Svemir-se-vrti
English
Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe Universe and rotation (+23 New articles) The universe is rotating, after all
Pусскй
Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса Вселенная и вращение (+ 23 Новые статьи) Вселенная всё-таки вращается
Hrvatski Weitter Duckss teorija svemira Svemir i vrtnja (+ 23 novih članaka) Objavljeni članci (2013, 14, 15.) Svemir, što je to U potrazi za izgubljenim svemirom (knjiga)

2004.
Theory of Zadar Zadarska teorija
rast-tijela
rast-tijela rast-tijela
 Kontakt e-mail:wduckss@gmail.com

Što je istina o Big Bang-u?

English 
Pусскй

Pogledajmo neke moje starije članke uz korištenje malo više relacija: dokazi / hipoteze. Tema ekspanzija, CMB, plavi pomak, ...

Hubble je uz pomoć Dopplerovog efekta zaključio da su udaljenosti galaktike i njene brzine udaljavanja proporcionalni tj. da se dalje galaktike udaljavaju od nas većim brzinama. Ta se proporcionalnost može izraziti formulom koju nazivamo Hubbleov zakon : v = H0 r. Wikipedia hr.

Najudaljeniji objekti u svemiru su galaksije GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (milijardi svjetlosnih godina), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly itd.

„Pojam „protogalaxy” je općenito prihvaćeno da znači „preci današnjih (normalnih) galaksija, u ranim fazama stvaranja”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protogalaxy

Svemir je star (Wikipedia,  arXiv:1502.01589 ) 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years (milijardi godina).

Big Bang teorija je prevladavajući kozmološki opis razvoja svemira. Prema ovoj teoriji, prostor i vrijeme pojavili zajedno 13.799 ± 0,021 milijarde godina prije [2] s fiksnom količinom energije i materije koja je postala manje gusta kao Svemir se širi. Nakon početne ekspanzije, svemir ohladi, čime prve atomske čestice da se dobije te jednostavne atome . Div oblaci kasnije spojio preko gravitacije u obliku galaksija, zvijezda, i sve ostalo i danas vide  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe#cite_note-Planck_2015-2

“Brzina svjetlosti u vakuumu iznosi 3x108 m/s, tačnije 299.792.458 metara u sekundi.  Kao i “S obzirom na širenje povećava kako povećanje udaljenosti, udaljenost između dvaju udaljenih galaksija može povećati na više od 3 × 10 8 m / s,” Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redshift#Expansion_of_space

Ako se je emisija svjetlosti dogodila prije 13,39 milijardi svjetlosnih godina (GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (milijardi svjetlosnih godina), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly itd) da li je svjetlost uopće putovala  ovih 13,39 mlrd. sg,  kako je mi danas možemo vidjeti?
(pri čem je H0 - Hubbleova konstanta, koeficijent razmjernosti kojoj se danas vrijednost procjenjuje između 60 i 70 km/s po mega parseku (Mpc). Brzina udaljavanja mjeri se pomakom spektralnih linija prema crvenom dijelu spektra, dakle povećanjem njihovih valnih duljina, što se tumači Dopplerovim učinkom. Wiki)

Universe-rasprava
Snimak ESA

Ako službena znanost tvrdi:  “Svemir se širi”. Mi moramo imati mali svemir (mali promjer) 300-400 tisuća godina nakon takozvanog Velikog praska i veliki svemir gdje su “Najudaljeniji objekti u svemiru su galaksije GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (milijardi svjetlosnih godina), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly itd“.
„Oko 300 000 godina nakon Velikog praska, pri temperaturi od 3000 K, svemir postaje proziran. Wikipedia hr.
i još kažu
“ Svjetlost koja nam dolazi sa "rubova" svemira krenula je na svoj put prema nama u vrijeme zadnjih raspršenja fotona na 3000 K. Ovu je svjetlost prikupio satelit COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer), a kasnije i WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). “

Sada treba ova dva svemira na slici postaviti tako da zadovolji ovu tvrdnju, da svjetlost sa rubova svemira bude svjetlost iz ili sa malog svemira unutar današnjeg svemira (jer tvrde svemir se širi). Našu Zemlju postavite u bilo koju točku velikog svemira.
Kako može događaj iz jedne točke dolaziti sa rubova današnjeg Svemira?
Identično je sa centrom galaksije, on može biti samo u jednom pravcu. Možete slobodno premještati mali svemir unutar i izvan današnjeg Svemira rezultati će ostati isti, neće svjetlost stizati sa rubova svemira, ona će stizati isključivo iz jedne točke. Radi lakšeg razumijevanja možete crtom povezati našu lokaciju koja je bilo koja točka u svemiru i mali svemir i odmah ćete vidjeti da u slučaju postojanja svemira 300-400 tisuća godina nakon Velikog praska svjetlost mora dolaziti iz jedne točke (ni u kojem slučaju postojanja dva svemira (pra svemira i današnjeg svemira) takozvana pra svjetlost ili svjetlost iz daleke prošlosti ne dolazi iz svih pravaca).
Jedino je moguće da svjetlost sa udaljenosti 13 i više milijardi godina stiže sa današnjeg Svemira na Svemir 300 ili 400 tisuća nakon Velikog praska, što je suprotno svim službenim tvrdnjama.

Ovi dokazi upućuju na nepostojanje tako zvanog Velikog praska. Tome u prilog ide i očitanje sve većeg crvenog pomaka što su galaksije udaljenije. Ako su “Najudaljeniji objekti u svemiru su galaksije GN-z11 13,39 bn ly (milijardi svjetlosnih godina), EGSY8p7 13,23 bn ly, GRB 090423 13,18 bn ly itd“ ujedno i najbrži objekti, prema Big Bang  znači da su ove galaksije i najstariji objekti.
Relacija je očita najstariji i najudaljeniji objekti imaju najveće brzine.
Kako onda može vrijediti Hubbleov zakon? Kako se svemir širi sve većom brzinom kada to vrijedi samo za najstarije i najudaljenije galaksije?

Isto vrijedi i za „Kozmičko mikrovalno pozadinsko zračenje” Wiki . Ponovo primjenjujemo  „mali“ i „veliki“ Svemir . Pozadinska zračenja kao ni svjetlost  nemaju nikakvu, ni teorijsku, mogućnost da stižu sa ili iz malog Svemira, posebno zato što brzina svjetlosti (i pozadinskog zračenja) su vrijednosno iznad brzine širenja Svemira po Big Bang. Ta zračenja uvijek su išla prema van a nikako nemaju mogućnost kretati se prema unutra.

Nepostojanje dokaza o širenju svemira vidimo i iz postojanja plavog pomaka kod galaksija i klastera galaksija. U svemiru se tijela sudaraju, ne bježe jedno od drugog. Sudaraju se mala tijela, zvijezde, galaksije i klasteri galaksija. „Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions, including both ‘major’ and‘minor’mergers.“ (registrirano je 72 sudara klastera galaksija)

Netočno je da,
1. „Svjetlost i zračenja nam dolazi sa "rubova" svemira.“
ili je netočno
2. da je postojao Big Bang i sve što ga prati?

Prvo su dokazi (prihvatiti), drugo je loša hipoteza (odbaciti).
Prvo je znanost i znanstveni stav, drugo je religija i vjerovanje, službeni stav crkve.
Pitanje je jednostavno: znanost (1) ili nametnuto crkveno vjerovanje (2)?

Vidjeti također: Ashwini Kumar Lal, Ph.D. and Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. http://cosmology.com/BigBangReview.html (dodano naknadno)

Cenzure autorskih radova i legaliziranje objavljivanih plagijata

Plagijat je zabranjen svima osim visoko rangiranim znanstvenim magazinima i organizacijama. Ostali, slabije rangirani, ne smiju plagirati jer za to slijede rigorozne sankcije, gubitak karijere, provlačenje po kaljuži od visoko i slabije rangiranih institucija i raznoraznih tiskovina. Nasuprot njima „veliki igrači“ koji plagiraju budu nagrađeni i povijest ih pamti kao velike znanstvenike.

„Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the law was first derived from the general relativity equations by Georges Lemaître in a 1927 article where he proposed the expansion of the universe and suggested an estimated value of the rate of expansion..“
Iako je utvrđen autor i proces otuđivanja autorovih zasluga, mi danas čitamo o Hubbleovom zakonu i njegovoj konstanti, a on nema nikakve zasluge za to, osim što je bez pogovora prihvatio tuđi rad kao svoj i uzeo tuđe zasluge.

Zakon o plagiranju jasan i nedvosmislen, treba odmah po utvrđivanju (spoznaji)  plagirani rad ukloniti (toga se moraju pridržavati slabije rangirani autori, magazini i dr.) usprkos zakonu mi gledamo i dalje veličanje plagiranog rada, najčešće brišući spomen na autora.
Slabije rangirani autori (ispod crte)  nemaju mogućnost ukloniti plagijat od visoko rangiranih „igrača“ jer cijeli sustav ne samo da je inertan već javno bez skrupula tjera po svome (kao ovdje Hubbel, Glileo i teleskop i tako redom). Plagiranje je kazneno djelo a takvi radovi se moraju  automatski uklanjati iz svih medija, enciklopedija i razgovora.
Nitko ne spominje dopingirane sportaše kao osvajače medalja i junake, naprotiv odmah im se oduzimaju medalje, zasluge, uz velike sankcije.

Zato tako zvani slabije rangirani autori ne mogu objavljivati u poznatim visoko rangiranim znanstvenim časopisima jer tamo caruje legalizacija plagijata.
Nekoliko mojih primjera: u tekstu na English  i Pусскй
16.05.2017.


Preispitivanje starih, danas važećih,  teorija o Svemiru kroz bazu podataka

English
Pусскй

Članak ima za cilj preispitati, isključivo pomoću dokaza iz dostupnih baza podataka, stare, ali danas prevladavajuće teorije Evolucije zvijezda, termonuklearno sagorijevanje (fuziju) materije potrebnu za toplotu zvijezda, utjecaj brzine kolapsa oblaka plina na temperaturu i starost zvijezda.

-Polazne osnove su da masa izravno određuje temperaturu zvijezde.

Velike zvijezde / mala tijela

Star Radius Sun 1 Temperature K

S Cassiopeiae  930 1.800
CW Leonis 700 2.200

-nasuprot

Star Mass M Sun Temperature K

2M1207 ~0,025 2550 ± 150
Teide 1 0,052 2600 ± 150
VHS 1256-1257 0,07-0,015 2.620 ± 140
Van Biesbroeck's star 0,075 2.600
DENIS 1048-1039 0,075 2.200
Teegarden's Star 0,08 2.637
DX Cancri 0,09 2.840
TVLM 513-46546 0,09 2.500
Wolf 359 0,09 2,800 ± 100
Gliese 777 0,09 5.417

Sve zvijezde iz List of the largest stars radijusa iznad 700 R Sunca su između 1.800 i 5.100°K sve su hladne zvijezde, uglavnom M tip.

-(velike zvijezde) nasuprot,  planeta i smeđih patuljaka koji su udaljeni od matične zvijezde (100 -740 AU) što  isključuje utjecaj zvijezde na temperaturu planeta ili patuljka.  (Planets shine by reflected light; starsshine by producing their own light)

Planet

Mass of Jupiter

Temperature K

Distance AU

GQ Lupi b 1-36 2650 ± 100 100
ROXs 42Bb 9 1,950-2,000  157
HD 106906 b 11 1.800 ~650
DH Tauri b 12 2.750 330
CT Chamaeleontis b 10,5-17  2.500 440
HD 44627 13-14 1.600-2.400 275
1RXS 1609 b 14 1.800 330
UScoCTIO 108 b 14 2.600 670
Oph 11 B 21 2.478 243
HIP 78530 b 24 2.700 740

Ovo su izraziti primjeri koji pokazuju da masa tijela nije odgovorna za različitu temperaturu zvijezda ili drugih tijela i da masa nije u direktnoj vezi sa velikim razlikama temperatura tijela.

-Ako pogledamo zvijezde slične mase (0,5 do 0,7 MSun …)

Star

Mass Sun 1

Temperature K

HD 149382 0,29-0,53 35.500±500
PG0112+104 0,5 30.000
40 Eridani B 0,5 16.500
Lacaillea 9352  0,503 3.626
L 97-12 0,59 5.700 ±90
Zeta Cygni B 0,6 12.000
Procion B 0,6 7.740
Van Maanen 2 0,68 6.220
HD 4628 0,7 5.829
G29-38 0,7 11.820

 

Sun 1 5.772
Sirius B 0,98 25.200
Gamma Piscium 1,03 4.885
Arcturus 1,08 4.286

 

VX Sagittarii 12 2.400 – 3.300
Antares 12,4 3.400
E Canis Majoris 12,6 22.900

 

μ Columbae 16 33.000
WR 2 16 141.000
VY Canis Majoris 17 3.490
Α Crucis α1 17,8 24.000

 

WR 102 19 210.000
WR 134 19 63.100
Deneb 19 8.525
η Canis Majores 19,19 15.000
Mu Cephei 19,2 3.750
HD 21389 19,3 9.730

 

WR 46 25 112.000
S Monocerotis  29,1 38.500

 

MU Normea 33,3 28.500
QU Normea 43 17.000
NML Cygni 50 3.834

Nekoliko primjera binarnih sustava

Star

Mass Sun 1

Temperature K

Sirius A 2,02 9.940
Sirius B 0,978 25.200

 

Alpha Crucis α1 17,8+6,05 24.000
Alpha Crucis α2 15,52 28.000

 

Epsilon Aurigae A 2,2-15 7.750
Epsilon Aurigae B 6-14 15.000

 

Procion A 1,499 6.350
Procion B 0,602 7.740

 

Castor A 2,76 10.286
Castor B 2,98 8.842
Castor C 0,5992 3.820

Promatrajući bazu podataka, tijela iste mase mogu imati potpuno različite temperature koje se kreću od M do O spektralnog tipa zvijezde (- WR 2, type WN4-s, 16 M Sun, temperature 141.000 K; -μ Columbae, type O, mass 16 M of Sun, temperature 33.000 K; –  VY Canis Majoris, type M, mass 17 M of Sun, temperature 3.490 K).
Iz primjera iste mase i različitih temperatura možemo isključiti da je za visinu temperature odgovorna termonuklearna fuzija unutar zvijezde. Ista ili slična masa i istovjetan kemijski sastav zvijezda mora imati i istu količinu termonuklearne fuzije materije, samim tim i sličnu visinu temperature. To uopće nije slučaj, to je vidljivo iz navedenih primjera.
Na isti način utvrđuje se da starost zvijezda nije vezana za visinu temperature. Slična masa unutar oblaka plina koji ima sličan kemijski sastav ( sličan kao kod zvijezda) mora poštovati iste principe, masu, zvjezdani sustav, istovjetan kemijski sastav planeta oko zvijezde i td, iz primjera je vidljivo nepoštivanje ovih (ili bilo kojih) pravila.

-Sljedećih nekoliko primjera povezuju Masu, radijus i temperaturu.

Star

Mass Sun 1

Raius Sun 1

Temperature K

Bellatrix 8,6 5,75 22.000
Alnitak Ab 14 ± 3 7,3 ± 1,0 29.000
Alnitak B 16 7,2 29.000
Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20,0 ± 3,2 29.500 ± 1000 
EZ Canis Majoris  19 2,65 89.100
AB7 WR 23 3,4 105.000
MU Normea 40 25 28.500
AB7 O 44 14 36.000
Melnick 42 189 21,1 47.300
R136a1 315 28.8-35.4 53.000 ± 3000

 

 

UY Scuti 7-10 1.708 ±192 3.365
Betelgeuse 11,6 887 ±203  3.590
VX Sagittarii 12 1.350–1.940 2.400-3.300
Antares 12,4 883 3.400
VY Canis Majoris 17 1.420 ±120 3.490
V602 Carinae 17,7 1.050 3.432
VV Cephei A 18,2 1.050 3.826
Mu Cephei 19,2 1.260 3.750
WOH G64 <25 1.540 3.200
NML Cygni 50 1.183 3.834

Ako je u relaciji masa/ radijus (Sun=1) masa veća od radijusa, temperature zvijezde su više, suprotno, ako je radijus veći od mase temperature su niže.

-Kada u promatranje uvrstimo rotaciju tijela oko osi

„The international team found the so-called blue hook stars throw off their cool outer layers late in life because they are rotating so rapidly, making them more luminous than usual.“
Uzorak obrađenih plavih zvijezda u ovome članku je iznad 3.700.

Star

Mass Sun 1

Radius Sun 1

Temperature K

Rotation speed

Arcturus 1,08 25,4 4.286 2,4  km/s
R Doradus 1,2 370± 50 2.740 340 day
HD 220074 1,2 49.7 ± 9.5 3.935 3 km/s
Kappa Persei 1,5 9 4.857 3 km/s
Aldebaran 1,5 44,2 3.910 634 day
Hamal 1,5 14,9 4.480 3,44 km/s
Iota Draconis 1,82 11,99 4.545 1,5 km/s
Pollux 2,04 8,8 4.666 2,8 km/s
Beta Ursae Minoris 2,2 42,6 4.030 8 km/s
Beta Andromedae 3-4 100 3.842 7,2 km/s
Betelgeuse 11,6 887 ±203  3.590 5 km/s

 

WR 102 19 0,39 210.000 120 km/s
IK Pegasi 1,65 1,6 7.000/35.000 <32,5
Alpha Pegasi 4,72 3,51 9.765 125 km/s
η Aurigae 5,4 3,25 17.201 95 km/s
Eta Ursae Majoris 6,1 3,4 16.823 150 km/s
Spica secondary 6,97 3,64 18.500 87 km/s
Spica primary 10,25 7,7 22.400 199 km/s
Gamma Cassiopeiae 17 10 25.000 432 km/s
Zeta Puppis 22,5 – 56,6 14-26 40.000-44.000 220 km/s
S Monocerotis 29,1 9,9 38.500 120 km/s
Alnilam 30-64,5 28,6-42 27.000 40-70 km/s
Alnitak Aa 33 ± 10 20.0 ± 3.2 29.000 110 ± 10 km/s

Rotacija zvijezde oko osi vezana je za radijus zvijezde. Brže rotacije smanjuju radijus zvijezde, odnosno promjer zvijezde je manji što je veća brzina rotacije.

Veća brzina rotacije oko osi i manji radijus zvijezde povezani su sa višom temperaturom (i višom površinskom gravitacijom), suprotno manje brzine rotacije omogućavaju veći promjer zvijezde, manje količine trenja i tlaka na materiju i stvaraju manje temperature.

Iz relacije masa/ radijus zvijezda imamo veću ili manju gustoću zvijezde. Gustoća ima svoju donju i gornju granicu. Materija ima stalnu težnju prema manjoj gustoći ( Sun 1,408 g/cm3), od ukupnog broja zvijezda Mliječnog puta 96,15 % su zvijezde niskih temperatura M, K i G tip sa temperaturom do ~ 6.000 K. Vrlo mali ili neznatan dio su ekstra vruće, vruće i tople zvijezde 3,85 % (O klasa ~0,00003%, bijeli patuljci, vrlo vjerojatno, slijede ovaj procent).

Unutar osporavanja starih teorija nije dopušteno svesti promatranje, utjecaja čimbenika na zvijezde, na masu, radijus, temperaturu i rotaciju tijela oko osi zbog stvaranja neprecizne slike kod statistike ostalih tijela. Rad koristiti samo kao grubi alat za brzo pozicioniranje zvijezde kao kontrolu kod očitanja mjerenja i ako postoje devijacije pristupiti utvrđivanju uzroka devijacije ili ponoviti mjerenja.

Na temperaturu i sjaj utječu i plimne sile iz većeg ili manjeg binarnog efekta, okoliš, gustoća (slojeva) plina između promatrača i zvijezde, brzina dotjecanja vanjske materije na tijelo, posebno u vrtlog ili ciklon na polovima zvijezde (na Zemlju, dnevno, padne ~140 tona svemirskog materijala), različite vrijednosti efekata mase i rotacije kod malih i kod velikih zvijezda.
Uvidom u podatke o masi tijela, samostalna tijela koja imaju veću masu imaju i višu temperaturu, ali je visina temperature ograničena  (S Cassiopeiae 3,5-10 M Sun,  Radius 930   R Sun, Temperatura 1.800 K,) i više je primjetna kod malih tijela u fazi taljenja tijela kod prelaska manjeg tijela u zvijezdu. ..

Korištene baze podataka Wikipedia, Wikiwand, exoplanet.eu, openexoplanetcatalogue i izvori koje koriste ove enciklopedije etc.

27.04.2017. g.

Nastavak, dodatne poveznice (03.05.2017)

Can we believe in data of measurements?

Dysnomia, the moon of Eris, is beyond our abilities to acquire data in a credible way (that is obvious when talking about the less distant object of Haumea), but it should not be forgotten that nowadays scientists introduce, with "a high probability“, "relevant“ data for the exoplanets that are tens and thousands of light-years away. Therefore, the measurements are unreliable and should be treated as such, i.e., with caution.“ http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#working-temperatures-of-elements

Mass
Size and mass of very large stars: Most massive example, VY Canis Majoris (17 ± 8 M☉). Others are Rho Cassiopeiae (14-30 M☉), Betelgeuse (11.6 ± 5.0 M☉), and the blue Pistol Star (27.5 M☉). The Sun (1 M☉) Wikipedia

"A Beautiful Example" of Mathematics and Logic! Great mass has a small volume and vice versa. No wonder what about the density circulating fairy tale.

Type

Density [kg/m³]

Basalt magma 2650–2800
Andesite magma 2450–2500
Rhyolite magma 2180–2250

„Estimates of average density for the upper crust range between 2.69 and 2.74 g/cm3 and for lower crust between 3.0 and 3.25 g/cm3, Sun 1,408 g/cm3“.  Wikipedia

Increasing temperature decreases the density.

Quotations from Wikipedie

White dwarfs resist gravitational collapse primarily through electron degeneracy pressure. (By comparison, main sequence stars resist collapse through thermal pressure.) The Chandrasekhar limit is the mass above which electron degeneracy pressure in the star's core is insufficient to balance the star's own gravitational self-attraction. Consequently, white dwarfs with masses greater than the limit would be subject to further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole. (However, white dwarfs generally avoid this fate by exploding before they undergo collapse.) Those with masses under the limit remain stable as white dwarfs.
The currently accepted value of the limit is about 1.4 M.

Sirius B

This mass is packed into a volume roughly equal to the Earth's (radius 0,0084 ± 3%   ).  The current surface temperature is 25,200 K.  Because there is no internal heat source, Sirius B will steadily cool as the remaining heat is radiated into space over more than two billion years.
A white dwarf forms only after the star has evolved from the main sequence and then passed through a red-giant stage. This occurred when Sirius B was less than half its current age, around 120 million years ago. The original star had an estimated 5 M☉and was a B-type star (roughly B4–5) when it was still on the main sequence. While it passed through the red giant stage, Sirius B may have enriched the metallicity of its companion.

Procyon B

With a surface temperature of 7,740 K, it is also much cooler than Sirius B; this is a testament to its lesser mass and greater age. The mass of the progenitor star for Procyon B was about 2.59+0.22−0.18 M and it came to the end of its life some 1.19±0.11 Gyr ago, after a main-sequence lifetime of 680±170 Myr.

Van Maanen 2

Like other white dwarfs, it is a very dense star: its mass has been estimated to be about 68% of the Sun's, yet it has only 1% of the Sun's radius. The outer atmosphere has a temperature of approximately 6,220 K, which is relatively cool for a white dwarf. As all white dwarfs steadily radiate away their heat over time, this temperature can be used to estimate its age, thought to be around 3 billion years.
The progenitor of this white dwarf had an estimated 2.6 solar masses and remained on the main sequence for about 9 × 108 years. This gives the star a combined age of about 4.1 billion years. When this star left the main sequence, it expanded into a red giant that reached a maximum radius of 650 times the current radius of the Sun, or about 3 astronomical units

L 97-12

The mass of L 97-12 is 0.59 ± 0.01 Solar masses, and its surface gravity is 108.00 ± 0.02cm·s−2, or approximately 102,000 of Earth's, corresponding to a radius of 8,887 kilometres (5,522 miles), or 139% of Earth's.
L 97-12 has temperature 5,700 ± 90 K, almost like the Sun, and cooling age, i.e. age as degenerate star (not including lifetime as main-sequence star and as giant star) 2.65 ± 0.10 Gyr. Despite it is classified as "white dwarf", it should appear yellow, not white, nearly the same color as the Sun.

LP 145-141

LP 145-141 has only 75% of the Sun's mass, but it is the remnant of a massive main-sequence star that had an estimated 4.4 solar masses. While it was on the main sequence, it probably was a spectral class B star (in the range B4-B9). Most of the star's original mass was shed after it passed into the asymptotic giant branch stage, just prior to becoming a white dwarf. 

Wolf-Rayet star

The spectra indicate very high surface enhancement of heavy elements, depletion of hydrogen, and strong stellar winds. Their surface temperatures range from 30,000 K to around 200,000 K, hotter than almost all other stars.

WR 2 

the exact rotation rate is not known. Estimates range from 500 km/s

WR 46 
The effective temperature is over 110,000K, the luminosity greater than 600,000 times the solar luminosity (L☉), the mass around 25 times that of the Sun (M☉) and a radius of 2.9 times the solar radius (R☉). The terminal velocity of the stellar wind reaches 2450 km/s

WR 142

Details
Mass    20 M☉
Radius 0.40 R☉
Luminosity (bolometric)        245,000 L☉
Luminosity (visual, LV)         847  L☉
Temperature    200,000  K
Metallicity [Fe/H]       0.0  dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i)  1,000 km/s  

Details
WR

Mass    9.0 ± 0.6  M☉
Radius 6 ± 3  R☉
Luminosity (bolometric)        170,000  L☉
Temperature 57,000  K
Age     3.5-5.5 Myr

O

Mass    28.5 ±1.1 M☉
Radius 17 ± 2 R☉
Luminosity (bolometric)        280,000  L☉
Temperature    35,000  K
Age     3.5 -5.5  Myr

The brightest member, γ² Velorum or γ Velorum A, is a spectroscopic binary composed of a blue supergiant of spectral class O7.5 (~30 M☉), and a massive Wolf-Rayet star (~9 M☉, originally ~35 M☉).  The binary has an orbital period of 78.5 days and separation varying from 0.8 to 1.6 astronomical units. 

WR stars

Mass loss is influenced by a star's rotation rate, especially strongly at low metallicity. Fast rotation contributes to mixing of core fusion products through the rest of the star, enhancing surface abundances of heavy elements, and driving mass loss

neutron star

As the star's core collapses, its rotation rate increases as a result of conservation of angular momentum, hence newly formed neutron stars rotate at up to several hundred times per second. Some neutron stars emit beams of electromagnetic radiation that make them detectable as pulsars.

WOH G64

The combination of the star's temperature and luminosity places it toward the upper right corner of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. The star's evolved state means that it can no longer hold on to its atmosphere due to low density, high radiation pressure

contrary to

Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of mass. Gravitational collapse is a fundamental mechanism for structure formation in the universe. Over time an initial, relatively smooth distribution of matter will collapse to form pockets of higher density, typically creating a hierarchy of condensed structures such as clusters of galaxies, stellar groups, stars and planets.
Etc.

 

Weitter Duckss teorija svemira

http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf

Author: Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedic) Zadar Croatia

English
Pусскй

Čitati dalje Weitter Duckss teorija svemira 


.

Ostali članci:
stariji
2016/2017

.

www.unexplained-mysteries.com

Why craters, not the old 4.5 bil. years?

Why are meteorites older than the Earth?

Started by Weitter Duckss Sep 21 2015 08:22 PM

krateri

On Earth is discovered and excavated a large number of craters whose age is 100 years (obska explosion) to 2 billion years (Vredefort, Free State South Africa, Yarrabubba Western Australia Australia) . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_impact_craters_on_Earth

If the earth is 4.5 billion years old, why there are no traces (craters) formation. We should have craters from the time when the Earth was "cold" (4.2 bil. Years).

For all the meteorite was determined age of ~ 4.5 billion years for the oldest sample of the Earth, old age is estimated at 3.8 to 4,200,000,000 years, why? How old is the magma (the lava is still in eruption from the crater of the zero year)?

More: http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Universe-and-rotation.html#growth1
and:
Universe and rotation (published in US, Ru und Cro)

Supernovae are not our creators Started by Weitter Duckss, March 28

We have been listening for too long that supernovae (or just, novae) are responsible for our existence. They brought heavy, essential elements to our planet. Iron, uranium and other complex elements are said to have come from the universe to form our Earth.

To make the absurdity even bigger, there are not so many (only a few dozen) remains, made by the star explosions. According to Wikipedia, the amount of these supernova remains inside our galaxy ranges from 25 (or 40, if planetary nebulae are included) to 100, if all other nebulae and particle clouds are included (a molecular cloud, Bok globules, interstellar cloud, etc.). For the sake of the example: if we identify every nebula or cloud to be an exploded star – which is highly incorrect – and compare them to the total quantity of stars in the galaxy (100 – 400 billion of stars), it can be concluded that it is a completely neglectable quantity, in terms of the observations of the processes inside the galaxy and beyond. ...
Weitter Duckss 28 Mar 2016... 90 replies.... 3,420 views... last comment... Derek Willis... 14 Apr 2016

Other articles on www.unexplained-mysteries.com look here

.


www.academia.edu

Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe

 

The Universe is the main theme, which is discussed in this paper. The objectives are creating the sequence of relations or connections of two or more relations of evidence (for example, mass – radius) to create new measurable values. The observation starts from the obvious (red stars make up to 76,45% of all stars in our galaxy) and namely such importance is given to that matter. Making conclusions based on some spectacular, but minor values, is avoided (for example, shiny blue stars make only 0,00003% from the total quantity of the stars in our galaxy).

The analysis of every topic is based on the big totalities (the total number of galaxies, the total number of stars in the Milky Way), on the regularities that apply to all observed units – with the exceptions included – or phenomena related to all objects, avoiding the partial or individual separated parts of the totality. The Universe is here analyzed through the formation of matter, its growth and disintegration. Rotation is introduced as a feature that must be addressed to; it creates the relations between the neighboring and distant objects. The age of the Universe is analyzed through the approximate minimal assessment of time needed for some object to reach a particular stage by gathering matter, for example: a time needed to create a cluster of stars, consisting of a few tens of thousands of stars in a single place, due to the gravitational force and rotation. The analysis starts from the assessment that the majority of notions and evidence are generally familiar to vast majority of readers, therefore no particular links, leading to the definitions of a star, a galaxy, rotation, blue and red spectral shift, etc., are cited here. The notions such as gravity, tidal forces, rotation, etc., do not follow officially accepted definitions and they often differ structurally; for example, ...

Gravitational waves – a great discovery or a great scandal (a plagiarism)?

... The assertion of the authors to have seen a collision of two hypothetical, scientifically unproven objects (the collision of two „black holes“) indicates that „something is rotten in the state of Denmark.“ Why? A great discovery does not need such presentations that automatically cause suspicion and start large-scale discussions. The only possible reason could be that they are throwing dust in our eyes and covering the truth about what they have really discovered.

A new article suddenly appeared on February 25th, http://phys.org/news/2016-02-pulsar-web-low-frequency-gravitational.html and all of a sudden, a new change of the already new paradigm occurred again. Gravitational waves could be created by pulsars that have a fast rotation!
This utter „shift“ seems to be at the core of the discovery, as well as the confirmation that these are not the gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein himself (he did not create nor did he accept the term „black hole“), but the waves emitted by every object that rotates around its axis; the faster the rotation – the more important the waves, and vice versa.

This is no Einstein anymore, this is Weitter Duckss and his texts, made in the last 12 years.
The Theory of Zadar was published in 2004. and there it is stated:

„The rotation of particles within a system, as well as the parts of a system inside the particular structures, is the weight, and is also a gravity, which unites the force of attraction, ...


Other articles in English language:
Weitter Duckss's Theory of the Universe
Universe and rotation
(+20 New articles)
The universe is rotating, after all


www.newtheory.ru

Bселенная и вращение (почему телескопы врут? ...)
  СообщениеВетер Дыкcc11 окт 2015, 07:43

Введение: Почему телескопы врут?;
  http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Ruski-Kosmos.html#2d
Где эта СИНГУЛЯРНОСТЬ?; 
http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Ruski-Kosmos.html#7d
Гравитация и антигравитация; 
http://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/Ruski-Kosmos.html#5d

ВСЕЛЕННАЯ И ВРАЩЕНИЕ

Автор: Weitter Duckss (Славко Седич) Задар Хорватия
Переводчик: проф. Зоран Чoco (Зуле);zcoso@unizd.hr

Достаточно посмотреть одну из многочисленных фотографий Вселенной и её частей, чтобы понять, что она, на самом деле, объём, расширяющийся во всех направлениях до границ видимости наших телескопов и спутников для исследования Вселенной. Этот факт нельзя забывать никогда, ни в момент, иначе нам очень легко может случиться, что объёмное пространство начинаем воспринимать как поверхность, плоскость или его сравнивать с предметами и явлениями на Земле.

В объёме нет прямых или кривых линий, или каких-то других геометрических объектов; существует только открытый объём, расширяющийся вдаль до 13.8 миллиардов световых лет. Эта цифра относится к объекту (галактике), обнаруженному с Земли с помощью наших инструментов. Это возможно только потому, что объекты, чья масса больше 10% массы нашего Солнца (и некоторые меньшие объекты, у которых выполнились для того нужные условия) постоянно излучают радиацию, которую инструменты регистрируют как свет.

Kosmos


Процессы во Вселенной

26 дек 2015, 10:47

Как это можно видеть в результатах исследований процессов на Земле, все процессы кругообразные: появляются, увеличиваются и разлагаются. Разложение материи очень частое явление во Вселенной. Самый радикальный пример – случаи взрывов звёзд разных величин, называемых новыми и сверхновыми, в зависимости от величины взорванной звезды. Другие способы разложения материи происходят при столкновениях объектов во Вселенной или радиации с видимой материей. ...


Pусскй
Теория Вселенной Веиттера Дуксса
Вселенная и вращение (+ 20 Новые статьи)
Вселенная всё-таки вращается

.

space.com-commentary.html "Red giants are stars that are nearing the end of their fuel supplies and have begun to puff up and expand."

Over 75.45% of stars in the Milky Way are red stars. We have a new prophets of doomsday!
Authors measurements must decide whether the red star and a cold or the B type hot and blue-white.
Betelgeuze has about 1,000 radius of the Sun and is still alive as well as small, red star mass 0,008 mass Sun.
It's time to "science" determine type of fuel for each star (kerosene, oil, radioactive, wood, gas ...) it would be a "great" contribution to humanity.

"The causal relation between a star and its temperature, gravity, radius and color"

Great, Mysterious Balls of Fire Speed by Dying Star
By Elizabeth Howell, Space.com Contributor | October 6, 2016 07:19pm ET

Red giants are stars that are nearing the end of their fuel supplies and have begun to puff up and expand. While the fireballs could not have been ejected by the star, it could be that an unseen companion star is responsible for the chaos, according to a new study of this cosmic firing squad. ..

Space.com

"older" comentari on space.com

.

phys.org-commentary

September 10, 2016

"Theory suggests that flares or a stellar wind, both of which are driven by magnetic fields, could scour the planet and strip away any atmosphere. In that case, Proxima b might be like Earth's Moon - located in the habitable zone, but not at all friendly to life. "

The atmosphere of the body has its own process and does not depend on solar Vjetori. This is evident in the Sun system (Mercury has no atmosphere, the Earth and Venus, have the atmosphere, Mars has little atmosphere, the moon has no atmosphere). There is no link between the formation of the atmosphere and the solar wind. Despite this shortcoming, the article is good. From the observation of the interior of the Earth we know that all bodies have multiple layers. It excludes "fully convective and therefore unable to support magnetic dynamos" red and other stars.

Proxima Centauri might be more sunlike than we thought
October 11, 2016

An artist's illustration depicts the interior of a low-mass star. Such stars have different interior structures than our Sun, so they are not expected to show magnetic activity cycles. However, astronomers have discovered that the nearby star Proxima Centauri defies that expectation and shows signs of a 7-year activity cycle. Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-10-proxima-centauri-sunlike-thought.html#jCp


"older" comentari on phys.org

.

NASA commentary

"Those factors are the reddening of light due to the expansion of space, the universe's dynamic nature, and the absorption of light by intergalactic dust and gas. All combined, this keeps the night sky dark to our vision."

Okay, but why is darkness 100 miles above the Earth's surface? Why is darkness between the Sun and the planets and other bodies? Here, there is no mentioned factors!

"The Sun emits radiation (not light), which by itself is not made of photons and it does not glow either. There is a dark space without visible matter between the Sun and Earth. Light appears when radiation collides with the visible matter ; in our case, with the atmosphere. On the Moon, it is the Moon's surface, etc. radiation does not glow, nor does matter, except for the radiation-emitting objects. Light is created when there is a collision of radiation and matter.

The causal relation of space and the absence of light in Universe

Oct. 13, 2016
Hubble Reveals Observable Universe Contains 10 Times More Galaxies Than Previously Thought

The universe suddenly looks a lot more crowded, thanks to a deep-sky census assembled from surveys taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and other observatories.
Astronomers came to the surprising conclusion that there are at least 10 times more galaxies in the observable universe than previously thought.

NASA

.

Publication (References)

https://www.academia.edu/21421411/The_Reverse_Influence_of_Cyclones_to_the_Rotation_of_Stars   https://independent.academia.edu/WeitterDuckss other

http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Weitter-Duckss-Theory-of-the-Universe.pdf  
http://www.ijoart.org/research-paper-publishing_october-2016.shtml Universe and rotation
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf
http://www.ijoar.org/journals/IJOAR/Volume4_Issue11_november2016.html The observation process in the universe
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?THE-UNIVERSE-IS-ROTATING-AFTER-ALL.pdf
http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observation-of-the-Universe-through-questions.pdf http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Is-there-fast-and-slow-combustion-of-stars.pdf 2017 .y. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Observing-the-Universe-through-colors--blue-and-red-shift.pdf.pdf http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Vacuum-in-space-or-undetected-matter.pdf-3.2017.y. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Reassessment-of-the-old-but-still-employed-theories-of-Universe-through-database-checking.pdf 5.2017.y.

http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/processi-vo-vselennoy-t3636.html?sid=95cdc8ce9a8e29c91d2e5342171d4fb8 http://www.newtheory.ru/astronomy/pochemu-est-raznici-mejdu-strukturami-obektov-nashey-sistemi-t3919.html etc.

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/301520-quicker-burning-and-temperature-of-star/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/295090-what-are-the-lakes-on-titan-made-of/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/299470-weitter-ducksss-theory-of-the-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/298246-differences-in-structure-of-the-body/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/292076-gravitational-waves/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267990-mars-life-creation-in-universe/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268345-why-is-the-universe-dark/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/268680-atom-why-did-cern-fail/
http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/267586-the-universe-is-rotating/ etc.

https://www.facebook.com/slavko.sedic (comments on articles  space.com; phys.org; NASA etc.)     


.