78 0,573 1,76 sd:K1Fe-1
HD 134440 0,3596 ~0,73 0,5345 2,03 sdK2.5

Sun (M=1, R=1) 2,355 1 1 0,4246.. G2V

WR 102 0,33113184 16,7 0,52 50,433 WR- WO2
WR 93b 0,20061 8,1 0,44 40,377 WR_ WO3
WR 142 1,2058 28,6 0,8 23,72 WR- WO2
WR 7 4,711 13 1,26 2,76 WR-WN4-s
WR 46 5,924  14 1,36 2,2633 WR- WN3p-w
WR 3 35,921 15 2,48 0,4176 WR-WN3-hw
WR 21a 4069,44 103,6 12 0,02546 WR-WN5ha
WR 31a 62231,76 17 29,8 0,0002732 WR-WN11h

Lambda Cephei  17.462,0 51 18-21 0,00292 O6.5If(n)p
NML Cygni 3.898927.371,9 50 1.183,0 0,000000013 M4.5-M7.9Ia-III
Ros 47 0,01157 0,35 0,17 30,1724 M4.0Vn
Kepler-42 0,01157 0,13 0,17 11,236 M5V
YZ Canis Minoris 0,0801 0,308 0,324 3,845 M5V
LHS 1140 0,015154 0,146 0,186 9,63442 M4.5V
SU Ursae Majoris 0,01097 0,105 0,167 9,572 dwarf nova
OTS 44 0,129 0,011 0,23-0,57 0,08527 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
TVLM 513-46546 0,0031345 0,09 0,11 28,7127 Red/Brown Dwarf-M9
DEN 0255−4700   0,001716795  0,025-0,065 0,08-0,1 26,212 Brown Dwarf-L8/L9
OGLE-TR-123 0,00517395 0,085 0,13 16,4285 Brown Dwarf-M

Mass and radius of Jupiter (Jup = 1), density: Sun=1,408 g/cm3; Jupiter 1,326 g / cm3

Star Volume Mass Jup Radius Jup Mass/volume Type of star
Teide 1 127,1939 57 ± 15 3,78 0,445 Brown Dwarf-M8
Cha 110913-773444 13,73436 8 (+7, -3), (17) 1,8 0,5825 r. planet/ Brown Dwarf
PSO J318.5-22 12 8,4346 6,5 1,53 0,771 rogue planet
2MASS J0523−1403 2,42636 67,54 1,01 27,84 Brown Dwarf-L2.5V
EBLM J0555-57 1,396 85,2  (~0,081 Sun) 0,84  61,03 Brown Dwarf
2MASS 0939−2448 1,20576 20-50 (35)    0,8    29,0273 Brown Dwarf-T8
15 Sagittae 2,350 68,7      1          29,172 Brown Dwarf-L4
LHS 6343 c 1,13051 62,1      0,783  54,931 Brown Dwarf-T

Star Distance AU Mass Jup Radius Jup Temperature K Type planet

Srars generate their own energy. Planet reflected radiation, do not create their own energy.

2MASS J2126-8140 6.900,0 13,3 / 1.800,0 Planet
ROXs 42B b 140 9 0,9-3 1.800,0-2.600,0 Planet
HIP 65426 b 92 9 1,5 1.450,0 Planet
HR 8799 d 24 7 1,2 1.090,0 Planet; density 4 kg m³
HR 8799 c 38 7 1,3 1.090,0 Planet; density 3,2 kg m³
DH Tau B 330 11 2,7 2.750,0 Planet
UScoCTIO 108 b 670 14 0,9078 2.350,0 Planet
11 Oph b 472,9 21 0,9078 2.375,0 Planet
Table 1. Relationshift: Mass/volume, type of stars

The analysis of the objects' density in Table 1 (in the relation of mass/volume – star type) points out that there is no consistency that would be related to star types. Inside a same star type there are densities, which are lower, higher or the same as the one of Sun. The old concept's contours are clearly visible in the statements that smaller stars have higher densities and big red stars are inflated objects. [2] However, that concept also lacks consistency. It is particularly important to point out that the mass and radius estimates of the objects that are smaller than the mass and radius of Sun are generally only hypothesized (using the old hypotheses). [3]  If a star has the same mass or radius as Sun, the estimate of its density may follow several different hypotheses. For example, if an object is classified into a type of  "planets", it is less dense than a type known as a brown dwarf. Brown Dwarfs masses are 0,035 and 68,7 (2MASS 0939−2448 and 15 Sagittae) and it makes mass/volume ratio of 29,0273 and 29,1720 respectively. At the same time, planets with the distances of  38-6.900,0 AU have mass/volume ratio around 1 (ROXs 42B b ø 0,6036; 11 Oph b 11,8765). In a particular type of stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, there are stars with mass/volume ratio of 0,0002732 (WR 31a) to 50,4330 (WR 102). M type stars with large quantities of mass suggest their densities are low, because the effects of their slow rotation don't provide the same results with the objects they are interacted with, to the contrary of faster and fast rotating stars.  Generally, the decrease of density is ascribed to the stars with the increase of mass above 1 M Sun (Lambda Cephei   M 51 MSun, M/V 0,00292, T 36.000°K; NML Cygni M 51 MSun, M/V 0,000000013, T 2.500-3.250°K). 

Table 2. Density/temperature

Depth km Earth Component layer Density g/cm3 Temperature K
0–35 Crust 2,2–2,9 -86 to 200 (400)
35–2.890 Mantle 3,4–5,6 200-4.000
5.100–6.378 Inner core 12,8–13,1 5.400-5.700 (6.000)
>520.000,0 Sun Sun core 150 15,7 million
Table 2. Density/temperature

The temperature and density increases with depth. White dwarf temperatures do not follow this basic law. Their recommended density of 31.000,0 to above 460.000,0 (1.000.000-1.500.000) g/cm3 would generate temperatures above 100 billion K. Temperatures white dwarfs are from under 10.000 (4.270 ± 70 Gliese 223.2G 240-72 5.590,0± 90°K) to 200.000°K; (H1504 + 65, 200.000°K; 310.000 °K PSR B0943 + 10) [6]  like normal hot stars.

Table 3. Small stars/ temperature and type of star

Small star Mass Sun=1 Temper. K Type
Beta Pictoris b 0,0086-0,012 1.724 exoplanet, dist. 11,8 AU
ROXs 42Bb 0,0086 1.800-2.600 exoplanet, dist. 140 AU
CW Leonis 0,7-0,9 2.000,0 C9,5e
Kelu-1  0,060 2.020 brown dwarfs L2
Gliese 570 0,55 2.700 M1V
HIP 78530 b 0,022 2.800 exoplanet; dist. 710 AU
Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3,692 M0.5V
WD 0346+246 0,77 3.800 white dwarf 
Castor C 0.5992 3.820 BY Draconis dwarf stars
HIP 12961 0,63 3.838,0 red dwarf  M0V
LP 658-2 0,45 (0,80) 4.270 (5.180) white dwarf   DZ11.8
HR 9038 Ab 0,67 4.620,0 red dwarf  K3V
Groombridge 1830 0,661 4.759 G8 subdwarf
HD 134439 ~0,78 5.136,5 sd:K1Fe-1
AC Herculis 0,6 5.225 F2pIb
Mu Cassiopeiae 0,74 5.341 G5Vb
L 97-12 0,59 5.700,0 white dwarf  DC8.8
QX Andromedae sec 0,45 6.420 F6
S Arae 0,51 6.563 A3II
HR 4049 0,56 7.500 B9.5Ib-II
GD 356 0,67 7.510 white dwarf   DC7
Zeta Cygni B 0,6 12.000 white dwarf   DA4.2
40 Eridani B 0,573 16.500 white dwarf   DA4
Kepler-70 0,496 27.730 sdB
V391 Pegasi 0,5 29.300,0 subdwarf   star
2MASS J19383260+4603591 0,48 29.564 sdBV/M
PG 0112+104 0.52 ± 0.05 >30,000 white dwarf  
PG 1047+003 ~0,5 33.500 sdBe
LS IV-14 116 0,485 34.950 sdB0.5VIIHe18
HD 149382 0.29−0.53 35.000,0 B5 VI
NSVS 14256825 0,528 42.000,0 sdOB  / M V
Table 3. Small stars mass ~0,5 MSun (except 3 exoplanets and Kelu-1 ) in relation to temperature and type of stars

We see here that part of the white dwarfs is not separated from other star types in terms of temperature. The same mass of small stars does not give the same temperature. White dwarfs have low (3.800°K WD 0346+246; 4.270 (5.180) HIP 12961) and high temperatures (PG 0112+104 >30,000). The height of these temperatures covers the spectral type stars from K to O.

2.2. White Dwarfs vs. other types of stars with an emphasis on the speed of rotation
Now, let's determine which basic forces give stars different values of temperature,  luminosity, the relation of mass/radius and the value of surface gravity.

Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

Star Speed rotation Maas Sun=1 Radius Sun=1 Temperature K Type
White Dwarf 
GD 356 115 minutes 0,67 / 7.510,0 white dwarf 
EX Hydrae 67 minutes 0,55 ± 0.15 / / white dwarf 
AR Scorpii A 1,95 minutes 0,81 – 1,29 / / white dwarf pulsar
V455 Andromedae 67,62 second 0,6 / / white dwarf 
RX Andromedae 200 km/s 0,8  
white dwarf 
RX J0648.0-4418 13 second 1,3 / / white dwarf 
PSR J0348+0432 39,123 m. second 2,01 ± 0,04 13 ± 2 km / pulsar
Vela X-1 283 second 1,88 ~11,2 31.500 X-ray pulsar, B-type
Cen X-3 4,84 second 20,5 ± 0,7 12 39.000 X-ray pulsar
PSR B0943 + 10 1,1 second 0,02 2,6 km 310.000 pulsar
PSR 1257 + 12 6,22 m. second 1,4 10 km 28.856 pulsar
Wolf–Rayet stars
HD 5980 B <400  km/s 66 22 45.000 WN4
WR 2 500 km/s 16 0,89 141.000 WN2-w
WR 142 1.000 km/s 28,6 0,80 200.000 WO2
R136a2 200 km/s 195 23,4 53.000 WN5h
Normal hot stars
VFTS 102 600±100 km/s ~25 / 36.000 ± 5.000 O9:Vnnne
BV Centauri 500±100 km/s 1,18 / 40.000±1.000 G5-G8IV-V
Gamma Cassiopeiae 432 km/s 14,5 8,8 25.000 B0.5IVe
LQ Andromedae 300 km/s 8,0 3,4 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 220 km/s 22,5 – 56,6 14 - 26 40.000-44.000 O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 250 km/s 28 8,1 45.000 O5V
Melnick 42 240 km/s 189 21,1 47.300 O2If
BI 253 200 km/s 84 10,7 50.100 O2V-III(n)((f*))
Red Dwarf
Gliese 876 96,6 days 0,37 0,3761±0,0059 3.129 ± 19 M4V
Kepler-42 2,9±0.4 km/s 0,13±0,05 0,17±0,04 3.068±174 M5V
Kapteyn's star 9,15  km/s 0,274 0,291±0,025 3.550±50 sdM1
Wolf 359 <3,0 km/s 0,09 0,16 2.800 ± 100 M6.5 Ve
Normal cool stars
HD 220074 3,0 km/s 1,2 ± 0,3 49,7 ± 9,5 3.935 ± 110 M2III
V Hydrae 11 - 14 km/s 1,0 420 - 430 2.650 C6,3e
β Pegasi 9,7 km/s 2,1 95 3.689 M2.5II–IIIe
Betelgeuse km/s 11,6 887 ±203 3.590 M1–M2 Ia–ab
F Type Star
Beta Virginis 4,3 km/s 1,25 1,681 ± 0,008 6.132 ± 26 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  17 km/s 1,236 1,323 6.516 ± 19 F6 V
4 Equulei 6,2±1,0 km/s 1,39 ~1,2 6.213±63 F8 V
6 Andromedae 18 km/s 1,30 1,50 6.425±218 F5 V
Table 4. The relation (of the section of main star types) of rotation, mass, radius, temperature and type

A column "Speed rotation" points to very fast rotations of white dwarfs [4], [5], pulsars, Wolf–Rayet stars and O, B type stars.
Small hot stars [6] make a rotation in a very short period (from miliseconds to a few minutes). Large hot stars rotate at the speed of above 400 km/s (Gamma Cassiopeiae). White dwarfs with a diameter of ~80 km makes a rotation generally in a few seconds (RX J0648.0-4418 13 seconds).
Wolf–Rayet stars are very fast-rotating stars, the speeds of which can be up to 1.000 km/s, which is generally accompanied by very high temperatures (WR 142 200.000°K, 1.000 km/s).
With the decrease of the rotational speed there is also the decrease of a star's temperature. Here it needs to be mentioned that
Quote: Temperature and radiance are also affected by the tidal forces from the bigger or smaller binary effect, environment, the density of gas (layers) between the observer and a star, the speed of outer matter influx to the object, especially into a whirl or cyclone on the poles of a star (over 140 tons of space matter is falling daily to the surface of Earth [16]), different sums of the mass and rotation effects to the small and big stars. [7] end quote
Large (medium and small) red stars have the rotation from +0 to above 10 km/s and temperatures of 1.800 to above 4.000°K (S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Hya 2.160; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095;  etc.). [8]
A smaller star needs higher speed to achieve temperatures similar to those of large stars and the reason for it is that a larger object has more matter, which by friction and different speeds of rotation of different layers, creates higher temperatures.

Table 5.  The relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars

Star Temperature K Age Gyr Type of stars
Gliese 876 3.129,0 ± 19 0,1-9,9 M4V
LHS 1140 3.131 ± 100 >5 M4.5V
Kapteyn's star 3.550±50 ~11 sdM1
WD 0346+246 3.800 ± 100 11-12 white dwarf 
Castor C 3.820 370 Myr dM1e
G 240-72 5.590 ± 90 5,69 white dwarf  DQP9.0
G 99-47 5.790 ± 110 3,97 white dwarf  DAP8.9
V382 Carinae 5.866 6,8 G0-4-Ia
LSPM J0207+3331 6.120,0 3 white dwarf 
Beta Virginis 6.132 ± 26 2,9 ± 0.3 F9 V
pi3 Orionis  6.516 ± 19 1,4 F6 V
4 Equulei 6.213±63 3,07 F8 V
6 Andromedae 6.425±218 2,91 F5 V
GD 356 7.510,0 2,1 white dwarf 
Ross 640 8.100 1,2 white dwarf  DZA5.5
Denebola 8.500 100–380 Myr A3Va
LP 145-141  8.500 ± 300 1,44 white dwarf  DQ6
Gliese 318 9.120,0 550 Myr white dwarf  DA5.5
HD 21389 9.730 11 A0Iae
WD 0806−661 10.205 ± 390 0,62 white dwarf  DQ4.2
ε Reticuli B 15.310 ± 350 1,5 white dwarf 
η Aurigae 17.201 22-55 Myr B3V
GD 61 17.280 200 Myr white dwarf  DA
Sirius B 25.000 ± 200 228 Myr white dwarf  DA2
LQ Andromedae 40.000-44.000 3,4 Myr O4If(n)p
Zeta Puppis 40.000 3,2  Myr O4If(n)p
LH54-425 O5 45.000 2,0 Myr O5V
Melnick 42 47.300,0 ~1 Myr O2If
Table 5.  The relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars

By reviewing the relation white dwarfs / other star types within the relation: temperature / age of stars does not find separation of white dwarfs from other stars. White dwarfs are found within the range of K to O star type, in terms of the height temperature and the recommended age of stars. The temperature is directly related to the speed of rotation (with the exclusion of binary systems effects ...). this is shown in Table 4.
Table 6.   The relation temperature K / rotation speed

Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s
Slowly-rotating stars
Betelgeuse 3.590,0
Andromeda 8 3.616±22 5±1 
β Pegasi 3.689 9,7
Aldebaran 3.910 634 day
HD 220074 3.935 3
Beta Ursae Minoris 4.030 8
Arcturus 4.286 2,4±1,0
Hamal 4.480 3,44
Iota Draconis 4.545 1,5
Pollux 4.666 2,8
 ζ Cyg A 4.910 0,4 ± 0,5
Capella 4.970 4,1
The stars with fast and very fast rotations
Alpha Pegasi 9.765,0 125
Eta Ursae Majoris 16.823 150
η Aurigae 17.201 95
Spica secondary 20.900±800 199
Gamma Cassiopeiae 25.000 432
S Monocerotis 38.500 120
RX Andromedae (WD) 40.000,0 200
Zeta Puppis 40.000-44.000 220
HD 93129 42.500 130
LH54-425 O5 45.000 250
LH54-425 O3 45.000 197
HD 5980 B 45.000 400
Melnick 42 47.300 240
BI 253 50.100 200
HD 269810 52.500 173
WR 2 141.000 500
WR 142 200.000,0 1.000
Table 6.   The relation: temperature  / rotation speed

This table draws a sharp line between fast and slow rotating stars.
Quote: A star's speed of rotation causes its temperature (its temperature only partially depends on the mass of a star), its radius (ratio: the mass of a star / the radius of a star; Sun = 1), surface gravity and the color of a star. The stars with a slow rotation are "cold" stars (with the exclusion of binary systems effects), independently of the mass of a star and its radius. Their color is red and they are dominant in Universe
(M type of stars, 0,08–0,45 masses of Sun;  ≤ 0.7 R of Sun; 2.400–3.700°K; 76,45% of the total number of stars in Milky Way (Harvard spectral classification);
all red stars above  0,45 M of Sun are also included here, as well as the largest red (and other) stars in our galaxy). The stars with fast and very fast rotations are mostly present in nebulae, i.e., in the space which is rich with matter. Their total quantity in Milky Way makes 3,85% (O class ~0,00003%). [10] end of quote

2.3. Similar mass of stars it's situated in different classes (type) and different temperatures
Table 4. can be presented in such a way to create a relation: approximately the same mass/temperature and relate it to a star type. The relation has to show the same results for the same quantity of mass. It is unacceptable to claim that a single quantity of mass abides by several laws of nature or has several states, which would provide different results. The conditions should be almost identical or we are to explain, why a single quantity of mass has different laws of manifestation. The same goes for the claims that stars realize nuclear fission and fusion on the different levels, because there is one and the same quantity of mass on the same place.

Tabele 7. Star, type / mass / temperature

Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1 EZ Canis Majoris WN3-hv 19 89.100
2 Centaurus X-3 O 20,5 ± 0,7 39.000
3 η Canis Majores B 19,19 15.000
4 HD 21389 A 19,3 9.730
5 Kappa Pavonis F 19 - 25 5.250 - 6.350
6 V382 Carinae G 20 5.866
7  S Persei M 20 3.000-3.600
8 DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
9 HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 740 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
Table 7. Stars, similar mass (except No 8, 9, ), different classes (type) and temperatures [7]

It is obvious from the table that the relation of the same mass, different temperatures and the other star type can be met only by the evidence from the table 4 and 6. [7] , [10] The decrease of the rotational speed (with other incoming factors taken into consideration).
This is no exception, but rather a rule, that a majority of the diapason of the star mass, from the smallest to the largest, the stars belong to different types for any quantity of mass.

Table 8.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature

  Star Type Mass Sun=1 Temperature °K
1. WR 2, WN4-s 16 141.000
2. μ Columbae O 16 33.000
3. Deneb A 19 8.525
3. Gamma Cassiopeiae B 17 25.000
4.  VY Canis Majoris M 17 3.490
5. DH Tauri b Planet; dist. 330 AU 12 M Jupiter 2.750
6. HIP 78530 b Planet; dist. 710 AU 24 M Jup. 2.700 (2.800)
7. NML Cygni M 50 3.834
Table 8.  Type/ mass ~17/temperature [10]

Table 9.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

Star Type Mass (Sun = 1) Temperature K Radius (Sun=1)
S Pegasi M5e - M8.5e 1,4-1,8 2.107 459-574
R Leporis C7,6e(N6e) 2,5 – 5 2.245-2.290 400±90
Rho Orionis  K0 III 2,67 4.533 25
29_Orionis G8IIIFe-0.5 2,33 4.852 10,36
BX_Andromedae F2V 2,148 6.650 2,01
Mu_Orionis Aa 2,28 8.300 2,85
3_Centauri B8V 2,47 9.638 2,8
Vela X-1 B0.5Ib pulsar 1,88 31.500 ~11,2
HD_49798 sdO5.5 1,50 47.500 1,45
PSR J0348+0432 pulsar 2,01 / 13±2 km
14 Aurigae white dwarf 1,64 7.498 /
GQ Lupi b planet 1-36 MJup. 2.650 ± 100 Distance 100 AU
Table 9.  Type/mass ~2/temperature and radius

The result of the two Sun masses is taken to exclude the discussions of the existence of different types of combustion that are created due to different star formations. This is particularly expressed by the planet display, with temperatures of 2650 ± 100, which is a star with an independent process of creating warmth and radiation. This is stressed in the table 4, with planets which temperatures are ~2.700°K and their mass being from 12-24 masses of Jupiter, and the star NML Cygni with its mass of 50 MSun and the temperature of 3.834°K.

2.4. Bodies in distant orbits can be stars – planets

Table 10. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance

Planet and Brown dwarf Mass of Jup. Temperature°K Distance AU

HD 106906 b 11±2 1.800 120
1RXS 1609 b 8 (14) 1.800 330
Cha 110913-773444 8 (+7; -3) 1.300 -1.400  
OTS 44 11,5 1.700 - 2.300  
GQ Lupi b 1 - 36 2.650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9 1.950 ± 100 157
HD 44627 13 - 14 1.600 -2.400 275
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
2M1207b 4 (+6; -1) 1.600±100 40
2M 044144 9,8±1,8 1.800 15 ± 0.6
2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
HR 8799 c  7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~38
HR 8799 d 7 (+3; -2) 1.090 (+10; -90) ~24
HIP 65426 9,0 ±3,0 1.450.0 (± 150,0) 9
Table 10. Bodies with mass to 13 mass of Jupiter/temperature and distance

Table 6. eliminates the claims that objects below 13 masses of Jupiter can't have an independent production of high temperatures, which is measured also on stars S Cassiopeiae 1.800;  W Aquilae 1.800; V Cyg 1.875; V384 Per 1.820; S Aur 1.940°K. [8]

2.5. Observing the density of bodies in our system

Table 11. Rotation/density

Body Rotation   Mean density g/cm3 Mass Jupiter=1 Magnetic field G Type
Sun 25,38 day 1,408 1047 1-2 (10–100 sunspots) G2V
Jupiter 9,925 hours 1,326 1 4,2 (10–14 poles) planets
Saturn 10,64 hours 0,687 0,299 0,2 planets
Uranus (−)0,718 33 day 1,27 0,046 0,1 planets
Neptune 0,6713 day 1,638 0,054 0,14 planets
PSR J1745-2900 3,76 second  / 1-3 (mass Sun) 1014 pulsar
Sirius A 16 km/s 2,063±0,023 MSun weak A0mA1 Va
Table 11. Rotation/density

Here I will give an additional explanation for a claim that "A small star with a high mass will have a high density, because all of its mass is getting squeezed into a small space…hence, it’s very dense. A larger star of the same mass will have a lower density due to its stuff not getting squeezed so much."[11] through the rotation of an object around its axis.
Jupiter has the fastest rotation in our system, but it doesn't affect the density of the planet – it is lower than the one of Sun, Neptune and Pluto. Saturn is particularly interesting  with its lowest density ( Pan 0,42 g/cm³, Atlas 0,46 g/cm³, Pandora 0,48 g/cm³, Prometheus 0,48±0,09 g/cm³ 67P/Ch-G  0,533 g/cm³, Amalthea 0,857±0,099 g/cm³) in the table 7. This states that density doesn't change with the increase of mass, temperature and the speed of rotation. The speed of rotation in our system is significant with the objects that are inside the area, rich with matter, i.e., the area, where disks of gas and asteroid belts are created. The higher the frequency of matter incoming onto an object generally means that the discussed object will have a faster rotation and higher temperature. Fast-rotating hot stars are generally situated in those parts of the space, which is rich with matter (nebulae).

Table 12. ~ % Mass of satellites, Satellites /Central body

Body ~ % Mass of satellites
Satellites /Central body
Mean density kg/m3
Pluto 12,2 1750
Earth 1,23 5515
Neptune 0,385 1638
Sun 0,14 1408
Saturn 0,024   687
Jupiter 0,021 1326
Uranus 0,00677 1270
Table 12. ~ % Mass of satellites Satellites /Central body

If only the influence of gravity on the objects in an orbit or in the correlation of two stars is exclusively measured, that would be a wrong thing to do and it is presented in table 12. Pluto is the smallest object and it has the biggest percentage of its satellites' mass in the relation an object's mass/its satellites' mass in the orbit. The stars with a fast rotation create impressive systems, independently of their mass or radius, to the opposite of the stars with a slow rotation.

a fast rotating star
Figure 1. a fast rotating object

2.6. The band of matter concentration and the influence of rotational speed on bodies in orbits and centers of galaxies
In the formula for determining the behavior of planets, must be included temperatures of space and proximity to the central body, with special observation of the belt that is richer in matter.
Confirmation of this correctness it's easy to see that the satellites of Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune .. are in the zone where matter is concentrated. Their mass is significantly larger than other satellites.
It is obligatory to observe here reducing the distance of that belt, with shrinking temperatures of space as the planets move away from the central body, independent of the mass of the central body and the speed of rotation, though mass and the speed of rotation is and here very important.

Table 13. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1

Exoplanets Mass Jup. orbital periods days Distance AU BD + 20 2457 c =1 orbital periods days
BD + 20 2457 c 12,47 621,99 2,01 1
HD 213240 b 4,5 951 2,03 +329,01
OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb 0,73 1.788,5 2,3 +1.166,51
Gliese 317 b 2,5 692 1,5 +70,01
HD 95089 b 1,2 507 1,51 -114,99
HD 183263 b 3,67 626,5 1,51 +4,5
HD 143361 b 3,48 1.046,2 1,98 +424,21
HD 5319 b 1,76 641 1,6697 +19,01
V391 Pegasi b 3,2 1.170 1,7 +548,01
Table 13. Orbital periods days, distance, mass; BD + 20 2457 c =1

Table 9. shows that similar or identical distance of planets from their central object doesn't result with the same orbital period. This data is seriously undermining the idea of the uniformed reduction of the gravitational influence on the objects in our system and it shows that the speed of the objects in the orbit depends on mass as well as on the rotational speed of the central object and the mass of the objects in the orbit.
All these principles mentioned above are the same for the galactical centers, which are the largest objects in the Universe.

Table 14. galaxies, type / rotational speed

  Galaxies Type galaxies Speed of galaxies

Fast-rotating galaxies

1 RX J1131-1231 quasar „X-ray observations of  RX J1131-1231 (RX J1131 for short) show it is whizzing around at almost half the speed of light.  [22] [23]
2 Spindle galaxy elliptical galaxy „possess a significant amount of rotation around the major axis“
3 NGC 6109 Lenticular Galaxy Within the knot, the rotation measure is 40 ± 8 rad m−2 [24]

Contrary to: Slow Rotation

4 Andromeda Galaxy spiral galaxy maximum value of 225 kilometers per second 
5 UGC 12591 spiral galaxy the highest known rotational speed of about 500 km/s,
6 Milky Way spiral galaxy 210 ± 10 (220 kilometers per second Sun)
Table 14. (7) galaxies, relationship: type galaxies / rotational speed of galaxies; No 1-3 Fast-rotating galaxies, No 4-6 Slow-rotating galaxies. From [10]

3. Conclusion
When there is an increase of data quantity in the database, the preconditions are created to discuss the white dwarfs within realistic values as small, fast-rotating stars with the density, which is similar to other, both medium and large, hot stars. Small fast-rotating stars (white dwarfs, pulsars, neutron stars, Wolf–Rayet stars, proto stars) have gas disks or significant asteroid belts, because they are formed inside the space, rich with matter. [7]   
Very fast rotation of the central body creates fast orbits of gas, small and large objects.
With the constant increase of matter [9], a star gathers it from the orbits (including the process of migration of hydrogen and helium from the smaller objects towards a star [12]) and, because of growth, disks and asteroid belts are growing smaller, accordingly to the relation of: a star's mass/the mass of matter in its orbit.
Due to high temperatures of the fast-rotating stars, matter disintegrates into hydrogen (some helium is the product of the process of constant joining of particles). The traces of complex elements on hot objects are detected because there is a constant daily influx of matter, within which there are complex elements and compounds.
The speed of rotation with the increase of an object's mass affects more the level of temperature, because more quantity of mass gives an object a more complex structure, higher values of matter mixture and the creation of higher forces of pressure and friction. A higher value of particle work and a higher quantity of work, due to rotation, binary effects,... make the difference between cold and hot stars. When binary effects, made by the activity of gravity (the attraction force of matter), are ruled out, the rotation speed of an object determines  the speeds of gas orbits and objects, with the remark that every object has an area in which matter is concentrated. Masses of the objects in that area are larger than masses of the objects in the orbit and therefore gas, dust and asteroids (disks and asteroid areas) are concentrated in such areas. [13], [14], [15], [16]

[1]. 272 linnks type RX J1131-1231HD 183263 bJupiter; GQ Lupi b; dist. 330 AU; BI 253 etc. in one to multiple steps leads to the source
[2]. How do star densities work?
[3]. How to Calculate Stellar Radii
[4] „White Dwarf Stars“  Last Modified: December 2010
[5].  "The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars" Shmuel Balberg and Stuart L. Shapiro∗ Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801
[6].  February 4, 2009 by fraser cain, „White Dwarf Stars“
[7]. „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 3.4. The density of smaller objects and stars, W.Duckss
[8].  „Constraints on the H2O formation mechanism in the wind of carbon-rich AGB stars?“  R. Lombaert1, 2 , L. Decin2, 3 , P. Royer2 , A. de Koter2, 3 , N.L.J. Cox2 , E. González-Alfonso4 , D. Neufeld5 , J. De Ridder2 , M. Agúndez6 , J.A.D.L. Blommaert2, 7 , T. Khouri1, 3 , M.A.T. Groenewegen8 , F. Kerschbaum9 , J. Cernicharo6 , B. Vandenbussche2 , and C. Waelkens2 1
[9]. Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
2.2. The effects of the stars' speed of rotation W.D.
[11].  Star Mass and Density june 13, 2018 / Emma
[12].  „Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“ the Intellectual Archive W.D.
[13]. Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
[14]. Rea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus
[15]. Proteus, Triton, Nereid
[16]. Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon


2. When Occurring Conditions for the emergence of life new

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 july 2019
Author Weitter Duckss
Independent Researcher, Zadar, Croatia

In this article, it is discussed about the conditions, needed on an object to support the appearance of life. The evidence are presented to support the idea that, due to the constant growth of the objects and the rotation around their axes, such conditions are attainable even to the orbiting objects outside the Goldilocks zone, no matter how far their orbits may be. The same goes for the conditions to support the appearance of life on the independent objects.
At all distances there are objects with more or less expressed high temperature, i.e., with the increased radiation emission. Before they become stars (i.e., completely melted objects), objects have a thinner or thicker crust with very active geological processes that create complex elements and compounds, which are the key factors that, during a longer period of time, lead to the appearance of life. The appearance of life is not related to zones, but to the relatively short period of an object's transition from an object with a melted interiority into the object that is completely melted and not suitable for life to appear. Except the processes of growth and rotation, all parts of the system are also discussed, in terms of the places and ways in which matter is presented, as it dictates the pace of the objects' growth and the conditions on an object, when hydrogen, H2, and helium, He, stop migrating towards the central or another larger object.

Keywords: Habitable Zone,

1. Introduction
The processes of the constant growth, the rotation around an axis, the influences of tidal forces (binary effects), a melted interiority of objects, very active geological processes, the existence of working temperatures for elements and compounds (melting and boiling points), the temperatures of space, a migration of H2 and He towards the central or another object with a larger mass, the fact whether an object is placed before, after or in the area, where gas disks and asteroids appear – these are the conditions that determine when and on what objects would the conditions to support life appear.
The article about the appearance of life will discuss the conditions to support the appearance and the progress of life; extreme conditions in which microorganisms can survive will not be discussed here, because these conditions are not suitable to support (more complex forms of) life appearance and its progress.

2. A constant growth causes optimal temperatures for the appearance of life
A constant growth is a sum of the different quantities of growth of the objects in a star system. The differences are present in the respective masses of the objects, their chemical compositions, the existence of atmosphere and its composition, the speed of rotation around the axis. [1] In our system there are inner small planets and objects, then large objects with impressive atmospheres (these are located in the area rich with matter) and smaller objects outside that area.
Matter in an orbit around a star or smaller objects gets concentrated in the asteroid belt (when the rotation of a star around its axis is relatively slow) or in the disk of gas, dust, smaller and larger objects, when a star rotates faster around its axis. Generally, the objects in this area rotate faster than inner and outer objects of a star system. It needs to be mentioned here that the objects, captured in an orbit, may have different masses, no matter how far the orbit may be from a central object. Inside a star system and due to a constant object growth, smaller stars with high temperatures make orbits around a central star (due to fast rotations around their axes and the mass of an object).

Table 1. planets, large distance orbits, mass/temperature

  Planet Mass of Jupiter Temperature K Distance AU
1 GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
2 ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
3 HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
4 CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
5 HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
6 1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
7 UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
8 Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243

Table 1. Planets at a great distance from the stars with high temperatures and different mass. [2]

Only very distant stars or planets that achieve their temperatures on their own, without a central object, are included in this table. They are shown as the examples here to avoid the discussions that would state that objects that are close to a star achieve their temperatures exclusively through the extreme radiation of the central object. High temperatures are registered in data bases at all distances.
Sirius B is distant 20 AU (Uranus' orbit), T 25.200° K (Sirius A 9.940° K); Procion B 15 AU, T 7.740° K (Procion A 6.350°K), 40 Eriidani B (C) 400 AU (B i C 15 AU between themselves) T 16.500°K (B) / 3.100 (C) / 5.300 (A); Acrux B 1 AU, T 28.000° K (Acrux A T 24.000); Epsilon Aurigae B 18 AU, T 15.000 (A 7.750° K)..
The stars (and planets) with a small radius and mass have temperatures higher or similar as a part of large central stars.

Table 2. Cold stars, mass/radius

  Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature °K
1 R Cygni  / 2.200
2 CW Leonis 700 2.200
3 IK Tauri 451-507 2.100
4 W Aquilae 430-473 1.800 (2250-3175)
5 T Cephei 329 +70 -50 2.400
6 S Pegasi  459-574 2.107
7 Chi Cygni 348-480 2.441-2.742
8 R Leporis 400±90 2.245-2.290
9 R Leonis Minoris  569±146 2.648
10 S Cassiopeiae 930 1.800

Table 2. Cold stars in relationship: mass/radius Sun=1).

A few more examples cool Stars: RW Lmi 2.470° K; V Hya 2.160° K; II Lup 2.000; V Cyg 1.875; LL Peg 2.000; LP And 2.040; V384 Per 1.820; R Lep 2.290; W Ori 2.625; S Aur 1.940; QZ Mus 2.200; AFGL 4202 2.200: V821 Her 2.200; V1417 Aql 2.000; S Cep 2.095; RV Cyg 2.675° K.. [2]
These indicators point to a different perspective on the so-called zones suitable for the appearance of life. Just before the creation of these stars in the orbit, as a result of insufficient mass and possibly a slower rotation, these objects had a crust and atmosphere, i.e., they were objects with a melted interiority and very active geological processes.

3. The speed of rotation around the axis of an object accelerates the rise of temperature and creates a global magnetic field
A speed of rotation around an axis, with the binary effects and mass included, determines the level of temperature of an object. At the same time it enables the appearance of geological processes, because of the temperature amplitudes between a day and a night. A rotation creates a global magnetic field on the objects with a melted interiority and on stars.

  Brown dwarf (& planets) Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

1 2MASS J2126-8140 13,3 (± 1,7) 1.800 6.900
2 Gliese 570 ~50 750 - 800 1.500

3 B Tauri FU 15 2.375 700
4 DENIS J081730.0-615520 15 950  

Table 3. Brown dwarf and planets (at a great distance), relationship:mass up to 15 MJ/(vs) mass above 15 M and Mass vs Mass and temperature. [2]

The objects from the table 3 have very distant orbits, where the influence of a central object is marginal. At the same time it is seen that the mass of an object is not responsible for the level of temperature. It should be particularly pointed out that a smaller quantity of mass is enough for an object to independently produce temperatures that are required for the appearance of life.

   Brown dwarf & planets Mass of Jupiter Temperature °K Planets orbit AU

  Mass up to 13 Mass of Jupiter
1 CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7  ~700  
2 PSO J318.5-22 6,5 1.160  
3 2MASS J11193254-1137466 (AB) ~5-10 1.012 3,6±0,9
4 GU Piscium b 9-13 1.000 2.000
5 WD 0806-661  6-9  300-345 2.500
6 Venus 0,002 56 737 0,723
7 Earth 0,003 15 184 - 330 1,00

Table 4. brown dwarfs and planets (at a great distance from the star) with a temperature above 500 ° C. [2]

The objects from 1-5 achieve high temperatures independently. Venus makes it possible due to the tidal forces of Sun and Earth does it independently and with the binary effects, too. The objects can achieve the optimal temperatures for the appearance and progress of life at all distances from a central object. Those objects that have an independent rotation and are closer to the central object make the optimal temperature conditions with the quantity of mass, which is lesser than the one of Earth and the distance a bit shorter than 1 AU. (depending on the speed of rotation and mass of the central object). With the increase of distance and the reduction of the tidal force effects, the objects need to gain mass and/or increase the speed of rotation to achieve the temperatures that are optimal for the appearance of life. The object 2MASS J2126-8140 is a star (T 1.800° K) with its mass of 13,3 (± 1,7) masses of Jupiter, at the distance of 6.900 AU, OTS 44 is a central object, which mass is 11,5 MJ (1.700 - 2.300° K), ROXs 42Bb  9 MJ, T 1.950 ± 100° K, distance  157 AU..

  Star Temperature K Rotation speed km/s Radius Sun 1

1 8_Andromeda 3.616±22 5±1  30
2 β Pegasi 3.689 9,7 95
3 Aldebaran 3.910 634 day 44,2
4 HD 5980 B 45.000 400 22
5 BI 253 50.100 200 10,7
6 HD 269810 52.500 173 18
7 WR 142 200.000 1.000 0,40

Table 5. Stars, relationship: temperature/rotation speed/ surface gravity and mass/radius. No 1-3 cold stars, 4-7 hot stars.[2]

Table 5 exhibits a primary influence of rotation to the level of temperature. Without rotation, the objects with completely or partially melted interiority can have no global magnetic field, which is an effective protector of an environment, in which simple and complex living organisms are created and existing.

Body Rotation speed magnetic field G, Mass (Sun 1) Radius

Sun 25,38 day 1-2 G (0.0001-0.0002 T) 1 696.392 km
Jupiter 9.925 h 4,2 G equ. 10-14G poles 0,0009 69,911 km
SGR 1806-20 7,5 s 1015 G 1 – 3 >20 km

Table 6. The bodies, relationship: rotation speed/magnetic field and radius. [1] 

The lack of global magnetic field is registered on Venus, Mars and other objects without a melted interiority (Uranus 0,1 Gauss, Neptune 0,14 G, Saturn 0,2 G, Jupiter 4,2 G, Pluto has no global magnetic field ..).

4. Working temperatures of elements and compounds and chemical composition
The quantity of elements (mass fraction (ppm)) in our galaxy: Hydrogen 739.000, Helium 240.000, Oxygen 10.400, Carbon 4.600, Neon 1.340, Iron 1,090, Nitrogen 960 ..
This is, roughly, similar to the chemical composition of gaseous planets and Sun - that quantity is almost all of the matter in our system.
Opposite to these objects, Earth has chemical composition of the crust: chemical composition of the crust: Silica SiO2 60.2%; Alumina Al2O3 15.2%; Lime CaO 5.5%; Magnesia MgO 3.1%; iron(II) oxide FeO 3.8%; sodium oxide Na2O 3.0%; potassium oxide K2O 2.8%; iron(III) oxide Fe2O3 2.5%; water H2O 1.4%; carbon dioxide CO2 1.2%; titanium dioxide TiO2 0.7% (Total ~100%).
Inner objects cannot hold H2 and He, which migrate towards Sun. This is the reason why an object that lacks independent rotation or insufficient mass has no significant quantities of water (Venus, Mars, Ceres, Vesta,...). The objects in the external orbits produce very low (minor) quantities of O2 and they also cannot produce significant quantities of water.
This is, of course, valid with the existing mass of the object in the orbit and their rotation speeds. With the increase of mass ( ~1,5 of the mass of Earth, depending on rotation) Mars will be able to hold a part of its hydrogen in the compounds of CH4, H2O, NH3 etc. although hydrogen will continue to migrate towards Sun.
In the area rich with matter, due to "fast" growth, the objects have a shorter period that is suitable to the appearance of life. The period becomes unsuitable when an object's mass reaches a point, after which hydrogen and helium remain on the object.
The objects outside the area rich with matter are in a significantly better position. These objects achieve a melted interiority when their mass equals a few masses of Earth.
Nowadays, on these distances, the objects that are below the mass of Jupiter are registered and their temperatures are significantly high (at these distances it is impossible to detect an object, unless it has a significantly high temperature (the radiation emission):(OGLE-2011-BLG-0173L b 0,19 MJup, dist. 10 AU; HD 163296 b 0,3 MJ, dist. 105 AU; HD 163296 c 0,3 MJ, dist 160 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-028L b 0,094 MJ, dist. 7,14 AU; MOA-2011-BLG-274 b 0,8 MJ, dist. 40 AU ..).
High temperatures are estimated at the objects, which mass is only a few times larger than the one of Jupiter: (Planet HD 95086 b  2.6 (± 0.4) MJ, distance 61.7 (-8.4 +20.7) AU, T 1.050° K; 2M1207b 4 (+6−1) MJ, dist. 24–231 AU, T 1600 ± 100 K; HR 8799 b 5 (+2, -1) MJ, ~68 AU, T 870 (+30, -70) K; GJ 504 b 4 MJ, dist. 43,5 AU,  544±10 ° K...).
The independent objects with high temperatures (brown dwarfs) are nowadays detected with the mass of 5 and more masses of Jupiter: (ULAS J0034-00 0,005 M Sun, T 550 – 600°K; WISE 1828+2650  3 – 6 M Jup, T 250 – 400° K; WISE 0855−0714  ~3 – 10 MJ, T 225- 260° K; CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4-7 MJ, T ~700° K; PSO J318.5-22 6,5 MJ, T 1160; ..).

A chemical composition of the objects in an orbit depends also on:
Quote: „ there are objects that are formed in a cold space without approaching a star and there are objects, the structures of which are formed in the interaction with a star. Within these two types there is the heating of an object, due to the increase of its mass (the forces of pressure) and due to the actions of tidal forces.. Furthermore, chemical complexity is influenced by the rotation around the axis (the temperature differences of day and night), the temperature differences on and off the poles, geological and volcanic activity (cold and hot outbursts of matter), etc. Planets emit more energy than they get in total from their stars (Uranus emits the least (1,06±0,08), Neptune 2,61(1,00 stands for zero emission of its own), while Venus emits the most of its own energy and has the most significant volcanic (hot) activity in our system).
The lack of O2 points out that extreme cold does not favor the appearance of that element. It gets replaced by N2. A lack of H2 points out that an object has been near a star for a long time. The comet shows the process of removing volatile elements and compounds (those with low operating temperatures) from an object.
The objects closer to a star have an abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere and on the surface. The lack of hydrogen is particularly seen on Mars4, since there isn't any in the atmosphere or on the surface. The more distant planets have a lack of oxygen and big amounts of hydrogen (on smaller objects, like Titan or Pluto, it gets replaced by N2 and hydrogen compounds (CH4, CxHx, NH3 i td).“ [2] end quote.

The temperature of space and an object determines, which elements create its atmosphere and enter the processes of the object's chemical structure construction.
The working temperature of water is from 0 to +100°C; oxygen from -218,35 to -188,14°C; nitrogen from -209,86 to -195,75°C; methane from -182,5 to -161,49; hydrogen from -259,14 to -252,87°C; helium from -272,20 to -268,934°C; sulphur dioxide from -72 do -10°C , etc.
Temperature and distance of the body in our system: Mercury distance 0.387 098 AU, temperature 80 – 700° K; Venus 0.723332 AU; 750 K; Earth 1 AU, 144-330 K; Mars 1.523679 AU, 130-308 K; Jupiter 5.2044 AU, 112-165 K; Saturn 9.5826 AU, 85-134° K; Titan 9.5826 AU, 93,7 K; Uranus 19.2184 AU, 47-76 K; Neptune 30,11 AU, 55-72 K; Pluto 39,48 AU, 33-55 K..
In the elements' and compounds' working temperature / the temperature of the object ratio, it can be determined, which elements and compounds will create the atmosphere and the structure of the object. If the temperature is above the boiling point of oxygen, which is 90,188 K (on Jupiter, it is 112-165 K), such an object needs to have almost all of its oxygen in the atmosphere; when all the compounds containing oxygen and oxygen itself are taken into account, there are only traces of water (0.0004%±0.0004%) on Jupiter.
There are some species on Earth that can use a kind of antifreeze and successfully progress in cold types of climate. Microorganisms on Earth can endure the temperatures from -20° C (Synechococcus lividus) do 121° C (Pyrolobus fumariiPyrococcus furiosus ). [3]  
antifreeze is a complex sugar called xylomannan). The spores of the bacterial species of Bacillus have endured having been heated to the temperature of 420 ° C . [4]
However, we discuss here the environment that is suitable for the appearance of (more complex forms of) life, because only when life appears and progresses to a certain level, there is a possibility to discuss the conditions, in which life can survive and adapt. Such an environment does not include extreme temperatures, in which survive such organisms that were created somewhere else and have evolved to survive in the extreme conditions. The appearance of life needs an optimal and balanced temperature in a long period of time. Besides such an atmosphere, these objects must have significant quantities of compounds that are a base to create life. The problem of our (star system's) planets is they have no liquids that would stay in the same place in the liquid form for a long period of time.

5. Conclusion
In reality, the appearance and progress of life are to be expected on all objects, but only during a particular period of time and under the conditions, needed for such an object to progress. Finally, these conditions come down to the achievement of the melted interiority and an independent rotation – which should not be extremely slow. Under these conditions, geological processes become very active. In the process of interaction of the melted interiority with crust, atmosphere and liquids in or on the crust, a complex atoms and compounds are created. Inside our system, nowadays only Earth meets these conditions. __________________________________________________________________

[1].  „2. A Constant Growth of Objects And Systems Inside the Universe“ W.D.
[2].  „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ „Effects of Rotation Araund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe“ 2.6. „The Types of Stars with Similar Mass and Temperature Axis“ DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908
[4]. „A sugar-based polymer produced by an Alaskan darkling beetle keeps cell contents from freezing in extreme cold temperatures by attaching to the cell membrane.“



Demoliranje Hubble's law, Big Bang, osnova "moderne" i crkvene kozmologije

English  Demolition Hubble's law, Big Bang the basis of "modern" and ecclesiastical cosmology
Pусский Снос закон Хаббла, Big Bang, основа “современной” и церковную космология

„Ako su dva predmeta predstavljani kugličnim ležajevima i prostornim vremenom istezanjem gumenog lima, učinak Dopplera uzrokovan je valjanjem kuglica preko listova kako bi se stvorio neobičan pokret.  Kozmološki crveni pomak događa se kada su kuglični ležajevi zaglavljeni na listi i list je rastegnut.“ Wikipedia
Dobro, provjerimo to na našoj lokalnoj skupini galaksija (tablica iz moga članka „Where did the blue spectral shift inside the universe come from?“)

Hubble constant "Za većinu druge polovice 20. stoljeća vrijednost procijenjeno je između 50 i 90 (km / s) / Mpc . (danas postoji nekoliko konstanti, sve su oko 70 km/s)."
Opet ne valja nešto sa zakonom i konstantom!  M90 je udaljena 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly i gle čuda, ima plavi pomak od −282 ± 4 km/s ! 
Galaksije na udaljenosti 32,6 Mly prema, tko zna čijoj konstanti, trebaju imati oko 700 km/s, na dvostrukoj udaljenosti od 65,2 Mly trebaju imati brzinu udaljavanja oko 1.400 km/s, itd.
Zanimljivo je da

NGC 1.600 je udaljena 149,3 Kly i ima brzinu 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c
je udaljena 35 Mly ima brzinu (red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010
je udaljena 140 Mly i ima brzinu od 2.975 ± 27!
NGC 280 je udaljena 464 Mly i ima brzinu od 3.878! ...

Ovi dečki i cure koji vrše mjerenja su nešto promašili ili je neupotrebljiv Hubble´s zakon i konstanta (bilo čija vrijednost konstante).

Na udaljenosti od 52 ± 3 (M86) imamo plavi pomak (-244 ± 5 km/s) koji imamo i kod galaksije M90  na udaljenosti 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), dok su ostale galaksije na istoj udaljenosti (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99, NGC 4419) sa pozitivnim predznakom (osim NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) i potpuno različitim brzinama.



Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

English Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Pусский Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса


U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom ( knjiga- 2008.g.)

Kratka knjiga. Građa knjige je o Svemiru, utkana je u svakodnevnicu i poratna zbivanja, prožeta humorom i zamišljenim razgovorima sa autorima radova o kojima se raspravlja dok nastaje novi rad.


1 Rasprava sa Hawkingom   2 Fotoni javite se
3 Hubbleova konstanta   4 CERN-ova unaprijed izgubljena bitka ...


Članci su objavljeni u:

Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal
DOI: "Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)" 2020.y.

DOI " The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe" November 2019

International Journal of Sciences
DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1908 "Effects of Rotation Around the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe" march 2019

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2115 When Occurring Conditions for the Emergence of Life and a Constant Growth, Rotation and its Effects, Cyclones, Light and Redshift in Images, International Journal of Sciences july 2019.

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2177 ~ 2 ` 11 a 23-31  Volume 8 - Nov 2019 White Dwarfs are Small, Fast-Spinning Hot Stars

The Intellectual Archive Journal
DOI:„Why do Hydrogen and Helium Migrate“; April 2019.

American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13 "The processes which cause the appearance of objects and systems" november 2018 2017 .y. 5.2017.y. 30.7.2017.y. 7/2018 31.08.2017.y. 13.10.2017.y. 11.2017.  2018.y. 2018 Duckss profil) etc. Universe and rotation The observation process in the universe etc. и т.д.

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Memorial center Nikola Tesla Croatia, Smiljan


Nikola-Tesla Memorijalni Centar Nikola Tesla, Smiljan, Coratia